## CryptoDB

### Tomoyuki Morimae

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

EUROCRYPT

Certified Everlasting Secure Collusion-Resistant Functional Encryption, and More
Abstract

We study certified everlasting secure functional encryption (FE) and many other cryptographic primitives in this work.
Certified everlasting security roughly means the following.
A receiver possessing a quantum cryptographic object (such as ciphertext) can issue a certificate showing that the receiver has deleted the cryptographic object and information included in the object (such as plaintext) was lost.
If the certificate is valid, the security is guaranteed even if the receiver becomes computationally unbounded after the deletion.
Many cryptographic primitives are known to be impossible (or unlikely) to have information-theoretical security even in the quantum world.
Hence, certified everlasting security is a nice compromise (intrinsic to quantum).
In this work, we define certified everlasting secure versions of FE, compute-and-compare obfuscation, predicate encryption (PE), secret-key encryption (SKE), public-key encryption (PKE), receiver non-committing encryption (RNCE), and garbled circuits.
We also present the following constructions:
- Adaptively certified everlasting secure collusion-resistant public-key FE for all polynomial-size circuits from indistinguishability obfuscation and one-way functions.
- Adaptively certified everlasting secure bounded collusion-resistant public-key FE for $\mathsf{NC}^1$ circuits from standard PKE.
- Certified everlasting secure compute-and-compare obfuscation from standard fully homomorphic encryption and standard compute-and-compare obfuscation
- Adaptively (resp., selectively) certified everlasting secure PE from standard adaptively (resp., selectively) secure attribute-based encryption and certified everlasting secure compute-and-compare obfuscation.
- Certified everlasting secure SKE and PKE from standard SKE and PKE, respectively.
- Cetified everlasting secure RNCE from standard PKE.
- Cetified everlasting secure garbled circuits from standard SKE.

2024

CRYPTO

Quantum Advantage from One-Way Functions
Abstract

Is quantum computing truly faster than classical computing? Demonstrating unconditional quantum computational advantage lies beyond the reach of the current complexity theory, and therefore we have to rely on some complexity assumptions. While various results on quantum advantage have been obtained, all necessitate relatively stronger or less standard assumptions
in complexity theory or classical cryptography. In this paper, we show quantum advantage based on several fundamental assumptions, specifically relying solely on the existence of classically-secure one-way functions. Given the fact that one-way functions are necessary for almost all classical cryptographic primitives, our findings yield a surprising implication: if there is no quantum advantage, then there is no classical cryptography! More precisely, we introduce inefficient-verifier proofs of quantumness (IV-PoQ), and construct it from statistically-hiding and computationally-binding classical bit commitments. IV-PoQ is an interactive protocol between a verifier and a quantum polynomial-time prover consisting of two phases. In the first phase, the verifier is classical probabilistic polynomial-time, and it interacts with the quantum polynomial-time prover over a classical channel. In the second phase, the verifier becomes inefficient, and makes its decision based on the transcript of the first phase. If the quantum prover is honest, the inefficient verifier accepts with high probability, but any classical probabilistic polynomial-time malicious prover only has a small probability of being accepted by the inefficient verifier. In our construction, the inefficient verifier can be a classical deterministic polynomial-time algorithm that queries an NP oracle. Our construction demonstrates the following results based on the known constructions of statistically-hiding and computationally-binding commitments from one-way functions or distributional collision-resistant hash functions:
- If one-way functions exist, then IV-PoQ exist.
- If distributional collision-resistant hash functions exist (which exist if hard-on-average problems in $\mathbf{SZK}$ exist), then constant-round IV-PoQ exist.
We also demonstrate quantum advantage based on worst-case-hard assumptions. We define auxiliary-input IV-PoQ (AI-IV-PoQ) that only require that for any malicious prover, there exist infinitely many auxiliary inputs under which the prover cannot cheat. We construct AI-IV-PoQ from an auxiliary-input version of commitments in a similar way, showing that
- If auxiliary-input one-way functions exist (which exist if $\mathbf{CZK}\not\subseteq\mathbf{BPP), then AI-IV-PoQ exist.
- If auxiliary-input collision-resistant hash functions exist (which is equivalent to $\mathbf{PWPP}\nsubseteq \mathbf{FBPP}$) or $\mathbf{SZK}\nsubseteq \mathbf{BPP}$,
then constant-round AI-IV-PoQ exist.
Finally, we also show that some variants of PoQ can be constructed from quantum-evaluation one-way functions (QE-OWFs), which are similar to classically-secure classical one-way functions except that the evaluation algorithm is not classical but quantum.
QE-OWFs appear to be weaker than classically-secure classical one-way functions, and therefore it demonstrates quantum advantage based on assumptions even weaker than one-way functions.

2024

CRYPTO

Quantum Public-Key Encryption with Tamper-Resilient Public Keys from One-Way Functions
Abstract

We construct quantum public-key encryption from one-way functions. In our construction, public keys are quantum, but ciphertexts are classical. Quantum public-key encryption from one-way functions (or weaker primitives such as pseudorandom function-like states) are also proposed in some recent works [Morimae-Yamakawa, eprint:2022/1336; Coladangelo, eprint:2023/282; Barooti-Grilo-Malavolta-Sattath-Vu-Walter, TCC 2023]. However, they have a huge drawback: they are secure only when quantum public keys can be transmitted to the sender (who runs the encryption algorithm) without being tampered with by the adversary, which seems to require unsatisfactory physical setup assumptions such as secure quantum channels. Our construction is free from such a drawback: it guarantees the secrecy of the encrypted messages even if we assume only unauthenticated quantum channels. Thus, the encryption is done with adversarially tampered quantum public keys. Our construction is the first quantum public-key encryption that achieves the goal of classical public-key encryption, namely, to establish secure communication over insecure channels, based only on one-way functions. Moreover, we show a generic compiler to upgrade security against chosen plaintext attacks (CPA security) into security against chosen ciphertext attacks (CCA security) only using one-way functions. As a result, we obtain CCA secure quantum public-key encryption based only on one-way functions.

2024

CRYPTO

Unconditionally Secure Commitments with Quantum Auxiliary Inputs
Abstract

We show the following unconditional results on quantum commitments in two related yet different models:
1. We revisit the notion of quantum auxiliary-input commitments introduced by Chailloux, Kerenidis, and Rosgen (Comput. Complex. 2016) where both the committer and receiver take the same quantum state, which is determined by the security parameter,
as quantum auxiliary inputs. We show that computationally-hiding and statistically-binding quantum auxiliary-input commitments exist unconditionally, i.e., without relying on any unproven assumption, while Chailloux et al. assumed a complexity-theoretic assumption, ${\bf QIP}\not\subseteq{\bf QMA}$. On the other hand, we observe that achieving both statistical hiding and statistical binding at the same time is impossible even in the quantum auxiliary-input setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of unconditionally proving computational security of any form of (classical or quantum) commitments for which statistical security is impossible. As intermediate steps toward our construction, we introduce and unconditionally construct post-quantum sparse pseudorandom distributions and quantum auxiliary-input EFI pairs which may be of independent interest.
2. We introduce a new model which we call the common reference quantum state (CRQS) model where both the committer and receiver take the same quantum state that is randomly sampled by an efficient setup algorithm. We unconditionally prove that there exist statistically hiding and statistically binding commitments in the CRQS model, circumventing the impossibility in the plain model.
We also discuss their applications to zero-knowledge proofs, oblivious transfers, and multi-party computations.

2024

ASIACRYPT

Quantum Unpredictability
Abstract

Unpredictable functions (UPFs) play essential roles in classical cryptography, including message authentication codes (MACs) and digital signatures. In this paper, we introduce a quantum analog of UPFs, which we call unpredictable state generators (UPSGs). UPSGs are implied by pseudorandom function-like states generators (PRFSs), which are a quantum analog of pseudorandom functions (PRFs), and therefore UPSGs could exist even if one-way functions do not exist, similar to other recently introduced primitives like pseudorandom state generators (PRSGs), one-way state generators (OWSGs), and EFIs. In classical cryptography, UPFs are equivalent to PRFs, but in the quantum case, the equivalence is not clear, and UPSGs could be weaker than PRFSs. Despite this, we demonstrate that all known applications of PRFSs are also achievable with UPSGs. They include IND-CPA-secure secret-key encryption and EUF-CMA-secure MACs with unclonable tags. Our findings suggest that, for many applications, quantum unpredictability, rather than quantum pseudorandomness, is sufficient.

2023

EUROCRYPT

From the Hardness of Detecting Superpositions to Cryptography: Quantum Public Key Encryption and Commitments
Abstract

Recently, Aaronson et al. (arXiv:2009.07450) showed that detecting interference between two orthogonal states is as hard as swapping these states. While their original motivation was from quantum gravity, we show its applications in quantum cryptography.
1. We construct the first public key encryption scheme from cryptographic non-abelian group actions. Interestingly, ciphertexts of our scheme are quantum even if messages are classical. This resolves an open question posed by Ji et al. (TCC ’19). We construct the scheme through a new abstraction called swap-trapdoor function pairs, which may be of independent interest.
2. We give a simple and efficient compiler that converts the flavor of quantum bit commitments. More precisely, for any prefix X, Y ∈ {computationally,statistically,perfectly}, if the base scheme is X-hiding and Y-binding, then the resulting scheme is Y-hiding and X-binding. Our compiler calls
the base scheme only once. Previously, all known compilers call the base schemes polynomially many times (Crépeau et al., Eurocrypt ’01 and Yan, Asiacrypt ’22). For the security proof of the conversion, we generalize the result of Aaronson et al. by considering quantum auxiliary inputs.

2022

CRYPTO

Quantum Commitments and Signatures without One-Way Functions
📺
Abstract

In the classical world, the existence of commitments is equivalent to the existence of one-way functions. In the quantum setting, on the other hand, commitments are not known to imply one-way functions, but all known constructions of quantum commitments use at least one-way functions. Are one-way functions really necessary for commitments in the quantum world? In this work, we show that non-interactive quantum commitments (for classical messages) with computational hiding and statistical binding exist if pseudorandom quantum states exist. Pseudorandom quantum states are sets of quantum states that are efficiently generated but their polynomially many copies are computationally indistinguishable from the same number of copies of Haar random states [Ji, Liu, and Song, CRYPTO 2018]. It is known that pseudorandom quantum states exist even if BQP = QMA (relative to a quantum oracle) [Kretschmer, TQC 2021], which means that pseudorandom quantum states can exist even if no quantum-secure classical cryptographic primitive exists. Our result therefore shows that quantum commitments can exist even if no quantum-secure classical cryptographic primitive exists. In particular, quantum commitments can exist even if no quantum-secure one-way function exists. In this work, we also consider digital signatures, which are other fundamental primitives in cryptography. We show that one-time secure digital signatures with quantum public keys exist if pseudorandom quantum states exist. In the classical setting, the existence of digital signatures is equivalent to the existence of one-way functions. Our result, on the other hand, shows that quantum signatures can exist even if no quantum-secure classical cryptographic primitive (including quantum-secure one-way functions) exists.

2022

CRYPTO

Certified Everlasting Zero-Knowledge Proof for QMA
📺
Abstract

In known constructions of classical zero-knowledge protocols for NP, either of zero-knowledge or soundness holds only against computationally bounded adversaries. Indeed, achieving both statistical zero-knowledge and statistical soundness at the same time with classical verifier is impossible for NP unless the polynomial-time hierarchy collapses, and it is also believed to be impossible even with a quantum verifier. In this work, we introduce a novel compromise, which we call the certified everlasting zero-knowledge proof for QMA. It is a computational zero-knowledge proof for QMA, but the verifier issues a classical certificate that shows that the verifier has deleted its quantum information. If the certificate is valid, even an unbounded malicious verifier can no longer learn anything beyond the validity of the statement.
We construct a certified everlasting zero-knowledge proof for QMA. For the construction, we introduce a new quantum cryptographic primitive, which we call commitment with statistical binding and certified everlasting hiding, where the hiding property becomes statistical once the receiver has issued a valid certificate that shows that the receiver has deleted the committed information. We construct commitment with statistical binding and certified everlasting hiding from quantum encryption with certified deletion by Broadbent and Islam [TCC 2020] (in a black-box way), and then combine it with the quantum sigma-protocol for QMA by Broadbent and Grilo [FOCS 2020] to construct the certified everlasting zero-knowledge proof for QMA. Our constructions are secure in the quantum random oracle model. Commitment with statistical binding and certified everlasting hiding itself is of independent interest, and there will be many other useful applications beyond zero-knowledge.

2022

ASIACRYPT

Classically Veriﬁable NIZK for QMA with Preprocessing
📺
Abstract

We propose three constructions of classically veriﬁable non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs and arguments (CV-NIZK) for QMA in various preprocessing models.
1. We construct a CV-NIZK for QMA in the quantum secret parameter model where a trusted setup sends a quantum proving key to the prover and a classical veriﬁcation key to the veriﬁer. It is information theoretically sound and zero-knowledge.
2. Assuming the quantum hardness of the learning with errors problem, we construct a CV-NIZK for QMA in a model where a trusted party generates a CRS and the veriﬁer sends an instance-independent quantum message to the prover as preprocessing. This model is the same as one considered in the recent work by Coladangelo, Vidick, and Zhang (CRYPTO ’20). Our construction has the so-called dual-mode property, which means that there are two computationally in-distinguishable modes of generating CRS, and we have information theoretical soundness in one mode and information theoretical zero-knowledge property in the other. This answers an open problem left by Coladangelo et al, which is to achieve either of soundness or zero-knowledge information theoretically. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the ﬁrst dual-mode NIZK for QMA in any kind of model.
3. We construct a CV-NIZK for QMA with quantum preprocessing in the quantum random oracle model. This quantum preprocessing is the one where the veriﬁer sends a random Pauli-basis states to the prover. Our construction uses the Fiat-Shamir transformation. The quantum preprocessing can be replaced with the setup that distributes Bell pairs among the prover and the veriﬁer, and therefore we solve the open problem by Broadbent and Grilo (FOCS ’20) about
the possibility of NIZK for QMA in the shared Bell pair model via the Fiat-Shamir transformation.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Quantum Encryption with Certified Deletion, Revisited: Public Key, Attribute-Based, and Classical Communication
📺
Abstract

Broadbent and Islam (TCC '20) proposed a quantum cryptographic primitive called quantum encryption with certified deletion.
In this primitive, a receiver in possession of a quantum ciphertext can generate a classical certificate that the encrypted message is deleted.
Although their construction is information-theoretically secure, it is limited to the setting of one-time symmetric key encryption (SKE), where a sender and receiver have to share a common key in advance and the key can be used only once. Moreover, the sender has to generate a quantum state and send it to the receiver over a quantum channel in their construction.
Deletion certificates are privately verifiable, which means a verification key for a certificate must be kept secret, in the definition by Broadbent and Islam. However, we can also consider public verifiability.
In this work, we present various constructions of encryption with certified deletion.
- Quantum communication case: We achieve (reusable-key) public key encryption (PKE) and attribute-based encryption (ABE) with certified deletion.
Our PKE scheme with certified deletion is constructed assuming the existence of IND-CPA secure PKE, and our ABE scheme with certified deletion is constructed assuming the existence of indistinguishability obfuscation and one-way function. These two schemes are privately verifiable.
- Classical communication case: We also achieve interactive encryption with certified deletion that uses only classical communication.
We give two schemes, a privately verifiable one and a publicly verifiable one. The former is constructed assuming the LWE assumption in the quantum random oracle model. The latter is constructed assuming the existence of one-shot signatures and extractable witness encryption.

#### Program Committees

- Asiacrypt 2023

#### Coauthors

- Minki Hhan (1)
- Taiga Hiroka (3)
- Fuyuki Kitagawa (2)
- Tomoyuki Morimae (10)
- Barak Nehoran (1)
- Ryo Nishimaki (4)
- Tapas Pal (1)
- Shogo Yamada (1)
- Takashi Yamakawa (10)