An Incremental PoSW for General Weight Distributions Abstract
A proof of sequential work (PoSW) scheme allows the prover to convince a verifier that it computed a certain number of computational steps sequentially. Very recently, graph-labeling PoSW schemes, found applications in light-client blockchain protocols, most notably bootstrapping. A bootstrapping protocol allows a light client, with minimal information about the blockchain, to hold a commitment to its stable prefix. An incremental PoSW (iPoSW) scheme allows the prover to non-trivially increment proofs: given $\chi,\pi_1$ and integers $N_1,N_2$ such that $\pi_1$ is a valid proof for $N_1$, it generates a valid proof $\pi$ for $N_1+N_2$. In this work, we construct an iPoSW scheme based on the skiplist-based PoSW scheme of Abusalah et al. and prove its security in the random oracle model by employing the powerful on-the-fly sampling technique of Döttling et al. Moreover, unlike the iPoSW scheme of Döttling et al., ours is the first iPoSW scheme which is suitable for constructing incremental non-interactive arguments of chain knowledge (SNACK) schemes, which are at the heart of space and time efficient blockchain light-client protocols. In particular, our scheme works for general weight distributions, which we characterize as incrementally sampleable distributions. Our general treatment recovers the distribution underlying the scheme of Döttling et al. as well as the distribution underlying SNACK-enabled bootstrapping application as special cases. In realizing our general construction, we develop a new on-the-fly sampling technique.
Lattice-Based SNARKs: Publicly Verifiable, Preprocessing, and Recursively Composable 📺 Abstract
A succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge (SNARK) allows a prover to produce a short proof that certifies the veracity of a certain NP-statement. In the last decade, a large body of work has studied candidate constructions that are secure against quantum attackers. Unfortunately, no known candidate matches the efficiency and desirable features of (pre-quantum) constructions based on bilinear pairings. In this work, we make progress on this question. We propose the first lattice-based SNARK that simultaneously satisfies many desirable properties: It (i) is tentatively post-quantum secure, (ii) is publicly-verifiable, (iii) has a logarithmic-time verifier and (iv) has a purely algebraic structure making it amenable to efficient recursive composition. Our construction stems from a general technical toolkit that we develop to translate pairing-based schemes to lattice-based ones. At the heart of our SNARK is a new lattice-based vector commitment (VC) scheme supporting openings to constant-degree multivariate polynomial maps, which is a candidate solution for the open problem of constructing VC schemes with openings to beyond linear functions. However, the security of our constructions is based on a new family of lattice-based computational assumptions which naturally generalises the standard Short Integer Solution (SIS) assumption.
Updatable Signatures and Message Authentication Codes 📺 Abstract
Cryptographic objects with updating capabilities have been proposed by Bellare, Goldreich and Goldwasser (CRYPTO'94) under the umbrella of incremental cryptography. They have recently seen increased interest, motivated by theoretical questions (Ananth et al., EC'17) as well as concrete practical motivations (Lehmann et al., EC'18; Groth et al. CRYPTO'18; Klooß et al., EC'19). In this work, the form of updatability we are particularly interested in is that primitives are key-updatable and allow to update ''old'' cryptographic objects, e.g., signatures or message authentication codes, from the ''old'' key to the updated key at the same time without requiring full access to the new key (i.e., only via a so-called update token). Inspired by the rigorous study of updatable encryption by Lehmann and Tackmann (EC'18) and Boyd et al. (CRYPTO'20), we introduce a definitional framework for updatable signatures (USs) and message authentication codes (UMACs). We discuss several applications demonstrating that such primitives can be useful in practical applications, especially around key rotation in various domains, as well as serve as building blocks in other cryptographic schemes. We then turn to constructions and our focus there is on ones that are secure and practically efficient. In particular, we provide generic constructions from key-homomorphic primitives (signatures and PRFs) as well as direct constructions. This allows us to instantiate these primitives from various assumptions such as DDH or CDH (latter in bilinear groups), or the (R)LWE and the SIS assumptions. As an example, we obtain highly practical US schemes from BLS signatures or UMAC schemes from the Naor-Pinkas-Reingold PRF.
CCA-Secure (Puncturable) KEMs from Encryption With Non-Negligible Decryption Errors 📺 Abstract
Public-key encryption (PKE) schemes or key-encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) are fundamental cryptographic building blocks to realize secure communication protocols. There are several known transformations that generically turn weakly secure schemes into strongly (i.e., IND-CCA) secure ones. While most of these transformations require the weakly secure scheme to provide perfect correctness, Hofheinz, Hövelmanns, and Kiltz (HHK) (TCC 2017) have recently shown that variants of the Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) transform can work with schemes that have negligible correctness error in the (quantum) random oracle model (QROM). Many recent schemes in the NIST post-quantum competition (PQC) use variants of these transformations. Some of their CPA-secure versions even have a non-negligible correctness error and so the techniques of HHK cannot be applied. In this work, we study the setting of generically transforming PKE schemes with potentially large, i.e., non-negligible, correctness error to ones having negligible correctness error. While there have been previous treatments in an asymptotic setting by Dwork et al. (EUROCRYPT 2004), our goal is to come up with practically efficient compilers in a concrete setting and apply them in two different contexts: firstly, we show how to generically transform weakly secure deterministic or randomized PKEs into CCA-secure KEMs in the (Q)ROM using variants of HHK. This applies to essentially all candidates to the NIST PQC based on lattices and codes with non-negligible error, for which we provide an extensive analysis. We thereby show that it improves some of the code-based candidates. Secondly, we study puncturable KEMs in terms of the Bloom Filter KEM (BFKEM) proposed by Derler et al. (EUROCRYPT 2018) which inherently have a non-negligible correctness error. BFKEMs are a building block to construct fully forward-secret zero round-trip time (0-RTT) key-exchange protocols. In particular, we show how to achieve the first post-quantum secure BFKEM generically from lattices and codes by applying our techniques to identity-based encryption (IBE) schemes with (non-)negligible correctness error.
- Hamza Abusalah (1)
- Martin R. Albrecht (1)
- Russell W. F. Lai (1)
- Giulio Malavolta (1)
- Sebastian Ramacher (2)
- Daniel Slamanig (2)
- Christoph Striecks (2)
- Erkan Tairi (1)
- Sri Aravinda Krishnan Thyagarajan (1)