## CryptoDB

### Martin R. Albrecht

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

EUROCRYPT

SLAP: Succinct Lattice-Based Polynomial Commitments from Standard Assumptions
Abstract

Recent works on lattice-based extractable polynomial commitments can be grouped into two classes: (i) non-interactive constructions that stem from the functional commitment by Albrecht, Cini, Lai, Malavolta and Thyagarajan (CRYPTO 2022), and (ii) lattice adaptations of the Bulletproofs protocol (S&P 2018). The former class enjoys security in the standard model, albeit a knowledge assumption is desired. In contrast, Bulletproof-like protocols can be made secure under falsifiable assumptions, but due to technical limitations regarding subtractive sets, they only offer inverse-polynomial soundness error. This issue becomes particularly problematic when transforming these protocols to the non-interactive setting using the Fiat-Shamir paradigm.
In this work, we propose the first lattice-based non-interactive extractable polynomial commitment scheme which achieves polylogarithmic proof size and verifier runtime (in the length of the committed message) under standard assumptions. At the core of our work lies a new tree-based commitment scheme, along with an efficient proof of polynomial evaluation inspired by FRI (ICALP 2018). Natively, the construction is secure under a “multi-instance version” of the Power-Ring BASIS assumption (Eprint 2023/846). We then base security on the Module-SIS assumption by introducing several re-randomisation techniques which can be of independent interest.

2024

EUROCRYPT

Crypto Dark Matter on the Torus: Oblivious PRFs from shallow PRFs and TFHE
Abstract

Partially Oblivious Pseudorandom Functions (POPRFs) are 2-party protocols that allow a client to learn pseudorandom function (PRF) evaluations on inputs of its choice from a server. The client submits two inputs, one public and one private. The security properties ensure that the server cannot learn the private input and the client cannot learn more than one evaluation per POPRF query. POPRFs have many applications including password-based key exchange and privacy-preserving authentication mechanisms. However, most constructions are based on classical assumptions, and those with post-quantum security suffer from large eﬀiciency drawbacks.
In this work, we construct a novel POPRF from lattice assumptions and the “Crypto Dark Matter” PRF candidate (TCC’18) in the random oracle model. At a conceptual level, our scheme exploits the alignment of this family of PRF candidates, relying on mixed modulus computations, and programmable bootstrapping in the torus fully homomorphic encryption scheme (TFHE). We show that our construction achieves malicious client security based on circuit-private FHE, and client privacy from the semantic security of the FHE scheme. We further explore a heuristic approach to extend our scheme to support verifiability based on the difficulty of computing cheating circuits in low depth. This would yield a verifiable (P)OPRF. We provide a proof-of-concept implementation and preliminary benchmarks of our construction. For the core online OPRF functionality, we require amortised 10.0KB communication per evaluation and a one-time per-client setup communication of 2.5MB.

2023

EUROCRYPT

Caveat Implementor! Key Recovery Attacks on MEGA
Abstract

MEGA is a large-scale cloud storage and communication platform that aims to provide end-to-end encryption for stored data. A recent analysis by Backendal, Haller and Paterson (IEEE S\&P 2023) invalidated these security claims by presenting practical attacks against MEGA that could be mounted by the MEGA service provider. In response, the MEGA developers added lightweight sanity checks on the user RSA private keys used in MEGA, sufficient to prevent the previous attacks.
We analyse these new sanity checks and show how they themselves can be exploited to mount novel attacks on MEGA that recover a target user's RSA private key with only slightly higher attack complexity than the original attacks. We identify the presence of an ECB encryption oracle under a target user's master key in the MEGA system; this oracle provides our adversary with the ability to partially overwrite a target user's RSA private key with chosen data, a powerful capability that we use in our attacks. We then present two distinct types of attack, each type exploiting different error conditions arising in the sanity checks and in subsequent cryptographic processing during MEGA's user authentication procedure. The first type appears to be novel and exploits the manner in which the MEGA code handles modular inversion when recomputing $u=q^{-1} \bmod p$. The second can be viewed as a small subgroup attack (van Oorschot and Wiener, EUROCRYPT 1996, Lim and Lee, CRYPTO 1998). We prototype the attacks and show that they work in practice.
As a side contribution, we show how to improve the RSA key recovery attack of Backendal-Haller-Paterson against the unpatched version of MEGA to require only 2 logins instead of the original 512.
We conclude by discussing wider lessons about secure implementation of cryptography that our work surfaces.

2022

CRYPTO

Lattice-Based SNARKs: Publicly Verifiable, Preprocessing, and Recursively Composable
📺
Abstract

A succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge (SNARK) allows a prover to produce a short proof that certifies the veracity of a certain NP-statement. In the last decade, a large body of work has studied candidate constructions that are secure against quantum attackers. Unfortunately, no known candidate matches the efficiency and desirable features of (pre-quantum) constructions based on bilinear pairings.
In this work, we make progress on this question. We propose the first lattice-based SNARK that simultaneously satisfies many desirable properties: It (i) is tentatively post-quantum secure, (ii) is publicly-verifiable, (iii) has a logarithmic-time verifier and (iv) has a purely algebraic structure making it amenable to efficient recursive composition. Our construction stems from a general technical toolkit that we develop to translate pairing-based schemes to lattice-based ones. At the heart of our SNARK is a new lattice-based vector commitment (VC) scheme supporting openings to constant-degree multivariate polynomial maps, which is a candidate solution for the open problem of constructing VC schemes with openings to beyond linear functions. However, the security of our constructions is based on a new family of lattice-based computational assumptions which naturally generalises the standard Short Integer Solution (SIS) assumption.

2021

EUROCRYPT

On Bounded Distance Decoding with Predicate: Breaking the "Lattice Barrier" for the Hidden Number Problem
Abstract

Lattice-based algorithms in cryptanalysis often search for a target vector satisfying integer linear constraints as a shortest or closest vector in some lattice. In this work, we observe that these formulations may discard non-linear information from the underlying application that can be used to distinguish the target vector even when it is far from being uniquely close or short.
We formalize lattice problems augmented with a predicate distinguishing a target vector and give algorithms for solving instances of these prob- lems. We apply our techniques to lattice-based approaches for solving the Hidden Number Problem, a popular technique for recovering secret DSA or ECDSA keys in side-channel attacks, and demonstrate that our algorithms succeed in recovering the signing key for instances that were previously believed to be unsolvable using lattice approaches. We carried out extensive experiments using our estimation and solving framework, which we also make available with this work.

2021

PKC

Round-optimal Verifiable Oblivious Pseudorandom Functions from Ideal Lattices
📺
Abstract

Verifiable Oblivious Pseudorandom Functions (VOPRFs) are protocols that allow a client to learn verifiable pseudorandom function (PRF) evaluations on inputs of their choice. The PRF evaluations are computed by a server using their own secret key. The security of the protocol prevents both the server from learning anything about the client's input, and likewise the client from learning anything about the server's key. VOPRFs have many applications including password-based authentication, secret-sharing, anonymous authentication and efficient private set intersection. In this work, we construct the first round-optimal (online) VOPRF protocol that retains security from well-known subexponential lattice hardness assumptions. Our protocol requires constructions of non-interactive zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge (NIZKAoK). Using recent developments in the area of post-quantum zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge, we show that our VOPRF may be securely instantiated in the quantum random oracle model. We construct such arguments as extensions of prior work in the area of lattice-based zero-knowledge proof systems.

2021

CRYPTO

Subtractive Sets over Cyclotomic Rings: Limits of Schnorr-like Arguments over Lattices
📺
Abstract

We study when (dual) Vandermonde systems of the form `V_T ⋅ z = s⋅w` admit a solution `z` over a ring `R`, where `V_T` is the Vandermonde matrix defined by a set `T` and where the “slack” `s` is a measure of the quality of solutions. To this end, we propose the notion of `(s,t)`-subtractive sets over a ring `R`, with the property that if `S` is `(s,t)`-subtractive then the above (dual) Vandermonde systems defined by any `t`-subset `T ⊆ S` are solvable over `R`. The challenge is then to find large sets `S` while minimising (the norm of) `s` when given a ring `R`.
By constructing families of `(s,t)`-subtractive sets `S` of size `n = poly(λ)` over cyclotomic rings `R = ZZ[ζ_{p^ℓ}]` for prime `p`, we construct Schnorr-like lattice-based proofs of knowledge for the SIS relation `A ⋅ x = s ⋅ y mod q` with `O(1/n)` knowledge error, and `s=1` in case `p = poly(λ)`. Our technique slots naturally into the lattice Bulletproof framework from Crypto’20, producing lattice-based succinct arguments for NP with better parameters.
We then give matching impossibility results constraining `n` relative to `s`, which suggest that our Bulletproof-compatible protocols are optimal unless fundamentally new techniques are discovered. Noting that the knowledge error of lattice Bulletproofs is `Ω(log k/n)` for witnesses in `R^k` and subtractive set size `n`, our result represents a barrier to practically efficient lattice-based succinct arguments in the Bulletproof framework.
Beyond these main results, the concept of `(s,t)`-subtractive sets bridges group-based threshold cryptography to the lattice settings, which we demonstrate by relating it to distributed pseudorandom functions.

2021

CRYPTO

Lattice Reduction with Approximate Enumeration Oracles: Practical Algorithms and Concrete Performance
📺
Abstract

This work provides a systematic investigation of the use of approximate enumeration oracles in BKZ, building on recent technical progress on speeding-up lattice enumeration: relaxing (the search radius of) enumeration and extended preprocessing which preprocesses in a larger rank than the enumeration rank. First, we heuristically justify that relaxing enumeration with certain extreme pruning asymptotically achieves an exponential speed-up for reaching the same root Hermite factor (RHF). Second, we perform simulations/experiments to validate this and the performance for relaxed enumeration with numerically optimised pruning for both regular and extended preprocessing.
Upgrading BKZ with such approximate enumeration oracles gives rise to our main result, namely a practical and faster (compared to previous work) polynomial-space lattice reduction algorithm for reaching the same RHF in practical and cryptographic parameter ranges. We assess its concrete time/quality performance with extensive simulations and experiments. As a consequence, we update the extrapolation of the crossover rank between a square-root cost estimate for quantum enumeration using our algorithm and the Core-SVP cost estimate for quantum sieving to 547.

2020

JOFC

Multilinear Maps from Obfuscation
Abstract

We provide constructions of multilinear groups equipped with natural hard problems from indistinguishability obfuscation, homomorphic encryption, and NIZKs. This complements known results on the constructions of indistinguishability obfuscators from multilinear maps in the reverse direction. We provide two distinct, but closely related constructions and show that multilinear analogues of the $${\text {DDH}} $$ DDH assumption hold for them. Our first construction is symmetric and comes with a $$\kappa $$ κ -linear map $$\mathbf{e }: {{\mathbb {G}}}^\kappa \longrightarrow {\mathbb {G}}_T$$ e : G κ ⟶ G T for prime-order groups $${\mathbb {G}}$$ G and $${\mathbb {G}}_T$$ G T . To establish the hardness of the $$\kappa $$ κ -linear $${\text {DDH}} $$ DDH problem, we rely on the existence of a base group for which the $$\kappa $$ κ -strong $${\text {DDH}} $$ DDH assumption holds. Our second construction is for the asymmetric setting, where $$\mathbf{e }: {\mathbb {G}}_1 \times \cdots \times {\mathbb {G}}_{\kappa } \longrightarrow {\mathbb {G}}_T$$ e : G 1 × ⋯ × G κ ⟶ G T for a collection of $$\kappa +1$$ κ + 1 prime-order groups $${\mathbb {G}}_i$$ G i and $${\mathbb {G}}_T$$ G T , and relies only on the 1-strong $${\text {DDH}} $$ DDH assumption in its base group. In both constructions, the linearity $$\kappa $$ κ can be set to any arbitrary but a priori fixed polynomial value in the security parameter. We rely on a number of powerful tools in our constructions: probabilistic indistinguishability obfuscation, dual-mode NIZK proof systems (with perfect soundness, witness-indistinguishability, and zero knowledge), and additively homomorphic encryption for the group $$\mathbb {Z}_N^{+}$$ Z N + . At a high level, we enable “bootstrapping” multilinear assumptions from their simpler counterparts in standard cryptographic groups and show the equivalence of PIO and multilinear maps under the existence of the aforementioned primitives.

2020

CRYPTO

Faster Enumeration-based Lattice Reduction: Root Hermite Factor k^(1/(2k)) in Time k^(k/8 + o(k))
📺
Abstract

We give a lattice reduction algorithm that achieves root Hermite factor k^(1/(2k)) in time k^(k/8 + o(k)) and polynomial memory. This improves on the previously best known enumeration-based algorithms which achieve the same quality, but in time k^(k/(2e) + o(k)). A cost of k^(k/8 + o(k)) was previously mentioned as potentially achievable (Hanrot-Stehlé’10) or as a heuristic lower bound (Nguyen’10) for enumeration algorithms. We prove the complexity and quality of our algorithm under a heuristic assumption and provide empirical evidence from simulation and implementation experiments attesting to its performance for practical and cryptographic parameter sizes. Our work also suggests potential avenues for achieving costs below k^(k/8 + o(k)) for the same root Hermite factor, based on the geometry of SDBKZ-reduced bases.

2020

ASIACRYPT

Estimating quantum speedups for lattice sieves
📺
Abstract

Quantum variants of lattice sieve algorithms are routinely used to assess the security of lattice based cryptographic constructions. In this work we provide a heuristic, non-asymptotic, analysis of the cost of several algorithms for near neighbour search on high dimensional spheres. These algorithms are key components of lattice sieves. We design quantum circuits for near neighbour search algorithms and provide software that numerically optimises algorithm parameters according to various cost metrics. Using this software we estimate the cost of classical and quantum near neighbour search on spheres. For the most performant near neighbour search algorithm that we analyse we find a small quantum speedup in dimensions of cryptanalytic interest. Achieving this speedup requires several optimistic physical and algorithmic assumptions.

2019

TCHES

Implementing RLWE-based Schemes Using an RSA Co-Processor
📺
Abstract

We repurpose existing RSA/ECC co-processors for (ideal) lattice-based cryptography by exploiting the availability of fast long integer multiplication. Such co-processors are deployed in smart cards in passports and identity cards, secured microcontrollers and hardware security modules (HSM). In particular, we demonstrate an implementation of a variant of the Module-LWE-based Kyber Key Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM) that is tailored for high performance on a commercially available smart card chip (SLE 78). To benefit from the RSA/ECC co-processor we use Kronecker substitution in combination with schoolbook and Karatsuba polynomial multiplication. Moreover, we speed-up symmetric operations in our Kyber variant using the AES co-processor to implement a PRNG and a SHA-256 co-processor to realise hash functions. This allows us to execute CCA-secure Kyber768 key generation in 79.6 ms, encapsulation in 102.4 ms and decapsulation in 132.7 ms.

2019

TOSC

libInterMAC: Beyond Confidentiality and Integrity in Practice
📺
Abstract

Boldyreva et al. (Eurocrypt 2012) defined a fine-grained security model capturing ciphertext fragmentation attacks against symmetric encryption schemes. The model was extended by Albrecht et al. (CCS 2016) to include an integrity notion. The extended security model encompasses important security goals of SSH that go beyond confidentiality and integrity to include length hiding and denial-of-service resistance properties. Boldyreva et al. also defined and analysed the InterMAC scheme, while Albrecht et al. showed that InterMAC satisfies stronger security notions than all currently available SSH encryption schemes. In this work, we take the InterMAC scheme and make it fully ready for use in practice. This involves several steps. First, we modify the InterMAC scheme to support encryption of arbitrary length plaintexts and we replace the use of Encrypt-then-MAC in InterMAC with modern noncebased authenticated encryption. Second, we describe a reference implementation of the modified InterMAC scheme in the form of the library libInterMAC. We give a performance analysis of libInterMAC. Third, to test the practical performance of libInterMAC, we implement several InterMAC-based encryption schemes in OpenSSH and carry out a performance analysis for the use-case of file transfer using SCP. We measure the data throughput and the data overhead of using InterMAC-based schemes compared to existing schemes in OpenSSH. Our analysis shows that, for some network set-ups, using InterMAC-based schemes in OpenSSH only moderately affects performance whilst providing stronger security guarantees compared to existing schemes.

2019

EUROCRYPT

The General Sieve Kernel and New Records in Lattice Reduction
📺
Abstract

We propose the General Sieve Kernel (G6K, pronounced /
e.si.ka/), an abstract stateful machine supporting a wide variety of lattice reduction strategies based on sieving algorithms. Using the basic instruction set of this abstract stateful machine, we first give concise formulations of previous sieving strategies from the literature and then propose new ones. We then also give a light variant of BKZ exploiting the features of our abstract stateful machine. This encapsulates several recent suggestions (Ducas at Eurocrypt 2018; Laarhoven and Mariano at PQCrypto 2018) to move beyond treating sieving as a blackbox SVP oracle and to utilise strong lattice reduction as preprocessing for sieving. Furthermore, we propose new tricks to minimise the sieving computation required for a given reduction quality with mechanisms such as recycling vectors between sieves, on-the-fly lifting and flexible insertions akin to Deep LLL and recent variants of Random Sampling Reduction.Moreover, we provide a highly optimised, multi-threaded and tweakable implementation of this machine which we make open-source. We then illustrate the performance of this implementation of our sieving strategies by applying G6K to various lattice challenges. In particular, our approach allows us to solve previously unsolved instances of the Darmstadt SVP (151, 153, 155) and LWE (e.g. (75, 0.005)) challenges. Our solution for the SVP-151 challenge was found 400 times faster than the time reported for the SVP-150 challenge, the previous record. For exact-SVP, we observe a performance crossover between G6K and FPLLL’s state of the art implementation of enumeration at dimension 70.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Algebraic Cryptanalysis of STARK-Friendly Designs: Application to MARVELlous and MiMC
Abstract

The block cipher Jarvis and the hash function Friday, both members of the MARVELlous family of cryptographic primitives, are among the first proposed solutions to the problem of designing symmetric-key algorithms suitable for transparent, post-quantum secure zero-knowledge proof systems such as ZK-STARKs. In this paper we describe an algebraic cryptanalysis of Jarvis and Friday and show that the proposed number of rounds is not sufficient to provide adequate security. In Jarvis, the round function is obtained by combining a finite field inversion, a full-degree affine permutation polynomial and a key addition. Yet we show that even though the high degree of the affine polynomial may prevent some algebraic attacks (as claimed by the designers), the particular algebraic properties of the round function make both Jarvis and Friday vulnerable to Gröbner basis attacks. We also consider MiMC, a block cipher similar in structure to Jarvis. However, this cipher proves to be resistant against our proposed attack strategy. Still, our successful cryptanalysis of Jarvis and Friday does illustrate that block cipher designs for “algebraic platforms” such as STARKs, FHE or MPC may be particularly vulnerable to algebraic attacks.

2018

TCHES

Cold Boot Attacks on Ring and Module LWE Keys Under the NTT
★
Abstract

In this work, we consider the ring- and module- variants of the LWE problem and investigate cold boot attacks on cryptographic schemes based on these problems, wherein an attacker is faced with the problem of recovering a scheme’s secret key from a noisy version of that key. The leakage resilience of cryptography based on the learning with errors (LWE) problem has been studied before, but there are only limited results considering the parameters observed in cold boot attack scenarios. There are two main encodings for storing ring- and module-LWE keys, and, as we show, the performance of cold boot attacks can be highly sensitive to the exact encoding used. The first encoding stores polynomial coefficients directly in memory. The second encoding performs a number theoretic transform (NTT) before storing the key, a commonly used method leading to more efficient implementations. We first give estimates for a cold boot attack complexity on the first encoding method based on standard algorithms; this analysis confirms that this encoding method is vulnerable to cold boot attacks only at very low bit-flip rates. We then show that, for the second encoding method, the structure introduced by using an NTT is exploitable in the cold boot setting: we develop a bespoke attack strategy that is much cheaper than our estimates for the first encoding when considering module-LWE keys. For example, at a 1% bit-flip rate (which corresponds roughly to what can be achieved in practice for cold boot attacks when applying cooling), a cold boot attack on Kyber KEM parameters has a cost of 243 operations when the second, NTT-based encoding is used for key storage, compared to 270 operations with the first encoding. On the other hand, in the case of the ring-LWE-based KEM, New Hope, the cold boot attack complexities are similar for both encoding methods.

2017

EUROCRYPT

2016

CRYPTO

2016

ASIACRYPT

#### Program Committees

- Asiacrypt 2022
- Asiacrypt 2021
- Crypto 2020
- Eurocrypt 2019
- Eurocrypt 2018
- Asiacrypt 2018
- FSE 2014

#### Coauthors

- Martin R. Albrecht (32)
- Shi Bai (3)
- Torben Brandt Hansen (1)
- Carlos Cid (2)
- Valerio Cini (1)
- Catalin Cocis (1)
- Alex Davidson (2)
- Amit Deo (4)
- Benedikt Driessen (1)
- Léo Ducas (2)
- Pooya Farshim (4)
- Jean-Charles Faugère (3)
- Giacomo Fenzi (1)
- Robert Fitzpatrick (2)
- Pierre-Alain Fouque (1)
- Daniel Gardham (1)
- Vlad Gheorghiu (1)
- Florian Göpfert (1)
- Lorenzo Grassi (2)
- Miro Haller (1)
- Shuai Han (1)
- Christian Hanser (1)
- Nadia Heninger (1)
- Gottfried Herold (1)
- Dennis Hofheinz (2)
- Andrea Höller (1)
- Elif Bilge Kavun (1)
- Dmitry Khovratovich (1)
- Paul Kirchner (1)
- Elena Kirshanova (1)
- Fabien Laguillaumie (1)
- Russell W. F. Lai (2)
- Oleksandra Lapiha (1)
- Enrique Larraia (2)
- Gregor Leander (1)
- Jianwei Li (1)
- Reinhard Lüftenegger (1)
- Giulio Malavolta (1)
- Lenka Mareková (1)
- Ngoc Khanh Nguyen (1)
- Christof Paar (1)
- Kenneth G. Paterson (7)
- Ludovic Perret (3)
- Thomas Pöppelmann (1)
- Eamonn W. Postlethwaite (2)
- Christian Rechberger (3)
- Adeline Roux-Langlois (1)
- Joe Rowell (1)
- Arnab Roy (1)
- John M. Schanck (1)
- Thomas Schneider (1)
- Markus Schofnegger (1)
- Nigel P. Smart (1)
- Damien Stehlé (1)
- Marc Stevens (1)
- Sri Aravinda Krishnan Thyagarajan (1)
- Tyge Tiessen (2)
- Yosuke Todo (1)
- Fernando Virdia (2)
- Andreas Wallner (1)
- Gaven J. Watson (1)
- Weiqiang Wen (1)
- Thomas Wunderer (1)
- Keita Xagawa (1)
- Tolga Yalçin (1)
- Michael Zohner (1)