International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Ahmadreza Rahimi


Efficient Laconic Cryptography from Learning With Errors
Laconic cryptography is an emerging paradigm that enables cryptographic primitives with sublinear communication complexity in just two messages. In particular, a two-message protocol between Alice and Bob is called \emph{laconic} if its communication and computation complexity are essentially independent of the size of Alice's input. This can be thought of as a dual notion of fully-homomorphic encryption, as it enables ``Bob-optimized'' protocols. This paradigm has led to tremendous progress in recent years. However, all existing constructions of laconic primitives are considered only of \emph{theoretical interest}: They all rely on non-black-box cryptographic techniques, which are highly impractical. This work shows that non-black-box techniques are not necessary for basic laconic cryptography primitives. We propose a \emph{completely algebraic} construction of laconic encryption, a notion that we introduce in this work, which serves as the cornerstone of our framework. We prove that the scheme is secure under the standard Learning With Errors assumption (with polynomial modulus-to-noise ratio). We provide proof-of-concept implementations for the first time for laconic primitives, demonstrating the construction is indeed practical: For a database size of $2^{50}$, encryption and decryption are in the order of single digit \emph{milliseconds}. Laconic encryption can be used as a black box to construct other laconic primitives. Specifically, we show how to construct: \begin{itemize} \item Laconic oblivious transfer \item Registration-based encryption scheme \item Laconic private-set intersection protocol \end{itemize} All of the above have essentially optimal parameters and similar practical efficiency. Furthermore, our laconic encryption can be preprocessed such that the online encryption step is entirely combinatorial and therefore much more efficient. Using similar techniques, we also obtain identity-based encryption with an unbounded identity space and tight security proof (in the standard model).
Registered (Inner-Product) Functional Encryption
Registered encryption (Garg et al., TCC'18) is an emerging paradigm that tackles the key-escrow problem associated with identity-based encryption by replacing the private-key generator with a much weaker entity known as the key curator. The key curator holds no secret information, and is responsible to: (i) update the master public key whenever a new user registers its own public key to the system; (ii) provide helper decryption keys to the users already registered in the system, in order to still enable them to decrypt after new users join the system. For practical purposes, tasks (i) and (ii) need to be efficient, in the sense that the size of the public parameters, of the master public key, and of the helper decryption keys, as well as the running times for key generation and user registration, and the number of updates, must be small. In this paper, we generalize the notion of registered encryption to the setting of functional encryption (FE). As our main contribution, we show an efficient construction of registered FE for the special case of (attribute hiding) inner-product predicates, built over asymmetric bilinear groups of prime order. Our scheme supports a large attribute universe and is proven secure in the bilinear generic group model. We also implement our scheme and experimentally demonstrate the efficiency requirements of the registered settings. Our second contribution is a feasibility result where we build registered FE for P/poly based on indistinguishability obfuscation and somewhere statistically binding hash functions.
Two-Round Concurrent 2PC from Sub-Exponential LWE
Secure computation is a cornerstone of modern cryptography and a rich body of research is devoted to understanding its round complexity. In this work, we consider two-party computation (2PC) protocols (where both parties receive output) that remain secure in the realistic setting where many instances of the protocol are executed in parallel (concurrent security). We obtain a two-round concurrent-secure 2PC protocol based on a single, standard, post-quantum assumption: The subexponential hardness of the learning-with-errors (LWE) problem. Our protocol is in the plain model, i.e., it has no trusted setup, and it is secure in the super-polynomial simulation framework of Pass (EUROCRYPT 2003). Since two rounds are minimal for (concurrent) 2PC, this work resolves the round complexity of concurrent 2PC from standard assumptions. As immediate applications, our work establishes feasibility results for interesting cryptographic primitives such as the first two-round password authentication key exchange (PAKE) protocol in the plain model and the first two-round concurrent secure computation protocol for quantum circuits (2PQC).
Candidate Trapdoor Claw-Free Functions from Group Actions with Applications to Quantum Protocols
Navid Alamati Giulio Malavolta Ahmadreza Rahimi
Trapdoor Claw-free Functions (TCFs) are two-to-one trapdoor functions where it is computationally hard to find a claw, i.e., a colliding pair of inputs. TCFs have recently seen a surge of renewed interest due to new applications to quantum cryptography: as an example, TCFs enable a classical machine to verify that some quantum computation has been performed correctly. In this work, we propose a new family of (almost two-to-one) TCFs based on conjectured hard problems on isogeny-based group actions. This is the first candidate construction that is not based on lattice-related problems and the first scheme (from any plausible post-quantum assumption) with a deterministic evaluation algorithm. To demonstrate the usefulness of our construction, we show that our TCF family can be used to devise a computational test of qubit, which is the basic building block used in general verification of quantum computations.
Lower Bounds for the Number of Decryption Updates in Registration-Based Encryption
Mohammad Mahmoody Wei Qi Ahmadreza Rahimi
Registration-based encryption (Garg, Hajiabadi, Mahmoody, Rahimi, TCC'18) is a primitive that aims to offer what identity-based encryption offers without the key-escrow problem. In RBE, parties generate their secret keys, a key curator (KC) manages the public keys and updates the compact public parameter, and everyone can use the updated public parameter to securely encrypt messages for individuals. A major downside of RBE is that parties might need to periodically receive extra information from the KC, called decryption updates, that help them decrypt successfully. Current RBE schemes with n registered parties require \Omega(log n) number of updates while the public parameter is of length poly(log n). This leads to the following natural question: are so many decryption updates necessary for RBE schemes? Indeed, it would be desirable to have RBEs with only a constant number of updates. In this paper, we prove almost tight lowerbounds for the number of updates in RBE schemes. More generally, we prove a trade-off between the number of updates in RBEs and the length of the public parameter, as long as the update times are fixed, which is a natural property that holds for all known RBE constructions. In particular, we prove that for any RBE scheme for n \geq \binom{k+d}{d+1} identities and d updates that arrive at fixed times, the public parameter needs to be of length \Omega(k). In particular, our lower bound shows that RBE systems with public parameters of length poly(\log n) require almost logarithmic \Omega(log n / log log n) number of updates.
Registration-Based Encryption from Standard Assumptions
The notion of Registration-Based Encryption (RBE) was recently introduced by Garg, Hajiabadi, Mahmoody, and Rahimi [TCC’18] with the goal of removing the private-key generator (PKG) from IBE. Specifically, RBE allows encrypting to identities using a (compact) master public key, like how IBE is used, with the benefit that the PKG is substituted with a weaker entity called “key curator” who has no knowledge of any secret keys. Here individuals generate their secret keys on their own and then publicly register their identities and their corresponding public keys to the key curator. Finally, individuals obtain “rare” decryption-key updates from the key curator as the population grows. In their work, they gave a construction of RBE schemes based on the combination of indistinguishability obfuscation and somewhere statistically binding hash functions. However, they left open the problem of constructing RBE schemes based on standard assumptions.In this work, we resolve the above problem and construct RBE schemes based on standard assumptions (e.g., CDH or LWE). Furthermore, we show a new application of RBE in a novel context. In particular, we show that anonymous variants of RBE (which we also construct under standard assumptions) can be used for realizing abstracts forms of anonymous messaging tasks in simple scenarios in which the parties communicate by writing messages on a shared board in a synchronized way.
Registration-Based Encryption: Removing Private-Key Generator from IBE
In this work, we introduce the notion of registration-based encryption (RBE for short) with the goal of removing the trust parties need to place in the private-key generator in an IBE scheme. In an RBE scheme, users sample their own public and secret keys. There will also be a “key curator” whose job is only to aggregate the public keys of all the registered users and update the “short” public parameter whenever a new user joins the system. Encryption can still be performed to a particular recipient using the recipient’s identity and any public parameters released subsequent to the recipient’s registration. Decryption requires some auxiliary information connecting users’ public (and secret) keys to the public parameters. Because of this, as the public parameters get updated, a decryptor may need to obtain “a few” additional auxiliary information for decryption. More formally, if n is the total number of identities and $$\mathrm {\kappa }$$κ is the security parameter, we require the following.Efficiency requirements: (1) A decryptor only needs to obtain updated auxiliary information for decryption at most $$O(\log n)$$O(logn) times in its lifetime, (2) each of these updates are computed by the key curator in time $${\text {poly}}(\mathrm {\kappa },\log n)$$poly(κ,logn), and (3) the key curator updates the public parameter upon the registration of a new party in time $${\text {poly}}(\mathrm {\kappa },\log n)$$poly(κ,logn). Properties (2) and (3) require the key curator to have random access to its data.Compactness requirements: (1) Public parameters are always at most $${\text {poly}}(\mathrm {\kappa },\log n)$$poly(κ,logn) bit, and (2) the total size of updates a user ever needs for decryption is also at most $${\text {poly}}(\mathrm {\kappa },\log n)$$poly(κ,logn) bits.We present feasibility results for constructions of RBE based on indistinguishably obfuscation. We further provide constructions of weakly efficient RBE, in which the registration step is done in $${\text {poly}}(\mathrm {\kappa },n)$$poly(κ,n), based on CDH, Factoring or LWE assumptions. Note that registration is done only once per identity, and the more frequent operation of generating updates for a user, which can happen more times, still runs in time $${\text {poly}}(\mathrm {\kappa },\log n)$$poly(κ,logn). We leave open the problem of obtaining standard RBE (with $${\text {poly}}(\mathrm {\kappa },\log n)$$poly(κ,logn) registration time) from standard assumptions.