International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Jesko Dujmović


Lower-Bounds on Public-Key Operations in PIR
Jesko Dujmovic Mohammad Hajiabadi
Private information retrieval (PIR) is a fundamental cryptographic primitive that allows a user to fetch a database entry without revealing to the server which database entry it learns. PIR becomes non-trivial if the server communication is less than the database size. We show that building (even) very weak forms of PIR protocols requires linearly many public-key operations. We then use this bound to examine the related problem of communication efficient oblivious transfer (OT) extension. Oblivious transfer is a crucial building block in secure multi-party computation (MPC). In most MPC protocols, OT invocations are the main bottleneck in terms of computation and communication. OT extension techniques allow one to minimize the number of public-key operations in MPC protocols. One drawback of all existing OT extension protocols is their communication overhead. In particular, the sender’s communication is roughly double what is information-theoretically optimal. We show that OT extension with close to optimal sender communication is impossible, illustrating that the communication overhead is inherent. Our techniques go much further; we can show many lower bounds on communication-efficient MPC. E.g. we prove that to build high-rate string OT with generic groups, the sender needs to do linearly many group operations.
Time-Lock Puzzles with Efficient Batch Solving
Jesko Dujmovic Rachit Garg Giulio Malavolta
Time-Lock Puzzles (TLPs) are a powerful tool for concealing messages until a predetermined point in time. When solving multiple puzzles, it becomes crucial to have the ability to \emph{batch-solve} puzzles, i.e., simultaneously open multiple puzzles while working to solve a \emph{single one}. Unfortunately, all previously known TLP constructions equipped for batch solving have been contingent upon super-polynomially secure indistinguishability obfuscation, rendering them impractical in real-world applications. In light of this challenge, we present novel TLP constructions that offer batch-solving capabilities without using heavy cryptographic hammers. Our proposed schemes are characterized by their simplicity in concept and efficiency in practice, and they can be constructed based on well-established cryptographic assumptions based on pairings or learning with errors (LWE). Along the way, we introduce new constructions of puncturable key-homomorphic PRFs both in the lattice and in the pairing setting, which may be of independent interest. Our analysis benefits from an interesting connection to Hall's marriage theorem and incorporates an optimized combinatorial approach, enhancing the practicality and feasibility of our TLP schemes. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of ``rogue-puzzle attacks", wherein maliciously crafted puzzle instances may disrupt the batch-solving process of honest puzzles. In response, we demonstrate the construction of concrete and efficient TLPs designed to thwart such attacks.
Rate-1 Incompressible Encryption from Standard Assumptions
Pedro Branco Nico Döttling Jesko Dujmović
Incompressible encryption, recently proposed by Guan, Wichs and Zhandry (EUROCRYPT'22), is a novel encryption paradigm geared towards providing strong long-term security guarantees against adversaries with \emph{bounded long-term memory}. Given that the adversary forgets just a small fraction of a ciphertext, this notion provides strong security for the message encrypted therein, even if at some point in the future the entire secret key is exposed. This comes at the price of having potentially very large ciphertexts. Thus, an important efficiency measure for incompressible encryption is the message-to-ciphertext ratio (also called the rate). Guan et al. provided a low-rate instantiation of this notion from standard assumptions, and a rate-1 instantiation from indistinguishability obfuscation (iO). In this work, we propose a simple framework to build rate-1 incompressible encryption from standard assumptions. Our construction can be realized from e.g. the DDH and additionally the DCR or the LWE assumptions.