## CryptoDB

### Nico Döttling

#### Affiliation: Cispa Helmholtz Center (i.G.)

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2019

EUROCRYPT

Continuous Non-Malleable Codes in the 8-Split-State Model
📺
Abstract

Non-malleable codes (NMCs), introduced by Dziembowski, Pietrzak and Wichs [20], provide a useful message integrity guarantee in situations where traditional error-correction (and even error-detection) is impossible; for example, when the attacker can completely overwrite the encoded message. NMCs have emerged as a fundamental object at the intersection of coding theory and cryptography. In particular, progress in the study of non-malleable codes and the related notion of non-malleable extractors has led to new insights and progress on even more fundamental problems like the construction of multi-source randomness extractors. A large body of the recent work has focused on various constructions of non-malleable codes in the split-state model. Many variants of NMCs have been introduced in the literature, e.g., strong NMCs, super strong NMCs and continuous NMCs. The most general, and hence also the most useful notion among these is that of continuous non-malleable codes, that allows for continuous tampering by the adversary. We present the first efficient information-theoretically secure continuously non-malleable code in the constant split-state model. We believe that our main technical result could be of independent interest and some of the ideas could in future be used to make progress on other related questions.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Incremental Proofs of Sequential Work
📺
Abstract

A proof of sequential work allows a prover to convince a verifier that a certain amount of sequential steps have been computed. In this work we introduce the notion of incremental proofs of sequential work where a prover can carry on the computation done by the previous prover incrementally, without affecting the resources of the individual provers or the size of the proofs.To date, the most efficient instance of proofs of sequential work [Cohen and Pietrzak, Eurocrypt 2018] for N steps require the prover to have $$\sqrt{N}$$N memory and to run for $$N + \sqrt{N}$$N+N steps. Using incremental proofs of sequential work we can bring down the prover’s storage complexity to $$\log N$$logN and its running time to N.We propose two different constructions of incremental proofs of sequential work: Our first scheme requires a single processor and introduces a poly-logarithmic factor in the proof size when compared with the proposals of Cohen and Pietrzak. Our second scheme assumes $$\log N$$logN parallel processors but brings down the overhead of the proof size to a factor of 9. Both schemes are simple to implement and only rely on hash functions (modelled as random oracles).

2019

EUROCRYPT

Ring Signatures: Logarithmic-Size, No Setup—from Standard Assumptions
📺
Abstract

Ring signatures allow for creating signatures on behalf of an ad hoc group of signers, hiding the true identity of the signer among the group. A natural goal is to construct a ring signature scheme for which the signature size is short in the number of ring members. Moreover, such a construction should not rely on a trusted setup and be proven secure under falsifiable standard assumptions. Despite many years of research this question is still open.In this paper, we present the first construction of size-optimal ring signatures which do not rely on a trusted setup or the random oracle heuristic. Specifically, our scheme can be instantiated from standard assumptions and the size of signatures grows only logarithmically in the number of ring members.We also extend our techniques to the setting of linkable ring signatures, where signatures created using the same signing key can be linked.

2019

CRYPTO

Trapdoor Hash Functions and Their Applications
📺
Abstract

We introduce a new primitive, called trapdoor hash functions (TDH), which are hash functions $$\mathsf {H}: \{0,1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}^\lambda $$ with additional trapdoor function-like properties. Specifically, given an index $$i\in [n]$$, TDHs allow for sampling an encoding key $$\mathsf {ek}$$ (that hides i) along with a corresponding trapdoor. Furthermore, given $$\mathsf {H}(x)$$, a hint value $$\mathsf {E}(\mathsf {ek},x)$$, and the trapdoor corresponding to $$\mathsf {ek}$$, the $$i^{th}$$ bit of x can be efficiently recovered. In this setting, one of our main questions is: How small can the hint value $$\mathsf {E}(\mathsf {ek},x)$$ be? We obtain constructions where the hint is only one bit long based on DDH, QR, DCR, or LWE.This primitive opens a floodgate of applications for low-communication secure computation. We mainly focus on two-message protocols between a receiver and a sender, with private inputs x and y, resp., where the receiver should learn f(x, y). We wish to optimize the (download) rate of such protocols, namely the asymptotic ratio between the size of the output and the sender’s message. Using TDHs, we obtain:1.The first protocols for (two-message) rate-1 string OT based on DDH, QR, or LWE. This has several useful consequences, such as:(a)The first constructions of PIR with communication cost poly-logarithmic in the database size based on DDH or QR. These protocols are in fact rate-1 when considering block PIR.(b)The first constructions of a semi-compact homomorphic encryption scheme for branching programs, where the encrypted output grows only with the program length, based on DDH or QR.(c)The first constructions of lossy trapdoor functions with input to output ratio approaching 1 based on DDH, QR or LWE.(d)The first constant-rate LWE-based construction of a 2-message “statistically sender-private” OT protocol in the plain model.2.The first rate-1 protocols (under any assumption) for n parallel OTs and matrix-vector products from DDH, QR or LWE.
We further consider the setting where f evaluates a RAM program y with running time $$T\ll |x|$$ on x. We obtain the first protocols with communication sublinear in the size of x, namely $$T\cdot \sqrt{|x|}$$ or $$T\cdot \root 3 \of {|x|}$$, based on DDH or, resp., pairings (and correlated-input secure hash functions).

2019

TCC

Leveraging Linear Decryption: Rate-1 Fully-Homomorphic Encryption and Time-Lock Puzzles
Abstract

We show how to combine a fully-homomorphic encryption scheme with linear decryption and a linearly-homomorphic encryption schemes to obtain constructions with new properties. Specifically, we present the following new results.
(1)Rate-1 Fully-Homomorphic Encryption: We construct the first scheme with message-to-ciphertext length ratio (i.e., rate) $$1-\sigma $$ for $$\sigma = o(1)$$. Our scheme is based on the hardness of the Learning with Errors (LWE) problem and $$\sigma $$ is proportional to the noise-to-modulus ratio of the assumption. Our building block is a construction of a new high-rate linearly-homomorphic encryption.One application of this result is the first general-purpose secure function evaluation protocol in the preprocessing model where the communication complexity is within additive factor of the optimal insecure protocol.(2)Fully-Homomorphic Time-Lock Puzzles: We construct the first time-lock puzzle where one can evaluate any function over a set of puzzles without solving them, from standard assumptions. Prior work required the existence of sub-exponentially hard indistinguishability obfuscation.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Efficient UC Commitment Extension with Homomorphism for Free (and Applications)
Abstract

Homomorphic universally composable (UC) commitments allow for the sender to reveal the result of additions and multiplications of values contained in commitments without revealing the values themselves while assuring the receiver of the correctness of such computation on committed values. In this work, we construct essentially optimal additively homomorphic UC commitments from any (not necessarily UC or homomorphic) extractable commitment, while the previous best constructions require oblivious transfer. We obtain amortized linear computational complexity in the length of the input messages and rate 1. Next, we show how to extend our scheme to also obtain multiplicative homomorphism at the cost of asymptotic optimality but retaining low concrete complexity for practical parameters. Moreover, our techniques yield public coin protocols, which are compatible with the Fiat-Shamir heuristic. These results come at the cost of realizing a restricted version of the homomorphic commitment functionality where the sender is allowed to perform any number of commitments and operations on committed messages but is only allowed to perform a single batch opening of a number of commitments. Although this functionality seems restrictive, we show that it can be used as a building block for more efficient instantiations of recent protocols for secure multiparty computation and zero knowledge non-interactive arguments of knowledge.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Rate-1 Trapdoor Functions from the Diffie-Hellman Problem
Abstract

Trapdoor functions (TDFs) are one of the fundamental building blocks in cryptography. Studying the underlying assumptions and the efficiency of the resulting instantiations is therefore of both theoretical and practical interest. In this work we improve the input-to-image rate of TDFs based on the Diffie-Hellman problem. Specifically, we present: (a)A rate-1 TDF from the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) assumption, improving the result of Garg, Gay, and Hajiabadi [EUROCRYPT 2019], which achieved linear-size outputs but with large constants. Our techniques combine non-binary alphabets and high-rate error-correcting codes over large fields.(b)A rate-1 deterministic public-key encryption satisfying block-source security from the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) assumption. While this question was recently settled by Döttling et al. [CRYPTO 2019], our scheme is conceptually simpler and concretely more efficient. We demonstrate this fact by implementing our construction.

2018

PKC

New Constructions of Identity-Based and Key-Dependent Message Secure Encryption Schemes
Abstract

Recently, Döttling and Garg (CRYPTO 2017) showed how to build identity-based encryption (IBE) from a novel primitive termed Chameleon Encryption, which can in turn be realized from simple number theoretic hardness assumptions such as the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption (in groups without pairings) or the factoring assumption. In a follow-up work (TCC 2017), the same authors showed that IBE can also be constructed from a slightly weaker primitive called One-Time Signatures with Encryption (OTSE).In this work, we show that OTSE can be instantiated from hard learning problems such as the Learning With Errors (LWE) and the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problems. This immediately yields the first IBE construction from the LPN problem and a construction based on a weaker LWE assumption compared to previous works.Finally, we show that the notion of one-time signatures with encryption is also useful for the construction of key-dependent-message (KDM) secure public-key encryption. In particular, our results imply that a KDM-secure public key encryption can be constructed from any KDM-secure secret-key encryption scheme and any public-key encryption scheme.

2018

TCC

Two-Message Statistically Sender-Private OT from LWE
Abstract

We construct a two-message oblivious transfer (OT) protocol without setup that guarantees statistical privacy for the sender even against malicious receivers. Receiver privacy is game based and relies on the hardness of learning with errors (LWE). This flavor of OT has been a central building block for minimizing the round complexity of witness indistinguishable and zero knowledge proof systems, non-malleable commitment schemes and multi-party computation protocols, as well as for achieving circuit privacy for homomorphic encryption in the malicious setting. Prior to this work, all candidates in the literature from standard assumptions relied on number theoretic assumptions and were thus insecure in the post-quantum setting. This work provides the first (presumed) post-quantum secure candidate and thus allows to instantiate the aforementioned applications in a post-quantum secure manner.Technically, we rely on the transference principle: Either a lattice or its dual must have short vectors. Short vectors, in turn, can be translated to information loss in encryption. Thus encrypting one message with respect to the lattice and one with respect to its dual guarantees that at least one of them will be statistically hidden.

2015

EUROCRYPT

#### Program Committees

- PKC 2019
- Crypto 2019
- TCC 2019
- Asiacrypt 2018
- PKC 2018
- Eurocrypt 2018
- PKC 2017
- Asiacrypt 2017
- Crypto 2017
- Eurocrypt 2016
- Asiacrypt 2016
- TCC 2015
- Asiacrypt 2015

#### Coauthors

- Divesh Aggarwal (1)
- Michael Backes (1)
- Zvika Brakerski (2)
- Brandon Broadnax (1)
- Ignacio Cascudo (2)
- Chongwon Cho (1)
- Ronald Cramer (1)
- Ivan Damgård (3)
- Bernardo David (2)
- Rafael Dowsley (1)
- Serge Fehr (1)
- Nils Fleischhacker (1)
- Sanjam Garg (7)
- Irene Giacomelli (1)
- Divya Gupta (1)
- Mohammad Hajiabadi (2)
- Lucjan Hanzlik (1)
- Gunnar Hartung (1)
- Yuval Ishai (1)
- Kamil Kluczniak (1)
- Daniel Kraschewski (3)
- Johannes Krupp (1)
- Russell W. F. Lai (1)
- Kevin Liu (1)
- Giulio Malavolta (4)
- Daniel Masny (1)
- Peihan Miao (1)
- Thilo Mie (1)
- Tamer Mour (1)
- Jörn Müller-Quade (7)
- Matthias Nagel (1)
- Anderson C. A. Nascimento (1)
- Jesper Buus Nielsen (2)
- Tobias Nilges (3)
- Maciej Obremski (1)
- Rafail Ostrovsky (1)
- Antigoni Polychroniadou (1)
- Erick Purwanto (1)
- Jonas Schneider (1)
- Dominique Schröder (2)
- Gabriele Spini (1)