## CryptoDB

### François-Xavier Standaert

#### ORCID: 0000-0001-7444-0285

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

PKC

POLKA: Towards Leakage-Resistant Post-Quantum CCA-Secure Public Key Encryption
Abstract

As for any cryptographic algorithm, the deployment of post-quantum CCA-secure public key encryption schemes may come with the need to be protected against side-channel attacks. For existing post-quantum schemes that have not been developed with leakage in mind, recent results showed that the cost of these protections can make their implementations more expensive by orders of magnitude. In this paper, we describe a new design, coined POLKA, that is specifically tailored for this purpose. It leverages various ingredients in order to enable efficient side-channel protected implementations such as: (i) the rigidity property (which intuitively means that de-randomized encryption and decryption are injective functions) to avoid the very leaky re-encryption step of the Fujisaki-Okamoto transform, (ii) the randomization of the decryption thanks to the incorporation of a dummy ciphertext, removing the adversary's control of its intermediate computations and making these computations ephemeral, (iii) key-homomorphic computations that can be masked against side-channel attacks with overheads that scale linearly in the number of shares, (iv) hard physical learning problem to argue about the security of some critical unmasked operations. Furthermore, we use an explicit rejection mechanism (returning an error symbol for invalid ciphertexts) to avoid the additional leakage caused by implicit rejection. As a result, all the operations of POLKA can be protected against leakage in a much cheaper way than state-of-the-art designs, opening the way towards schemes that are both quantum-safe and leakage-resistant.

2023

EUROCRYPT

Effective and Efficient Masking with Low Noise using Small-Mersenne-Prime Ciphers
Abstract

Embedded devices used in security applications are natural targets for physical attacks. Thus, enhancing their side-channel resistance is an important research challenge. A standard solution for this purpose is the use of Boolean masking schemes, as they are well adapted to current block ciphers with efficient bitslice representations. Boolean masking guarantees that the security of an implementation grows exponentially in the number of shares under the assumption that leakages are sufficiently noisy (and independent). Unfortunately, it has been shown that this noise assumption is hardly met on low-end devices. In this paper, we therefore investigate techniques to mask cryptographic algorithms in such a way that their resistance can survive an almost complete lack of noise. Building on seed theoretical results of Dziembowski et al., we put forward that arithmetic encodings in prime fields can reach this goal. We first exhibit the gains that such encodings lead to thanks to a simulated information theoretic analysis of their leakage (with up to six shares). We then provide figures showing that on platforms where optimized arithmetic adders and multipliers are readily available (i.e., most MCUs and FPGAs), performing masked operations in small to medium Mersenne-prime fields as opposed to binary extension fields will not lead to notable implementation overheads. We compile these observations into a new AES-like block cipher, called AES-prime, which is well-suited to illustrate the remarkable advantages of masking in prime fields. We also confirm the practical relevance of our findings by evaluating concrete software (ARM Cortex-M3) and hardware (Xilinx Spartan-6) implementations. Our experimental results show that security gains over Boolean masking (and, more generally, binary encodings) can reach orders of magnitude despite the same amount of information being leaked per share.

2023

TCHES

Prime-Field Masking in Hardware and its Soundness against Low-Noise SCA Attacks
Abstract

A recent study suggests that arithmetic masking in prime fields leads to stronger security guarantees against passive physical adversaries than Boolean masking. Indeed, it is a common observation that the desired security amplification of Boolean masking collapses when the noise level in the measurements is too low. Arithmetic encodings in prime fields can help to maintain an exponential increase of the attack complexity in the number of shares even in such a challenging context. In this work, we contribute to this emerging topic in two main directions. First, we propose novel masked hardware gadgets for secure squaring in prime fields (since squaring is non-linear in non-binary fields) which prove to be significantly more resource-friendly than corresponding masked multiplications. We then formally show their local and compositional security for arbitrary orders. Second, we attempt to >experimentally evaluate the performance vs. security tradeoff of prime-field masking. In order to enable a first comparative case study in this regard, we exemplarily consider masked implementations of the AES as well as the recently proposed AESprime. AES-prime is a block cipher partially resembling the standard AES, but based on arithmetic operations modulo a small Mersenne prime. We present cost and performance figures for masked AES and AES-prime implementations, and experimentally evaluate their susceptibility to low-noise side-channel attacks. We consider both the dynamic and the static power consumption for our low-noise analyses and emulate strong adversaries. Static power attacks are indeed known as a threat for side-channel countermeasures that require a certain noise level to be effective because of the adversary’s ability to reduce the noise through intra-trace averaging. Our results show consistently that for the noise levels in our practical experiments, the masked prime-field implementations provide much higher security for the same number of shares. This compensates for the overheads prime computations lead to and remains true even if / despite leaking each share with a similar Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) as their binary equivalents. We hope our results open the way towards new cipher designs tailored to best exploit the advantages of prime-field masking.

2023

TOSC

Secure Message Authentication in the Presence of Leakage and Faults
Abstract

Security against side-channels and faults is a must for the deployment of embedded cryptography. A wide body of research has investigated solutions to secure implementations against these attacks at different abstraction levels. Yet, to a large extent, current solutions focus on one or the other threat. In this paper, we initiate a mode-level study of cryptographic primitives that can ensure security in a (new and practically-motivated) adversarial model combining leakage and faults. Our goal is to identify constructions that do not require a uniform protection of all their operations against both attack vectors. For this purpose, we first introduce a versatile and intuitive model to capture leakage and faults. We then show that a MAC from Asiacrypt 2021 natively enables a leveled implementation for fault resilience where only its underlying tweakable block cipher must be protected, if only the tag verification can be faulted. We finally describe two approaches to amplify security for fault resilience when also the tag generation can be faulted. One is based on iteration and requires the adversary to inject increasingly large faults to succeed. The other is based on randomness and allows provable security against differential faults.

2023

CRYPTO

Prouﬀ & Rivain’s Formal Security Proof of Masking, Revisited: Tight Bounds in the Noisy Leakage Model
Abstract

Masking is a counter-measure that can be incorporated to
software and hardware implementations of block ciphers to provably se-
cure them against side-channel attacks. The security of masking can be
proven in diﬀerent types of threat models. In this paper, we are interested
in directly proving the security in the most realistic threat model, the
so-called noisy leakage adversary, that captures well how real-world side-
channel adversaries operate. Direct proofs in this leakage model have
been established by Prouﬀ & Rivain at Eurocrypt 2013, Dziembowski
et al. at Eurocrypt 2015, and Prest et al. at Crypto 2019. Both proofs
are complementary to each other, in the sense that the weaknesses of one
proof are ﬁxed in at least one of the others, and conversely. These weak-
nesses concerned in particular the strong requirements on the noise level
and the security parameter to get meaningful security bounds, and some
requirements on the type of adversary covered by the proof — i.e., cho-
sen or random plaintexts. This suggested that the drawbacks of each
security bound could actually be proof artifacts. In this paper, we solve
these issues, by revisiting Prouﬀ & Rivain’s approach.

2023

CRYPTO

Learning With Physical Rounding for Linear and Quadratic Leakage Functions
Abstract

Fresh re-keying is a countermeasure against side-channel analysis where an ephemeral key is derived from a long-term key using a public random value. Popular instances of such schemes rely on key-homomorphic primitives, so that the re-keying process is easy to mask and the rest of the (e.g., block cipher) computations can run with cheaper countermeasures. The main requirement for these schemes to be secure is that the leakages of the ephemeral keys do not allow recovering the long-term key. The Learning with Physical Rounding (LWPR) problem formalizes this security in a practically-relevant model where the adversary can observe noise-free leakages. It can be viewed as a physical version of the Learning With Rounding (LWR) problem, where the rounding is performed by a leakage function and therefore does not have to be computed explicitly. In this paper, we first consolidate the intuition that LWPR cannot be secure in a serial implementation context without additional countermeasures (like shuffling), due to attacks exploiting worst-case leakages that can be mounted with practical data complexity. We then extend the understanding of LWPR in a parallel implementation setting. On the one hand, we generalize its robustness against cryptanalysis taking advantage of any (i.e., not only worst-case) leakage. A previous work claimed security in the specific context of a Hamming weight leakage function. We clarify necessary conditions to maintain this guarantee, based on the degree of the leakage function and the accuracy of its coefficients. On the other hand, we show that parallelism inherently provides good security against attacks exploiting worst-case leakages. We finally confirm the practical relevance of these findings by validating our assumptions experimentally for an exemplary implementation.

2023

TCHES

Efficient Regression-Based Linear Discriminant Analysis for Side-Channel Security Evaluations: Towards Analytical Attacks against 32-bit Implementations
Abstract

32-bit software implementations become increasingly popular for embedded security applications. As a result, profiling 32-bit target intermediate values becomes increasingly needed to evaluate their side-channel security. This implies the need of statistical tools that can deal with long traces and large number of classes. While there are good options to solve these issues separately (e.g., linear regression and linear discriminant analysis), the current state of the art lacks efficient tools to solve them jointly. To the best of our knowledge, the best-known option is to fragment the profiling in smaller parts, which is suboptimal from the information theoretic viewpoint. In this paper, we therefore revisit regression-based linear discriminant analysis, which combines linear regression and linear discriminant analysis, and improve its efficiency so that it can be used for profiling long traces corresponding to 32-bit implementations. Besides introducing the optimizations needed for this purpose, we show how to use regression-based linear discriminant analysis in order to obtain efficient bounds for the perceived information, an information theoretic metric characterizing the security of an implementation against profiled attacks. We also combine this tool with optimizations of soft analytical side-channel attack that apply to bitslice implementations. We use these results to attack a 32-bit implementation of SAP instantiated with Ascon’s permutation, and show that breaking the initialization of its re-keying in one trace is feasible for determined adversaries.

2023

TCHES

Information Bounds and Convergence Rates for Side-Channel Security Evaluators
Abstract

Current side-channel evaluation methodologies exhibit a gap between inefficient tools offering strong theoretical guarantees and efficient tools only offering heuristic (sometimes case-specific) guarantees. Profiled attacks based on the empirical leakage distribution correspond to the first category. Bronchain et al. showed at Crypto 2019 that they allow bounding the worst-case security level of an implementation, but the bounds become loose as the leakage dimensionality increases. Template attacks and machine learning models are examples of the second category. In view of the increasing popularity of such parametric tools in the literature, a natural question is whether the information they can extract can be bounded.In this paper, we first show that a metric conjectured to be useful for this purpose, the hypothetical information, does not offer such a general bound. It only does when the assumptions exploited by a parametric model match the true leakage distribution. We therefore introduce a new metric, the training information, that provides the guarantees that were conjectured for the hypothetical information for practically-relevant models. We next initiate a study of the convergence rates of profiled side-channel distinguishers which clarifies, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, the parameters that influence the complexity of a profiling. On the one hand, the latter has practical consequences for evaluators as it can guide them in choosing the appropriate modeling tool depending on the implementation (e.g., protected or not) and contexts (e.g., granting them access to the countermeasures’ randomness or not). It also allows anticipating the amount of measurements needed to guarantee a sufficient model quality. On the other hand, our results connect and exhibit differences between side-channel analysis and statistical learning theory.

2023

TOSC

Optimally Secure Tweakable Block Ciphers with a Large Tweak from n-bit Block Ciphers
Abstract

We consider the design of a tweakable block cipher from a block cipher whose inputs and outputs are of size n bits. The main goal is to achieve 2n security with a large tweak (i.e., more than n bits). Previously, Mennink at FSE’15 and Wang et al. at Asiacrypt’16 proposed constructions that can achieve 2n security. Yet, these constructions can have a tweak size up to n-bit only. As evident from recent research, a tweakable block cipher with a large tweak is generally helpful as a building block for modes of operation, typical applications including MACs, authenticated encryption, leakage-resistant cryptography and full-disk encryption.We begin with how to design a tweakable block cipher with 2n-bit tweak and n-bit security from two block cipher calls. For this purpose, we do an exhaustive search for tweakable block ciphers with 2n-bit tweaks from two block cipher calls, and show that all of them suffer from birthday-bound attacks. Next, we investigate the possibility to design a tweakable block cipher with 2n-bit tweak and n-bit security from three block cipher calls. We start with some conditions to build such a tweakable block cipher and propose a natural construction, called G̃1, that likely meets them. After inspection, we find a weakness in G̃1 which leads to a birthday-bound attack. Based on G̃1, we then propose another construction, called G̃2, that can avoid this weakness. We finally prove that G̃2 can achieve n-bit security with 2n-bit tweak.

2023

TCHES

Protecting Dilithium against Leakage: Revisited Sensitivity Analysis and Improved Implementations
Abstract

CRYSTALS-Dilithium has been selected by the NIST as the new standard for post-quantum digital signatures. In this work, we revisit the side-channel countermeasures of Dilithium in three directions. First, we improve its sensitivity analysis by classifying intermediate computations according to their physical security requirements. Second, we provide improved gadgets dedicated to Dilithium, taking advantage of recent advances in masking conversion algorithms. Third, we combine these contributions and report performance for side-channel protected Dilithium implementations. Our benchmarking results additionally put forward that the randomized version of Dilithium can lead to significantly more efficient implementations (than its deterministic version) when side-channel attacks are a concern.

2023

ASIACRYPT

Forgery Attacks on Several Beyond-Birthday-Bound Secure MACs
Abstract

At CRYPTO'18, Datta et al. proposed nPolyMAC and proved the security up to 2^{2n/3} authentication queries and 2^{n} verification queries. At EUROCRYPT'19, Dutta et al. proposed CWC+ and showed the security up to 2^{2n/3} queries. At FSE'19, Datta et al. proposed
PolyMAC and its key-reduced variant 2k-PolyMAC, and showed the security up to 2^{2n/3} queries. This security bound was then improved by Kim et al. (EUROCRYPT'20) and Datta et al (FSE'23) respectively to 2^{3n/4} and in the multi-user setting. At FSE'20, Chakraborti et al. proposed PDM*MAC and 1k-PDM*MAC and showed the security up to 2^{2n/3} queries. Recently, Chen et al. proposed nEHtM_p^+ and showed the security up to 2^{2n/3} queries. In this paper, we show forgery attacks on nPolyMAC, CWC+, PolyMAC, 2k-PolyMAC, PDM*MAC, 1k-PDM*MAC and nEHtM_p^+. Our attacks exploit some vulnerability in the underlying polynomial hash function, and (i) require only one authentication query and one verification query; (ii) are nonce-respecting; (iii) succeed with probability 1. Thus, our attacks disprove the provable high security claims of these schemes. We then revisit their security analyses and identify what went wrong. Finally, we propose two solutions that can restore the beyond-birthday-bound security.

2022

TCHES

A Finer-Grain Analysis of the Leakage (Non) Resilience of OCB
Abstract

OCB3 is one of the winners of the CAESAR competition and is among the most popular authenticated encryption schemes. In this paper, we put forward a fine-grain study of its security against side-channel attacks. We start from trivial key recoveries in settings where the mode can be attacked with standard Differential Power Analysis (DPA) against some block cipher calls in its execution (namely, initialization, processing of associated data or last incomplete block and decryption). These attacks imply that at least these parts must be strongly protected thanks to countermeasures like masking. We next show that if these block cipher calls of the mode are protected, practical attacks on the remaining block cipher calls remain possible. A first option is to mount a DPA with unknown inputs. A more efficient option is to mount a DPA that exploits horizontal relations between consecutive input whitening values. It allows trading a significantly reduced data complexity for a higher key guessing complexity and turns out to be the best attack vector in practical experiments performed against an implementation of OCB3 in an ARM Cortex-M0. Eventually, we consider an implementation where all the block cipher calls are protected. We first show that exploiting the leakage of the whitening values requires mounting a Simple Power Analysis (SPA) against linear operations. We then show that despite being more challenging than when applied to non-linear operations, such an SPA remains feasible against 8-bit implementations, leaving its generalization to larger implementations as an interesting open problem. We last describe how recovering the whitening values can lead to strong attacks against the confidentiality and integrity of OCB3. Thanks to this comprehensive analysis, we draw concrete requirements for side-channel resistant implementations of OCB3.

2022

TCHES

Bitslice Masking and Improved Shuffling:: How and When to Mix Them in Software?
Abstract

We revisit the popular adage that side-channel countermeasures must be combined to be efficient, and study its application to bitslice masking and shuffling. Our main contributions are twofold. First, we improve this combination: by shuffling the shares of a masked implementation rather than its tuples, we can amplify the impact of the shuffling exponentially in the number of shares, while this impact was independent of the masking security order in previous works. Second, we evaluate the masking and shuffling combination’s performance vs. security tradeoff under sufficient noise conditions: we show that the best approach is to mask first (i.e., fill the registers with as many shares as possible) and shuffle the independent operations that remain. We conclude that with moderate but sufficient noise, the “bitslice masking + shuffling” combination of countermeasures is practically relevant, and its interest increases when randomness is expensive and many independent operations are available for shuffling. When these conditions are not met, masking only is the best option. As additional side results, we improve the best known attack against the shuffling countermeasure from ASIACRYPT 2012. We also recall that algorithmic countermeasures like masking and shuffling, and therefore their combination, cannot be implemented securely without a minimum level of physical noise.

2022

TCHES

When Bad News Become Good News: Towards Usable Instances of Learning with Physical Errors
Abstract

Hard physical learning problems have been introduced as an alternative option to implement cryptosystems based on hard learning problems. Their high-level idea is to use inexact computing to generate erroneous computations directly, rather than to first compute correctly and add errors afterwards. Previous works focused on the applicability of this idea to the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problem as a first step, and formalized it as Learning Parity with Physical Noise (LPPN). In this work, we generalize it to the Learning With Errors (LWE) problem, formalized as Learning With Physical Errors (LWPE). We first show that the direct application of the design ideas used for LPPN prototypes leads to a new source of (mathematical) data dependencies in the error distributions that can reduce the security of the underlying problem. We then show that design tweaks can be used to avoid this issue, making LWPE samples natively robust against such data dependencies. We additionally put forward that these ideas open a quite wide design space that could make hard physical learning problems relevant in various applications. And we conclude by presenting a first prototype FPGA design confirming our claims.

2022

TCHES

Triplex: an Efficient and One-Pass Leakage-Resistant Mode of Operation
Abstract

This paper introduces and analyzes Triplex, a leakage-resistant mode of operation based on Tweakable Block Ciphers (TBCs) with 2n-bit tweaks. Triplex enjoys beyond-birthday ciphertext integrity in the presence of encryption and decryption leakage in a liberal model where all intermediate computations are leaked in full and only two TBC calls operating a long-term secret are protected with implementationlevel countermeasures. It provides beyond-birthday confidentiality guarantees without leakage, and standard confidentiality guarantees with leakage for a single-pass mode embedding a re-keying process for the bulk of its computations (i.e., birthday confidentiality with encryption leakage under a bounded leakage assumption). Triplex improves leakage-resistant modes of operation relying on TBCs with n-bit tweaks when instantiated with large-tweak TBCs like Deoxys-TBC (a CAESAR competition laureate) or Skinny (used by the Romulus finalist of the NIST lightweight crypto competition). Its security guarantees are maintained in the multi-user setting.

2022

ASIACRYPT

A Third is All You Need: Extended Partial Key Exposure Attack on CRT-RSA with Additive Exponent Blinding
📺
Abstract

At Eurocrypt 2022, May et al. proposed a partial key exposure (PKE) attack on CRT-RSA that efficiently factors $N$ knowing only a $\frac{1}{3}$-fraction of either most significant bits (MSBs) or least significant bits (LSBs) of private exponents $d_p$ and $d_q$ for public exponent $e \approx N^{\frac{1}{12}}$. In practice, PKE attacks typically rely on the side-channel leakage of these exponents, while a side-channel resistant implementation of CRT-RSA often uses additively blinded exponents $d^{\prime}_p = d_p + r_p(p-1)$ and $d^{\prime}_q = d_q + r_q(q-1)$ with unknown random blinding factors $r_p$ and $r_q$, which makes PKE attacks more challenging.
Motivated by the above, we extend the PKE attack of May et al. to CRT-RSA with additive exponent blinding. While admitting $r_pe\in(0,N^{\frac{1}{4}})$, our extended PKE works ideally when $r_pe \approx N^{\frac{1}{12}}$, in which case the entire private key can be recovered using only $\frac{1}{3}$ known MSBs or LSBs of the blinded CRT exponents $d^{\prime}_p$ and $d^{\prime}_q$. Our extended PKE follows their novel two-step approach to first compute the key-dependent constant $k^{\prime}$ ($ed^{\prime}_p = 1 + k^{\prime}(p-1)$, $ed^{\prime}_q = 1 + l^{\prime}(q-1)$), and then to factor $N$ by computing the root of a univariate polynomial modulo $k^{\prime}p$.
We extend their approach as follows. For the MSB case, we propose two options for the first step of the attack, either by obtaining a single estimate $k^{\prime}l^{\prime}$ and calculating $k^{\prime}$ via factoring, or by obtaining multiple estimates $k^{\prime}l^{\prime}_1,\ldots,k^{\prime}l^{\prime}_z$ and calculating $k^{\prime}$ probabilistically via GCD.
For the LSB case, we extend their approach by constructing a different univariate polynomial in the second step of the LSB attack. A formal analysis shows that our LSB attack runs in polynomial time under the standard Coppersmith-type assumption, while our MSB attack either runs in sub-exponential time with a reduced input size (the problem is reduced to factor a number of size $e^2r_pr_q\approx N^{\frac{1}{6}}$) or in probabilistic polynomial time under a novel heuristic assumption. Under the settings of the most common key sizes (1024-bit, 2048-bit, and 3072-bit) and blinding factor lengths (32-bit, 64-bit, and 128-bit), our experiments verify the validity of the Coppersmith-type assumption and our own assumption, as well as the feasibility of the factoring step.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first PKE on CRT-RSA with experimentally verified effectiveness against 128-bit unknown exponent blinding factors. We also demonstrate an application of the proposed PKE attack using real partial side-channel key leakage targeting a Montgomery Ladder exponentiation CRT implementation.

2022

ASIACRYPT

Towards Case-Optimized Hybrid Homomorphic Encryption -Featuring the Elisabeth Stream Cipher-
📺
Abstract

Hybrid Homomorphic Encryption (HHE) reduces the amount of computation client-side and bandwidth usage in a Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) framework. HHE requires the usage of specific symmetric schemes that can be evaluated homomorphically efficiently. In this paper, we introduce the paradigm of Group Filter Permutator (GFP) as a generalization of the Improved Filter Permutator paradigm introduced by M ́eaux et al. From this paradigm, we specify Elisabeth , a family of stream cipher and give an instance: Elisabeth-4. After proving the security of this scheme, we provide a Rust implementation of it and ensure its performance is comparable to state-of-the-art HHE. The true strength of Elisabeth lies in the available operations server-side: while the best HHE applications were limited to a few multiplications server-side, we used data sent through Elisabeth-4 to homomorphically evaluate a neural network inference. Finally, we discuss the improvement and loss between the HHE and the FHE framework and give ideas to build more efficient schemes from the Elisabeth family.

2022

TCHES

Don’t Learn What You Already Know: Scheme-Aware Modeling for Profiling Side-Channel Analysis against Masking
Abstract

Over the past few years, deep-learning-based attacks have emerged as a de facto standard, thanks to their ability to break implementations of cryptographic primitives without pre-processing, even against widely used counter-measures such as hiding and masking. However, the recent works of Bronchain and Standaert at Tches 2020 questioned the soundness of such tools if used in an uninformed setting to evaluate implementations protected with higher-order masking. On the opposite, worst-case evaluations may be seen as possibly far from what a real-world adversary could do, thereby leading to too conservative security bounds. In this paper, we propose a new threat model that we name scheme-aware benefiting from a trade-off between uninformed and worst-case models. Our scheme-aware model is closer to a real-world adversary, in the sense that it does not need to have access to the random nonces used by masking during the profiling phase like in a worst-case model, while it does not need to learn the masking scheme as implicitly done by an uninformed adversary. We show how to combine the power of deep learning with the prior knowledge of scheme-aware modeling. As a result, we show on simulations and experiments on public datasets how it sometimes allows to reduce by an order of magnitude the profiling complexity, i.e., the number of profiling traces needed to satisfyingly train a model, compared to a fully uninformed adversary.

2022

TCHES

MCRank: Monte Carlo Key Rank Estimation for Side-Channel Security Evaluations
Abstract

Key rank estimation provides a measure of the effort that the attacker has to spend bruteforcing the key of a cryptographic algorithm, after having gained some information from a side channel attack. We present MCRank, a novel method for key rank estimation based on Monte Carlo sampling. MCRank provides an unbiased estimate of the rank and a confidence interval. Its bounds rapidly become tight for increasing sample size, with a corresponding linear increase of the execution time. When applied to evaluate an AES-128 implementation, MCRank can be orders of magnitude faster than the state-of-the-art histogram-based enumeration method for comparable bound tightness. It also scales better than previous work for large keys, up to 2048 bytes. Besides its conceptual simplicity and efficiency, MCRank can assess for the first time the security of large keys even if the probability distributions given the side channel leakage are not independent between subkeys, which occurs, for example, when evaluating the leakage security of an AES-256 implementation.

2021

TCHES

Provably Secure Hardware Masking in the Transition- and Glitch-Robust Probing Model: Better Safe than Sorry
📺
Abstract

There exists many masking schemes to protect implementations of cryptographic operations against side-channel attacks. It is common practice to analyze the security of these schemes in the probing model, or its variant which takes into account physical effects such as glitches and transitions. Although both effects exist in practice and cause leakage, masking schemes implemented in hardware are often only analyzed for security against glitches. In this work, we fill this gap by proving sufficient conditions for the security of hardware masking schemes against transitions, leading to the design of new masking schemes and a proof of security for an existing masking scheme in presence of transitions. Furthermore, we give similar results in the stronger model where the effects of glitches and transitions are combined.

2021

TOSC

MOE: Multiplication Operated Encryption with Trojan Resilience
📺
Abstract

In order to lower costs, the fabrication of Integrated Circuits (ICs) is increasingly delegated to offshore contract foundries, making them exposed to malicious modifications, known as hardware Trojans. Recent works have demonstrated that a strong form of Trojan-resilience can be obtained from untrusted chips by exploiting secret sharing and Multi-Party Computation (MPC), yet with significant cost overheads. In this paper, we study the possibility of building a symmetric cipher enabling similar guarantees in a more efficient manner. To reach this goal, we exploit a simple round structure mixing a modular multiplication and a multiplication with a binary matrix. Besides being motivated as a new block cipher design for Trojan resilience, our research also exposes the cryptographic properties of the modular multiplication, which is of independent interest.

2021

TOSC

Provable Security of SP Networks with Partial Non-Linear Layers
📺
Abstract

Motivated by the recent trend towards low multiplicative complexity blockciphers (e.g., Zorro, CHES 2013; LowMC, EUROCRYPT 2015; HADES, EUROCRYPT 2020; MALICIOUS, CRYPTO 2020), we study their underlying structure partial SPNs, i.e., Substitution-Permutation Networks (SPNs) with parts of the substitution layer replaced by an identity mapping, and put forward the first provable security analysis for such partial SPNs built upon dedicated linear layers. For different instances of partial SPNs using MDS linear layers, we establish strong pseudorandom security as well as practical provable security against impossible differential attacks. By extending the well-established MDS code-based idea, we also propose the first principled design of linear layers that ensures optimal differential propagation. Our results formally confirm the conjecture that partial SPNs achieve the same security as normal SPNs while consuming less non-linearity, in a well-established framework.

2021

CRYPTO

Towards Tight Random Probing Security
📺
Abstract

Proving the security of masked implementations in theoretical models that are relevant to practice and match the best known attacks of the side-channel literature is a notoriously hard problem. The random probing model is a good candidate to contribute to this challenge, due to its ability to capture the continuous nature of physical leakage (contrary to the threshold probing model), while also being convenient to manipulate in proofs and to automate with verification tools. Yet, despite recent progresses in the design of masked circuits with good asymptotic security guarantees in this model, existing results still fall short when it comes to analyze the security of concretely useful circuits under realistic noise levels and with low number of shares. In this paper, we contribute to this issue by introducing a new composability notion, the Probe Distribution Table (PDT), and a new tool (called STRAPS, for the Sampled Testing of the RAndom Probing Security). Their combination allows us to significantly improve the tightness of existing analyses in the most practical (low noise, low number of shares) region of the design space. We illustrate these improvements by quantifying the random probing security of an AES S-box circuit, masked with the popular multiplication gadget of Ishai, Sahai and Wagner from Crypto 2003, with up to six shares.

2021

TCHES

Breaking Masked Implementations with Many Shares on 32-bit Software Platforms: or When the Security Order Does Not Matter
📺
Abstract

We explore the concrete side-channel security provided by state-of-theart higher-order masked software implementations of the AES and the (candidate to the NIST Lightweight Cryptography competition) Clyde, in ARM Cortex-M0 and M3 devices. Rather than looking for possibly reduced security orders (as frequently considered in the literature), we directly target these implementations by assuming their maximum security order and aim at reducing their noise level thanks to multivariate, horizontal and analytical attacks. Our investigations point out that the Cortex-M0 device has so limited physical noise that masking is close to ineffective. The Cortex-M3 shows a better trend but still requires a large number of shares to provide strong security guarantees. Practically, we first exhibit a full 128-bit key recovery in less than 10 traces for a 6-share masked AES implementation running on the Cortex-M0 requiring 232 enumeration power. A similar attack performed against the Cortex-M3 with 5 shares require 1,000 measurements with 244 enumeration power. We then show the positive impact of lightweight block ciphers with limited number of AND gates for side-channel security, and compare our attacks against a masked Clyde with the best reported attacks of the CHES 2020 CTF. We complement these experiments with a careful information theoretic analysis, which allows interpreting our results. We also discuss our conclusions under the umbrella of “backwards security evaluations” recently put forwards by Azouaoui et al. We finally extrapolate the evolution of the proposed attack complexities in the presence of additional countermeasures using the local random probing model proposed at CHES 2020.

2021

TCHES

Learning Parity with Physical Noise: Imperfections, Reductions and FPGA Prototype
📺
Abstract

Hard learning problems are important building blocks for the design of various cryptographic functionalities such as authentication protocols and post-quantum public key encryption. The standard implementations of such schemes add some controlled errors to simple (e.g., inner product) computations involving a public challenge and a secret key. Hard physical learning problems formalize the potential gains that could be obtained by leveraging inexact computing to directly generate erroneous samples. While they have good potential for improving the performances and physical security of more conventional samplers when implemented in specialized integrated circuits, it remains unknown whether physical defaults that inevitably occur in their instantiation can lead to security losses, nor whether their implementation can be viable on standard platforms such as FPGAs. We contribute to these questions in the context of the Learning Parity with Physical Noise (LPPN) problem by: (1) exhibiting new (output) data dependencies of the error probabilities that LPPN samples may suffer from; (2) formally showing that LPPN instances with such dependencies are as hard as the standard LPN problem; (3) analyzing an FPGA prototype of LPPN processor that satisfies basic security and performance requirements.

2021

TCHES

Improved Leakage-Resistant Authenticated Encryption based on Hardware AES Coprocessors
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Abstract

We revisit Unterstein et al.’s leakage-resilient authenticated encryption scheme from CHES 2020. Its main goal is to enable secure software updates by leveraging unprotected (e.g., AES, SHA256) coprocessors available on low-end microcontrollers. We show that the design of this scheme ignores an important attack vector that can significantly reduce its security claims, and that the evaluation of its leakage-resilient PRF is quite sensitive to minor variations of its measurements, which can easily lead to security overstatements. We then describe and analyze a new mode of operation for which we propose more conservative security parameters and show that it competes with the CHES 2020 one in terms of performances. As an additional bonus, our solution relies only on AES-128 coprocessors, an

2021

ASIACRYPT

Efficient Leakage-Resilient MACs without Idealized Assumptions
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Abstract

The security proofs of leakage-resilient MACs based on symmetric building blocks currently rely on idealized assumptions that hardly translate into interpretable guidelines for the cryptographic engineers implementing these schemes. In this paper, we first present a leakage-resilient MAC that is both efficient and secure under standard and easily interpretable black box and physical assumptions. It only requires a collision resistant hash function and a single call per message authentication to a Tweakable Block Cipher (TBC) that is unpredictable with leakage. This construction leverages two design twists: large tweaks for the TBC and a verification process that checks the inverse TBC against a constant. It enjoys beyond birthday security bounds. We then discuss the cost of getting rid of these design twists. We show that security can be proven without them as well. Yet, a construction without large tweaks requires stronger (non idealized) assumptions and inevitably incurs performance overheads if specialized TBCs can be exploited, and a construction without twisted verification requires even stronger assumptions (still non idealized) and leads to more involved bounds. The combination of these results makes a case for our first pragmatic construction and suggests the design of TBCs with large tweaks and good properties for side-channel countermeasures as an interesting challenge.

2020

TOSC

Efficient Side-Channel Secure Message Authentication with Better Bounds
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Abstract

We investigate constructing message authentication schemes from symmetric cryptographic primitives, with the goal of achieving security when most intermediate values during tag computation and verification are leaked (i.e., mode-level leakage-resilience). Existing efficient proposals typically follow the plain Hash-then-MAC paradigm T = TGenK(H(M)). When the domain of the MAC function TGenK is {0, 1}128, e.g., when instantiated with the AES, forgery is possible within time 264 and data complexity 1. To dismiss such cheap attacks, we propose two modes: LRW1-based Hash-then-MAC (LRWHM) that is built upon the LRW1 tweakable blockcipher of Liskov, Rivest, and Wagner, and Rekeying Hash-then-MAC (RHM) that employs internal rekeying. Built upon secure AES implementations, LRWHM is provably secure up to (beyond-birthday) 278.3 time complexity, while RHM is provably secure up to 2121 time. Thus in practice, their main security threat is expected to be side-channel key recovery attacks against the AES implementations. Finally, we benchmark the performance of instances of our modes based on the AES and SHA3 and confirm their efficiency.

2020

TCHES

Side-Channel Countermeasures’ Dissection and the Limits of Closed Source Security Evaluations
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Abstract

We take advantage of a recently published open source implementation of the AES protected with a mix of countermeasures against side-channel attacks to discuss both the challenges in protecting COTS devices against such attacks and the limitations of closed source security evaluations. The target implementation has been proposed by the French ANSSI (Agence Nationale de la Sécurité des Systèmes d’Information) to stimulate research on the design and evaluation of side-channel secure implementations. It combines additive and multiplicative secret sharings into an affine masking scheme that is additionally mixed with a shuffled execution. Its preliminary leakage assessment did not detect data dependencies with up to 100,000 measurements. We first exhibit the gap between such a preliminary leakage assessment and advanced attacks by demonstrating how a countermeasures’ dissection exploiting a mix of dimensionality reduction, multivariate information extraction and key enumeration can recover the full key with less than 2,000 measurements. We then discuss the relevance of open source evaluations to analyze such implementations efficiently, by pointing out that certain steps of the attack are hard to automate without implementation knowledge (even with machine learning tools), while performing them manually is straightforward. Our findings are not due to design flaws but from the general difficulty to prevent side-channel attacks in COTS devices with limited noise. We anticipate that high security on such devices requires significantly more shares.

2020

TCHES

Efficient and Private Computations with Code-Based Masking
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Abstract

Code-based masking is a very general type of masking scheme that covers Boolean masking, inner product masking, direct sum masking, and so on. The merits of the generalization are twofold. Firstly, the higher algebraic complexity of the sharing function decreases the information leakage in “low noise conditions” and may increase the “statistical security order” of an implementation (with linear leakages). Secondly, the underlying error-correction codes can offer improved fault resistance for the encoded variables. Nevertheless, this higher algebraic complexity also implies additional challenges. On the one hand, a generic multiplication algorithm applicable to any linear code is still unknown. On the other hand, masking schemes with higher algebraic complexity usually come with implementation overheads, as for example witnessed by inner-product masking. In this paper, we contribute to these challenges in two directions. Firstly, we propose a generic algorithm that allows us (to the best of our knowledge for the first time) to compute on data shared with linear codes. Secondly, we introduce a new amortization technique that can significantly mitigate the implementation overheads of code-based masking, and illustrate this claim with a case study. Precisely, we show that, although performing every single code-based masked operation is relatively complex, processing multiple secrets in parallel leads to much better performances. This property enables code-based masked implementations of the AES to compete with the state-of-the-art in randomness complexity. Since our masked operations can be instantiated with various linear codes, we hope that these investigations open new avenues for the study of code-based masking schemes, by specializing the codes for improved performances, better side-channel security or improved fault tolerance.

2020

TOSC

Towards Low-Energy Leakage-Resistant Authenticated Encryption from the Duplex Sponge Construction
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Abstract

The ongoing NIST lightweight cryptography standardization process highlights the importance of resistance to side-channel attacks, which has renewed the interest for Authenticated Encryption schemes (AEs) with light(er)-weight sidechannel secure implementations. To address this challenge, our first contribution is to investigate the leakage-resistance of a generic duplex-based stream cipher. When the capacity of the duplex is of c bits, we prove the classical bound, i.e., ≈ 2c/2, under an assumption of non-invertible leakage. Based on this, we propose a new 1-pass AE mode TETSponge, which carefully combines a tweakable block cipher that must have strong protections against side-channel attacks and is scarcely used, and a duplex-style permutation that only needs weak side-channel protections and is used to frugally process the message and associated data. It offers: (i) provable integrity (resp. confidentiality) guarantees in the presence of leakage during both encryption and decryption (resp. encryption only), (ii) some level of nonce misuse robustness. We conclude that TETSponge is an appealing option for the implementation of low-energy AE in settings where side-channel attacks are a concern. We also provides the first rigorous methodology for the leakage-resistance of sponge/duplex-based AEs based on a minimal non-invertibility assumption on leakages, which leads to various insights on designs and implementations.

2020

TOSC

Low AND Depth and Efficient Inverses: a Guide on S-boxes for Low-latency Masking
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Abstract

In this work, we perform an extensive investigation and construct a portfolio of S-boxes suitable for secure lightweight implementations, which aligns well with the ongoing NIST Lightweight Cryptography competition. In particular, we target good functional properties on the one hand and efficient implementations in terms of AND depth and AND gate complexity on the other. Moreover, we also consider the implementation of the inverse S-box and the possibility for it to share resources with the forward S-box. We take our exploration beyond the conventional small (and even) S-box sizes. Our investigation is twofold: (1) we note that implementations of existing S-boxes are not optimized for the criteria which define masking complexity (AND depth and AND gate complexity) and improve a tool published at FSE 2016 by Stoffelen in order to fill this gap. (2) We search for new S-box designs which take these implementation properties into account from the start. We perform a systematic search based on the properties of not only the S-box but also its inverse as well as an exploration of larger S-box sizes using length-doubling structures. The result of our investigation is not only a wide selection of very good S-boxes, but we also provide complete descriptions of their circuits, enabling their integration into future work.

2020

TCHES

Understanding Screaming Channels: From a Detailed Analysis to Improved Attacks
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Abstract

Recently, some wireless devices have been found vulnerable to a novel class of side-channel attacks, called Screaming Channels. These leaks might appear if the sensitive leaks from the processor are unintentionally broadcast by a radio transmitter placed on the same chip. Previous work focuses on identifying the root causes, and on mounting an attack at a distance considerably larger than the one achievable with conventional electromagnetic side channels, which was demonstrated in the low-noise environment of an anechoic chamber. However, a detailed understanding of the leak, attacks that take full advantage of the novel vector, and security evaluations in more practical scenarios are still missing. In this paper, we conduct a thorough experimental analysis of the peculiar properties of Screaming Channels. For example, we learn about the coexistence of intended and unintended data, the role of distance and other parameters on the strength of the leak, the distortion of the leakmodel, and the portability of the profiles. With such insights, we build better attacks. We profile a device connected via cable with 10000·500 traces. Then, 5 months later, we attack a different instance at 15m in an office environment. We recover the AES-128 key with 5000·1000 traces and key enumeration up to 223. Leveraging spatial diversity, we mount some attacks in the presence of obstacles. As a first example of application to a real system, we show a proof-of-concept attack against the authentication method of Google Eddystone beacons. On the one side, this work lowers the bar for more realistic attacks, highlighting the importance of the novel attack vector. On the other side, it provides a broader security evaluation of the leaks, helping the defender and radio designers to evaluate risk, and the need of countermeasures.

2020

TOSC

Spook: Sponge-Based Leakage-Resistant Authenticated Encryption with a Masked Tweakable Block Cipher
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Abstract

This paper defines Spook: a sponge-based authenticated encryption with associated data algorithm. It is primarily designed to provide security against side-channel attacks at a low energy cost. For this purpose, Spook is mixing a leakageresistant mode of operation with bitslice ciphers enabling efficient and low latency implementations. The leakage-resistant mode of operation leverages a re-keying function to prevent differential side-channel analysis, a duplex sponge construction to efficiently process the data, and a tag verification based on a Tweakable Block Cipher (TBC) providing strong data integrity guarantees in the presence of leakages. The underlying bitslice ciphers are optimized for the masking countermeasures against side-channel attacks. Spook is an efficient single-pass algorithm. It ensures state-of-the-art black box security with several prominent features: (i) nonce misuse-resilience, (ii) beyond-birthday security with respect to the TBC block size, and (iii) multiuser security at minimum cost with a public tweak. Besides the specifications and design rationale, we provide first software and hardware implementation results of (unprotected) Spook which confirm the limited overheads that the use of two primitives sharing internal components imply. We also show that the integrity of Spook with leakage, so far analyzed with unbounded leakages for the duplex sponge and a strongly protected TBC modeled as leak-free, can be proven with a much weaker unpredictability assumption for the TBC. We finally discuss external cryptanalysis results and tweaks to improve both the security margins and efficiency of Spook.

2020

CRYPTO

Mode-Level vs. Implementation-Level Physical Security in Symmetric Cryptography: A Practical Guide Through the Leakage-Resistance Jungle
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Abstract

Triggered by the increasing deployment of embedded cryptographic devices (e.g., for the IoT), the design of authentication, encryption and authenticated encryption schemes enabling improved security against side-channel attacks has become an important research direction. Over the last decade, a number of modes of operation have been proposed and analyzed under different abstractions. In this paper, we investigate the practical consequences of these findings. For this purpose, we first translate the physical assumptions of leakage-resistance proofs into minimum security requirements for implementers. Thanks to this (heuristic) translation, we observe that (i) security against physical attacks can be viewed as a tradeoff between mode-level and implementation-level protection mechanisms, and (i}) security requirements to guarantee confidentiality and integrity in front of leakage can be concretely different for the different parts of an implementation. We illustrate the first point by analyzing several modes of operation with gradually increased leakage-resistance. We illustrate the second point by exhibiting leveled implementations, where different parts of the investigated schemes have different security requirements against leakage, leading to performance improvements when high physical security is needed. We finally initiate a comparative discussion of the different solutions to instantiate the components of a leakage-resistant authenticated encryption scheme.

2020

TCHES

Modeling Soft Analytical Side-Channel Attacks from a Coding Theory Viewpoint
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Abstract

One important open question in side-channel analysis is to find out whether all the leakage samples in an implementation can be exploited by an adversary, as suggested by masking security proofs. For attacks exploiting a divide-and-conquer strategy, the answer is negative: only the leakages corresponding to the first/last rounds of a block cipher can be exploited. Soft Analytical Side-Channel Attacks (SASCA) have been introduced as a powerful solution to mitigate this limitation. They represent the target implementation and its leakages as a code (similar to a Low Density Parity Check code) that is decoded thanks to belief propagation. Previous works have shown the low data complexities that SASCA can reach in practice. In this paper, we revisit these attacks by modeling them with a variation of the Random Probing Model used in masking security proofs, that we denote as the Local Random Probing Model (LRPM). Our study establishes interesting connections between this model and the erasure channel used in coding theory, leading to the following benefits. First, the LRPM allows bounding the security of concrete implementations against SASCA in a fast and intuitive manner. We use it in order to confirm that the leakage of any operation in a block cipher can be exploited, although the leakages of external operations dominate in known-plaintext/ciphertext attack scenarios. Second, we show that the LRPM is a tool of choice for the (nearly worst-case) analysis of masked implementations in the noisy leakage model, taking advantage of all the operations performed, and leading to new tradeoffs between their amount of randomness and physical noise level. Third, we show that it can considerably speed up the evaluation of other countermeasures such as shuffling.

2020

ASIACRYPT

Packed Multiplication: How to Amortize the Cost of Side-channel Masking?
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Abstract

Higher-order masking countermeasures provide strong provable security against side-channel attacks at the cost of incurring significant overheads, which largely hinders its applicability. Previous works towards remedying cost mostly concentrated on ``local'' calculations, i.e., optimizing the cost of computation units such as a single AND gate or a field multiplication. This paper explores a complementary ``global'' approach, i.e., considering multiple operations in the masked domain as a batch and reducing randomness and computational cost via amortization. In particular, we focus on the amortization of $\ell$ parallel field multiplications for appropriate integer $\ell > 1$, and design a kit named {\it packed multiplication} for implementing such a batch.
Higher-order masking countermeasures provide strong provable security against side-channel attacks at the cost of incurring significant overheads, which largely hinders its applicability. Previous works towards remedying cost mostly concentrated on ``local'' calculations, i.e., optimizing the cost of computation units such as a single AND gate or a field multiplication. This paper explores a complementary ``global'' approach, i.e., considering multiple operations in the masked domain as a batch and reducing randomness and computational cost via amortization.
In particular, we focus on the amortization of $\ell$ parallel field multiplications for appropriate integer $\ell > 1$, and design a kit named {\it packed multiplication} for implementing such a batch.
For $\ell+d\leq2^m$, when $\ell$ parallel multiplications over $\mathbb{F}_{2^{m}}$ with $d$-th order probing security are implemented, packed multiplication consumes $d^2+2\ell d + \ell$ bilinear multiplications and $2d^2 + d(d+1)/2$ random field variables, outperforming the state-of-the-art results with $O(\ell d^2)$ multiplications and $\ell \left \lfloor d^2/4\right \rfloor + \ell d$ randomness. To prove $d$-probing security for packed multiplications, we introduce some weaker security notions for multiple-inputs-multiple-outputs gadgets and use them as intermediate steps, which may be of independent interest.
As parallel field multiplications exist almost everywhere in symmetric cryptography, lifting optimizations from ``local'' to ``global'' substantially enlarges the space of improvements. To demonstrate, we showcase the method on the AES Subbytes step, GCM and TET (a popular disk encryption). Notably, when $d=8$, our implementation of AES Subbytes in ARM Cortex M architecture achieves a gain of up to $33\%$ in total speeds and saves up to $68\%$ random bits than the state-of-the-art bitsliced implementation reported at ASIACRYPT~2018.

2020

TCHES

Exploring Crypto-Physical Dark Matter and Learning with Physical Rounding: Towards Secure and Efficient Fresh Re-Keying
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Abstract

State-of-the-art re-keying schemes can be viewed as a tradeoff between efficient but heuristic solutions based on binary field multiplications, that are only secure if implemented with a sufficient amount of noise, and formal but more expensive solutions based on weak pseudorandom functions, that remain secure if the adversary accesses their output in full. Recent results on “crypto dark matter” (TCC 2018) suggest that low-complexity pseudorandom functions can be obtained by mixing linear functions over different small moduli. In this paper, we conjecture that by mixing some matrix multiplications in a prime field with a physical mapping similar to the leakage functions exploited in side-channel analysis, we can build efficient re-keying schemes based on “crypto-physical dark matter”, that remain secure against an adversary who can access noise-free measurements. We provide first analyzes of the security and implementation properties that such schemes provide. Precisely, we first show that they are more secure than the initial (heuristic) proposal by Medwed et al. (AFRICACRYPT 2010). For example, they can resist attacks put forward by Belaid et al. (ASIACRYPT 2014), satisfy some relevant cryptographic properties and can be connected to a “Learning with Physical Rounding” problem that shares some similarities with standard learning problems. We next show that they are significantly more efficient than the weak pseudorandom function proposed by Dziembowski et al. (CRYPTO 2016), by exhibiting hardware implementation results.

2019

TCHES

Towards Globally Optimized Masking: From Low Randomness to Low Noise Rate
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Abstract

We improve the state-of-the-art masking schemes in two important directions. First, we propose a new masked multiplication algorithm that satisfies a recently introduced notion called Probe-Isolating Non-Interference (PINI). It captures a sufficient requirement for designing masked implementations in a trivial way, by combining PINI multiplications and linear operations performed share by share. Our improved algorithm has the best reported randomness complexity for large security orders (while the previous PINI multiplication was best for small orders). Second, we analyze the security of most existing multiplication algorithms in the literature against so-called horizontal attacks, which aim to reduce the noise of the actual leakages measured by an adversary, by combining the information of multiple target intermediate values. For this purpose, we leave the (abstract) probing model and consider a specialization of the (more realistic) noisy leakage / random probing models. Our (still partially heuristic but quantitative) analysis allows confirming the improved security of an algorithm by Battistello et al. from CHES 2016 in this setting. We then use it to propose new improved algorithms, leading to better tradeoffs between randomness complexity and noise rate, and suggesting the possibility to design efficient masked multiplication algorithms with constant noise rate in F2.

2019

TCHES

Glitch-Resistant Masking Revisited
📺 ★
Abstract

Implementing the masking countermeasure in hardware is a delicate task. Various solutions have been proposed for this purpose over the last years: we focus on Threshold Implementations (TIs), Domain-Oriented Masking (DOM), the Unified Masking Approach (UMA) and Generic Low Latency Masking (GLM). The latter generally come with innovative ideas to cope with physical defaults such as glitches. Yet, and in contrast to the situation in software-oriented masking, these schemes have not been formally proven at arbitrary security orders and their composability properties were left unclear. So far, only a 2-cycle implementation of the seminal masking scheme by Ishai, Sahai and Wagner has been shown secure and composable in the robust probing model – a variation of the probing model aimed to capture physical defaults such as glitches – for any number of shares.In this paper, we argue that this lack of proofs for TIs, DOM, UMA and GLM makes the interpretation of their security guarantees difficult as the number of shares increases. For this purpose, we first put forward that the higher-order variants of all these schemes are affected by (local or composability) security flaws in the (robust) probing model, due to insufficient refreshing. We then show that composability and robustness against glitches cannot be analyzed independently. We finally detail how these abstract flaws translate into concrete (experimental) attacks, and discuss the additional constraints robust probing security implies on the need of registers. Despite not systematically leading to improved complexities at low security orders, e.g., with respect to the required number of measurements for a successful attack, we argue that these weaknesses provide a case for the need of security proofs in the robust probing model (or a similar abstraction) at higher security orders.

2019

TCHES

Reducing a Masked Implementation’s Effective Security Order with Setup Manipulations
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Abstract

Couplings are a type of physical default that can violate the independence assumption needed for the secure implementation of the masking countermeasure. Two recent works by De Cnudde et al. put forward qualitatively that couplings can cause information leakages of lower order than theoretically expected. However, the (quantitative) amplitude of these lower-order leakages (e.g., measured as the amplitude of a detection metric such as Welch’s T statistic) was usually lower than the one of the (theoretically expected) dth order leakages. So the actual security level of these implementations remained unaffected. In addition, in order to make the couplings visible, the authors sometimes needed to amplify them internally (e.g., by tweaking the placement and routing or iterating linear operations on the shares). In this paper, we first show that the amplitude of low-order leakages in masked implementations can be amplified externally, by tweaking side-channel measurement setups in a way that is under control of a power analysis adversary. Our experiments put forward that the “effective security order” of both hardware (FPGA) and software (ARM-32) implementations can be reduced, leading to concrete reductions of their security level. For this purpose, we move from the detection-based analyzes of previous works to attack-based evaluations, allowing to confirm the exploitability of the lower-order leakages that we amplify. We also provide a tentative explanation for these effects based on couplings, and describe a model that can be used to predict them in function of the measurement setup’s external resistor and implementation’s supply voltage. We posit that the effective security orders observed are mainly due to “externally-amplified couplings” that can be systematically exploited by actual adversaries.

2019

TCHES

Multi-Tuple Leakage Detection and the Dependent Signal Issue
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Abstract

Leakage detection is a common tool to quickly assess the security of a cryptographic implementation against side-channel attacks. The Test Vector Leakage Assessment (TVLA) methodology using Welch’s t-test, proposed by Cryptography Research, is currently the most popular example of such tools, thanks to its simplicity and good detection speed compared to attack-based evaluations. However, as any statistical test, it is based on certain assumptions about the processed samples and its detection performances strongly depend on parameters like the measurement’s Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), their degree of dependency, and their density, i.e., the ratio between the amount of informative and non-informative points in the traces. In this paper, we argue that the correct interpretation of leakage detection results requires knowledge of these parameters which are a priori unknown to the evaluator, and, therefore, poses a non-trivial challenge to evaluators (especially if restricted to only one test). For this purpose, we first explore the concept of multi-tuple detection, which is able to exploit differences between multiple informative points of a trace more effectively than tests relying on the minimum p-value of concurrent univariate tests. To this end, we map the common Hotelling’s T2-test to the leakage detection setting and, further, propose a specialized instantiation of it which trades computational overheads for a dependency assumption. Our experiments show that there is not one test that is the optimal choice for every leakage scenario. Second, we highlight the importance of the assumption that the samples at each point in time are independent, which is frequently considered in leakage detection, e.g., with Welch’s t-test. Using simulated and practical experiments, we show that (i) this assumption is often violated in practice, and (ii) deviations from it can affect the detection performances, making the correct interpretation of the results more difficult. Finally, we consolidate our findings by providing guidelines on how to use a combination of established and newly-proposed leakage detection tools to infer the measurements parameters. This enables a better interpretation of the tests’ results than the current state-of-the-art (yet still relying on heuristics for the most challenging evaluation scenarios).

2019

CRYPTO

Leakage Certification Revisited: Bounding Model Errors in Side-Channel Security Evaluations
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Abstract

Leakage certification aims at guaranteeing that the statistical models used in side-channel security evaluations are close to the true statistical distribution of the leakages, hence can be used to approximate a worst-case security level. Previous works in this direction were only qualitative: for a given amount of measurements available to an evaluation laboratory, they rated a model as “good enough” if the model assumption errors (i.e., the errors due to an incorrect choice of model family) were small with respect to the model estimation errors. We revisit this problem by providing the first quantitative tools for leakage certification. For this purpose, we provide bounds for the (unknown) Mutual Information metric that corresponds to the true statistical distribution of the leakages based on two easy-to-compute information theoretic quantities: the Perceived Information, which is the amount of information that can be extracted from a leaking device thanks to an estimated statistical model, possibly biased due to estimation and assumption errors, and the Hypothetical Information, which is the amount of information that would be extracted from an hypothetical device exactly following the model distribution. This positive outcome derives from the observation that while the estimation of the Mutual Information is in general a hard problem (i.e., estimators are biased and their convergence is distribution-dependent), it is significantly simplified in the case of statistical inference attacks where a target random variable (e.g., a key in a cryptographic setting) has a constant (e.g., uniform) probability. Our results therefore provide a general and principled path to bound the worst-case security level of an implementation. They also significantly speed up the evaluation of any profiled side-channel attack, since they imply that the estimation of the Perceived Information, which embeds an expensive cross-validation step, can be bounded by the computation of a cheaper Hypothetical Information, for any estimated statistical model.

2019

TCHES

TEDT, a Leakage-Resist AEAD Mode for High Physical Security Applications
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Abstract

We propose TEDT, a new Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data (AEAD) mode leveraging Tweakable Block Ciphers (TBCs). TEDT provides the following features: (i) It offers full leakage-resistance, that is, it limits the exploitability of physical leakages via side-channel attacks, even if these leakages happen during every message encryption and decryption operation. Moreover, the leakage integrity bound is asymptotically optimal in the multi-user setting. (ii) It offers nonce misuse-resilience, that is, the repetition of nonces does not impact the security of ciphertexts produced with fresh nonces. (iii) It can be implemented with a remarkably low energy cost when strong resistance to side-channel attacks is needed, supports online encryption and handles static and incremental associated data efficiently. Concretely, TEDT encourages so-called leveled implementations, in which two TBCs are implemented: the first one needs strong and energy demanding protections against side-channel attacks but is used in a limited way, while the other only requires weak and energy-efficient protections and performs the bulk of the computation. As a result, TEDT leads to more energy-efficient implementations compared to traditional AEAD schemes, whose side-channel security requires to uniformly protect every (T)BC execution.

2019

JOFC

Making Masking Security Proofs Concrete (Or How to Evaluate the Security of Any Leaking Device), Extended Version
Abstract

We investigate the relationship between theoretical studies of leaking cryptographic devices and concrete security evaluations with standard side-channel attacks. Our contributions are in four parts. First, we connect the formal analysis of the masking countermeasure proposed by Duc et al. (Eurocrypt 2014) with the Eurocrypt 2009 evaluation framework for side-channel key recovery attacks. In particular, we re-state their main proof for the masking countermeasure based on a mutual information metric, which is frequently used in concrete physical security evaluations. Second, we discuss the tightness of the Eurocrypt 2014 bounds based on experimental case studies. This allows us to conjecture a simplified link between the mutual information metric and the success rate of a side-channel adversary, ignoring technical parameters and proof artifacts. Third, we introduce heuristic (yet well-motivated) tools for the evaluation of the masking countermeasure when its independent leakage assumption is not perfectly fulfilled, as it is frequently encountered in practice. Thanks to these tools, we argue that masking with non-independent leakages may provide improved security levels in certain scenarios. Eventually, we consider the tradeoff between the measurement complexity and the key enumeration time complexity in divide-and-conquer side-channel attacks and show that these complexities can be lower bounded based on the mutual information metric, using simple and efficient algorithms. The combination of these observations enables significant reductions of the evaluation costs for certification bodies.

2018

TCHES

Leakage Detection with the x2-Test
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Abstract

We describe how Pearson’s χ2-test can be used as a natural complement to Welch’s t-test for black box leakage detection. In particular, we show that by using these two tests in combination, we can mitigate some of the limitations due to the moment-based nature of existing detection techniques based on Welch’s t-test (e.g., for the evaluation of higher-order masked implementations with insufficient noise). We also show that Pearson’s χ2-test is naturally suited to analyze threshold implementations with information lying in multiple statistical moments, and can be easily extended to a distinguisher for key recovery attacks. As a result, we believe the proposed test and methodology are interesting complementary ingredients of the side-channel evaluation toolbox, for black box leakage detection and non-profiled attacks, and as a preliminary before more demanding advanced analyses.

2018

TCHES

Composable Masking Schemes in the Presence of Physical Defaults & the Robust Probing Model
Abstract

Composability and robustness against physical defaults (e.g., glitches) are two highly desirable properties for secure implementations of masking schemes. While tools exist to guarantee them separately, no current formalism enables their joint investigation. In this paper, we solve this issue by introducing a new model, the robust probing model, that is naturally suited to capture the combination of these properties. We first motivate this formalism by analyzing the excellent robustness and low randomness requirements of first-order threshold implementations, and highlighting the difficulty to extend them to higher orders. Next, and most importantly, we use our theory to design and prove the first higher-order secure, robust and composable multiplication gadgets. While admittedly inspired by existing approaches to masking (e.g., Ishai-Sahai-Wagner-like, threshold, domain-oriented), these gadgets exhibit subtle implementation differences with these state-of-the-art solutions (none of which being provably composable and robust). Hence, our results illustrate how sound theoretical models can guide practically-relevant implementations.

2017

CHES

Gimli : A Cross-Platform Permutation
Abstract

This paper presents Gimli, a 384-bit permutation designed to achieve high security with high performance across a broad range of platforms, including 64-bit Intel/AMD server CPUs, 64-bit and 32-bit ARM smartphone CPUs, 32-bit ARM microcontrollers, 8-bit AVR microcontrollers, FPGAs, ASICs without side-channel protection, and ASICs with side-channel protection.

2017

TOSC

On Leakage-Resilient Authenticated Encryption with Decryption Leakages
Abstract

At CCS 2015, Pereira et al. introduced a pragmatic model enabling the study of leakage-resilient symmetric cryptographic primitives based on the minimal use of a leak-free component. This model was recently used to prove the good integrity and confidentiality properties of an authenticated encryption scheme called DTE when the adversary is only given encryption leakages. In this paper, we extend this work by analyzing the case where decryption leakages are also available. We first exhibit attacks exploiting such leakages against the integrity of DTE (and variants) and show how to mitigate them. We then consider message confidentiality in a context where an adversary can observe decryption leakages but not the corresponding messages. The latter is motivated by applications such as secure bootloading and bitstream decryption. We finally formalize the confidentiality requirements that can be achieved in this case and propose a new construction satisfying them, while providing integrity properties with leakage that are as good as those of DTE.

2017

CHES

A Systematic Approach to the Side-Channel Analysis of ECC Implementations with Worst-Case Horizontal Attacks
Abstract

The wide number and variety of side-channel attacks against scalar multiplication algorithms makes their security evaluations complex, in particular in case of time constraints making exhaustive analyses impossible. In this paper, we present a systematic way to evaluate the security of such implementations against horizontal attacks. As horizontal attacks allow extracting most of the information in the leakage traces of scalar multiplications, they are suitable to avoid risks of overestimated security levels. For this purpose, we additionally propose to use linear regression in order to accurately characterize the leakage function and therefore approach worst-case security evaluations. We then show how to apply our tools in the contexts of ECDSA and ECDH implementations, and validate them against two targets: a Cortex-M4 and a Cortex-A8 micro-controllers.

2017

CHES

Very High Order Masking: Efficient Implementation and Security Evaluation
Abstract

In this paper, we study the performances and security of recent masking algorithms specialized to parallel implementations in a 32-bit embedded software platform, for the standard AES Rijndael and the bitslice cipher Fantomas. By exploiting the excellent features of these algorithms for bitslice implementations, we first extend the recent speed records of Goudarzi and Rivain (presented at Eurocrypt 2017) and report realistic timings for masked implementations with 32 shares. We then observe that the security level provided by such implementations is uneasy to quantify with current evaluation tools. We therefore propose a new “multi-model” evaluation methodology which takes advantage of different (more or less abstract) security models introduced in the literature. This methodology allows us to both bound the security level of our implementations in a principled manner and to assess the risks of overstated security based on well understood parameters. Concretely, it leads us to conclude that these implementations withstand worst-case adversaries with $$>\!2^{64}$$ measurements under falsifiable assumptions.

2016

EUROCRYPT

2016

ASIACRYPT

2016

ASIACRYPT

2015

EUROCRYPT

2012

EUROCRYPT

2012

CHES

2011

EUROCRYPT

2004

CHES

#### Program Committees

- CHES 2022
- Eurocrypt 2021 (Program chair)
- FSE 2020
- Eurocrypt 2020
- CHES 2018
- FSE 2018
- Asiacrypt 2017
- FSE 2016
- FSE 2015
- Eurocrypt 2015
- Crypto 2015
- FSE 2014
- Eurocrypt 2014
- FSE 2013
- Asiacrypt 2013
- FSE 2012
- Crypto 2012
- Crypto 2011
- CHES 2010 (Program chair)
- Asiacrypt 2010
- Asiacrypt 2009
- CHES 2006
- CHES 2005

#### Coauthors

- Cédric Archambeau (3)
- Mélissa Azouaoui (2)
- Stéphane Badel (1)
- Josep Balasch (1)
- Boaz Barak (1)
- Gilles Barthe (1)
- Lejla Batina (1)
- Davide Bellizia (5)
- Daniel J. Bernstein (1)
- Francesco Berti (6)
- Shivam Bhasin (1)
- Begül Bilgin (1)
- Andrey Bogdanov (1)
- David Bol (1)
- Jakub Breier (1)
- Hai Brenner (1)
- Philip Brisk (1)
- Olivier Bronchain (11)
- Nicolas Bruneau (1)
- Giovanni Camurati (2)
- Claude Carlet (1)
- Gaëtan Cassiers (12)
- Alessandro Cevrero (1)
- Baudoin Collard (1)
- Valence Cristiani (1)
- Lauren De Meyer (1)
- Matteo Dell’Amico (1)
- Henri Devillez (1)
- Yevgeniy Dodis (1)
- Nicolas Donckers (1)
- Alexandre Duc (2)
- François Dupressoir (1)
- François Durvaux (4)
- Sébastien Duval (3)
- Stefan Dziembowski (1)
- Sebastian Faust (9)
- Martin Feldhofer (1)
- Denis Flandre (2)
- Aurelien Francillon (1)
- Rong Fu (1)
- Lubos Gaspar (1)
- Benoît Gérard (4)
- Benedikt Gierlichs (3)
- Cezary Glowacz (1)
- Benjamin Grégoire (1)
- Vincent Grosso (11)
- Dawu Gu (1)
- Sylvain Guilley (1)
- Qian Guo (1)
- Zheng Guo (1)
- Chun Guo (9)
- Julien Hendrickx (1)
- Julien M. Hendrickx (1)
- Gottfried Herold (1)
- Annelie Heuser (1)
- Cédric Hocquet (1)
- Orel Cosseron (1)
- Clément Hoffmann (6)
- Xiaolu Hou (1)
- Paolo Ienne (1)
- Anthony Journault (3)
- Antoine Joux (1)
- Dina Kamel (4)
- Markus Kasper (1)
- Stéphanie Kerckhof (2)
- Theo Kluter (1)
- Lars R. Knudsen (1)
- Stefan Kölbl (1)
- Hugo Krawczyk (1)
- Yulia Kuzovkova (1)
- Virginie Lallemand (1)
- Gregor Leander (3)
- Yusuf Leblebici (1)
- Maxime Lecomte (1)
- Jean-Didier Legat (3)
- Gaëtan Leurent (3)
- Itamar Levi (3)
- Benoît Libert (1)
- Junrong Liu (1)
- Hanlin Liu (1)
- Stefan Lucks (1)
- Francois Mace (1)
- Tal Malkin (1)
- Stefan Mangard (2)
- Daniel Masny (1)
- Clément Massart (1)
- Pedro Maat Costa Massolino (1)
- Loïc Masure (5)
- Pierrick Méaux (8)
- Marcel Medwed (5)
- Florian Mendel (1)
- Charles Momin (7)
- Thorben Moos (3)
- Amir Moradi (2)
- Kashif Nawaz (1)
- María Naya-Plasencia (1)
- Ventzislav Nikov (1)
- Alex Olshevsky (1)
- Yossef Oren (1)
- Maximilian Orlt (1)
- Siddika Berna Örs (1)
- Elisabeth Oswald (1)
- Clara Paglialonga (2)
- Kostas Papagiannopoulos (1)
- Eric Peeters (3)
- Olivier Pereira (7)
- Léo Perrin (1)
- Thomas Peters (10)
- Krzysztof Pietrzak (1)
- Gilles Piret (1)
- Joop van de Pol (1)
- Romain Poussier (4)
- Santos Merino Del Pozo (3)
- Bart Preneel (1)
- Emmanuel Prouff (1)
- Jean-Jacques Quisquater (8)
- Francesco Regazzoni (1)
- Mathieu Renauld (4)
- Joost Renes (1)
- Bastian Richter (1)
- Olivier Rioul (1)
- Matthieu Rivain (1)
- Alon Rosen (1)
- Yann Rotella (1)
- Gaël Rouvroy (3)
- Tobias Schneider (5)
- Markus Schönauer (1)
- Joachim Schüth (1)
- Peter Schwabe (1)
- Yaobin Shen (4)
- John P. Steinberger (1)
- Pierre-Yves Strub (1)
- Yannick Teglia (1)
- Elmar Tischhauser (1)
- Yosuke Todo (1)
- Balazs Udvarhelyi (3)
- Balasz Udvarhelyi (1)
- Kerem Varici (1)
- Corentin Verhamme (1)
- Nicolas Veyrat-Charvillon (10)
- Benoît Viguier (1)
- Christine van Vredendaal (1)
- Weijia Wang (5)
- Lei Wang (1)
- Xiao Wang (1)
- Friedrich Wiemer (1)
- Avishai Wool (1)
- Sen Xu (1)
- Yu Yu (8)
- Moti Yung (1)
- Yuanyuan Zhou (2)