## CryptoDB

### Giulio Malavolta

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2019

PKC

Efficient Invisible and Unlinkable Sanitizable Signatures
Abstract

Sanitizable signatures allow designated parties (the sanitizers) to apply arbitrary modifications to some restricted parts of signed messages. A secure scheme should not only be unforgeable, but also protect privacy and hold both the signer and the sanitizer accountable. Two important security properties that are seemingly difficult to achieve simultaneously and efficiently are invisibility and unlinkability. While invisibility ensures that the admissible modifications are hidden from external parties, unlinkability says that sanitized signatures cannot be linked to their sources. Achieving both properties simultaneously is crucial for applications where sensitive personal data is signed with respect to data-dependent admissible modifications. The existence of an efficient construction achieving both properties was recently posed as an open question by Camenisch et al. (PKC’17). In this work, we propose a solution to this problem with a two-step construction. First, we construct (non-accountable) invisible and unlinkable sanitizable signatures from signatures on equivalence classes and other basic primitives. Second, we put forth a generic transformation using verifiable ring signatures to turn any non-accountable sanitizable signature into an accountable one while preserving all other properties. When instantiating in the generic group and random oracle model, the efficiency of our construction is comparable to that of prior constructions, while providing stronger security guarantees.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Incremental Proofs of Sequential Work
📺
Abstract

A proof of sequential work allows a prover to convince a verifier that a certain amount of sequential steps have been computed. In this work we introduce the notion of incremental proofs of sequential work where a prover can carry on the computation done by the previous prover incrementally, without affecting the resources of the individual provers or the size of the proofs.To date, the most efficient instance of proofs of sequential work [Cohen and Pietrzak, Eurocrypt 2018] for N steps require the prover to have $$\sqrt{N}$$N memory and to run for $$N + \sqrt{N}$$N+N steps. Using incremental proofs of sequential work we can bring down the prover’s storage complexity to $$\log N$$logN and its running time to N.We propose two different constructions of incremental proofs of sequential work: Our first scheme requires a single processor and introduces a poly-logarithmic factor in the proof size when compared with the proposals of Cohen and Pietrzak. Our second scheme assumes $$\log N$$logN parallel processors but brings down the overhead of the proof size to a factor of 9. Both schemes are simple to implement and only rely on hash functions (modelled as random oracles).

2019

CRYPTO

Subvector Commitments with Application to Succinct Arguments
📺
Abstract

We put forward the notion of subvector commitments (SVC): An SVC allows one to open a committed vector at a set of positions, where the opening size is independent of length of the committed vector and the number of positions to be opened. We propose two constructions under variants of the root assumption and the CDH assumption, respectively. We further generalize SVC to a notion called linear map commitments (LMC), which allows one to open a committed vector to its images under linear maps with a single short message, and propose a construction over pairing groups.Equipped with these newly developed tools, we revisit the “CS proofs” paradigm [Micali, FOCS 1994] which turns any arguments with public-coin verifiers into non-interactive arguments using the Fiat-Shamir transform in the random oracle model. We propose a compiler that turns any (linear, resp.) PCP into a non-interactive argument, using exclusively SVCs (LMCs, resp.). For an approximate 80 bits of soundness, we highlight the following new implications:1.There exists a succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge (SNARK) with public-coin setup with proofs of size 5360 bits, under the adaptive root assumption over class groups of imaginary quadratic orders against adversaries with runtime $$2^{128}$$. At the time of writing, this is the shortest SNARK with public-coin setup.2.There exists a non-interactive argument with private-coin setup, where proofs consist of 2 group elements and 3 field elements, in the generic bilinear group model.

2019

CRYPTO

Homomorphic Time-Lock Puzzles and Applications
📺
Abstract

Time-lock puzzles allow one to encrypt messages for the future, by efficiently generating a puzzle with a solution s that remains hidden until time $$\mathcal {T}$$ has elapsed. The solution is required to be concealed from the eyes of any algorithm running in (parallel) time less than $$\mathcal {T}$$. We put forth the concept of homomorphic time-lock puzzles, where one can evaluate functions over puzzles without solving them, i.e., one can manipulate a set of puzzles with solutions $$(s_1, \dots , s_n)$$ to obtain a puzzle that solves to $$f(s_1, \ldots , s_n)$$, for any function f. We propose candidate constructions under concrete cryptographic assumptions for different classes of functions. Then we show how homomorphic time-lock puzzles overcome the limitations of classical time-lock puzzles by proposing new protocols for applications of interest, such as e-voting, multi-party coin flipping, and fair contract signing.

2019

CRYPTO

Trapdoor Hash Functions and Their Applications
📺
Abstract

We introduce a new primitive, called trapdoor hash functions (TDH), which are hash functions $$\mathsf {H}: \{0,1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}^\lambda $$ with additional trapdoor function-like properties. Specifically, given an index $$i\in [n]$$, TDHs allow for sampling an encoding key $$\mathsf {ek}$$ (that hides i) along with a corresponding trapdoor. Furthermore, given $$\mathsf {H}(x)$$, a hint value $$\mathsf {E}(\mathsf {ek},x)$$, and the trapdoor corresponding to $$\mathsf {ek}$$, the $$i^{th}$$ bit of x can be efficiently recovered. In this setting, one of our main questions is: How small can the hint value $$\mathsf {E}(\mathsf {ek},x)$$ be? We obtain constructions where the hint is only one bit long based on DDH, QR, DCR, or LWE.This primitive opens a floodgate of applications for low-communication secure computation. We mainly focus on two-message protocols between a receiver and a sender, with private inputs x and y, resp., where the receiver should learn f(x, y). We wish to optimize the (download) rate of such protocols, namely the asymptotic ratio between the size of the output and the sender’s message. Using TDHs, we obtain:1.The first protocols for (two-message) rate-1 string OT based on DDH, QR, or LWE. This has several useful consequences, such as:(a)The first constructions of PIR with communication cost poly-logarithmic in the database size based on DDH or QR. These protocols are in fact rate-1 when considering block PIR.(b)The first constructions of a semi-compact homomorphic encryption scheme for branching programs, where the encrypted output grows only with the program length, based on DDH or QR.(c)The first constructions of lossy trapdoor functions with input to output ratio approaching 1 based on DDH, QR or LWE.(d)The first constant-rate LWE-based construction of a 2-message “statistically sender-private” OT protocol in the plain model.2.The first rate-1 protocols (under any assumption) for n parallel OTs and matrix-vector products from DDH, QR or LWE.
We further consider the setting where f evaluates a RAM program y with running time $$T\ll |x|$$ on x. We obtain the first protocols with communication sublinear in the size of x, namely $$T\cdot \sqrt{|x|}$$ or $$T\cdot \root 3 \of {|x|}$$, based on DDH or, resp., pairings (and correlated-input secure hash functions).

2019

TCC

Leveraging Linear Decryption: Rate-1 Fully-Homomorphic Encryption and Time-Lock Puzzles
Abstract

We show how to combine a fully-homomorphic encryption scheme with linear decryption and a linearly-homomorphic encryption schemes to obtain constructions with new properties. Specifically, we present the following new results.
(1)Rate-1 Fully-Homomorphic Encryption: We construct the first scheme with message-to-ciphertext length ratio (i.e., rate) $$1-\sigma $$ for $$\sigma = o(1)$$. Our scheme is based on the hardness of the Learning with Errors (LWE) problem and $$\sigma $$ is proportional to the noise-to-modulus ratio of the assumption. Our building block is a construction of a new high-rate linearly-homomorphic encryption.One application of this result is the first general-purpose secure function evaluation protocol in the preprocessing model where the communication complexity is within additive factor of the optimal insecure protocol.(2)Fully-Homomorphic Time-Lock Puzzles: We construct the first time-lock puzzle where one can evaluate any function over a set of puzzles without solving them, from standard assumptions. Prior work required the existence of sub-exponentially hard indistinguishability obfuscation.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Rate-1 Trapdoor Functions from the Diffie-Hellman Problem
Abstract

Trapdoor functions (TDFs) are one of the fundamental building blocks in cryptography. Studying the underlying assumptions and the efficiency of the resulting instantiations is therefore of both theoretical and practical interest. In this work we improve the input-to-image rate of TDFs based on the Diffie-Hellman problem. Specifically, we present: (a)A rate-1 TDF from the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) assumption, improving the result of Garg, Gay, and Hajiabadi [EUROCRYPT 2019], which achieved linear-size outputs but with large constants. Our techniques combine non-binary alphabets and high-rate error-correcting codes over large fields.(b)A rate-1 deterministic public-key encryption satisfying block-source security from the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) assumption. While this question was recently settled by Döttling et al. [CRYPTO 2019], our scheme is conceptually simpler and concretely more efficient. We demonstrate this fact by implementing our construction.

2018

ASIACRYPT

Homomorphic Secret Sharing for Low Degree Polynomials
Abstract

Homomorphic secret sharing (HSS) allows n clients to secret-share data to m servers, who can then homomorphically evaluate public functions over the shares. A natural application is outsourced computation over private data. In this work, we present the first plain-model homomorphic secret sharing scheme that supports the evaluation of polynomials with degree higher than 2. Our construction relies on any degree-k (multi-key) homomorphic encryption scheme and can evaluate degree-$$\left( (k+1)m -1 \right) $$ polynomials, for any polynomial number of inputs n and any sub-logarithmic (in the security parameter) number of servers m. At the heart of our work is a series of combinatorial arguments on how a polynomial can be split into several low-degree polynomials over the shares of the inputs, which we believe is of independent interest.

#### Coauthors

- Zvika Brakerski (1)
- Xavier Bultel (1)
- Nico Döttling (4)
- Nils Fleischhacker (2)
- Sanjam Garg (3)
- Mohammad Hajiabadi (1)
- Yuval Ishai (1)
- Johannes Krupp (2)
- Pascal Lafourcade (1)
- Russell W. F. Lai (4)
- Kevin Liu (1)
- Matteo Maffei (1)
- Tamer Mour (1)
- Rafail Ostrovsky (1)
- Manuel Reinert (1)
- Jonas Schneider (2)
- Dominique Schröder (6)
- Mark Simkin (2)
- Sri Aravinda Krishnan Thyagarajan (2)