International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Protecting Dilithium against Leakage: Revisited Sensitivity Analysis and Improved Implementations

Melissa Azouaoui , NXP Semiconductors, Eindhoven, Netherlands
Olivier Bronchain , NXP Semiconductors, Eindhoven, Netherlands; UCLouvain, Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
Gaëtan Cassiers , UCLouvain, Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria; Lamarr Security Research, Graz, Austria
Clément Hoffmann , UCLouvain, Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
Yulia Kuzovkova , NXP Semiconductors, Eindhoven, Netherlands
Joost Renes , NXP Semiconductors, Eindhoven, Netherlands
Tobias Schneider , NXP Semiconductors, Eindhoven, Netherlands
Markus Schönauer , NXP Semiconductors, Eindhoven, Netherlands
François-Xavier Standaert ,
Christine van Vredendaal , NXP Semiconductors, Eindhoven, Netherlands
DOI: 10.46586/tches.v2023.i4.58-79
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Abstract: CRYSTALS-Dilithium has been selected by the NIST as the new standard for post-quantum digital signatures. In this work, we revisit the side-channel countermeasures of Dilithium in three directions. First, we improve its sensitivity analysis by classifying intermediate computations according to their physical security requirements. Second, we provide improved gadgets dedicated to Dilithium, taking advantage of recent advances in masking conversion algorithms. Third, we combine these contributions and report performance for side-channel protected Dilithium implementations. Our benchmarking results additionally put forward that the randomized version of Dilithium can lead to significantly more efficient implementations (than its deterministic version) when side-channel attacks are a concern.
  title={Protecting Dilithium against Leakage: Revisited Sensitivity Analysis and Improved Implementations},
  journal={IACR Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems},
  publisher={Ruhr-Universität Bochum},
  volume={2023, Issue 4},
  author={Melissa Azouaoui and Olivier Bronchain and Gaëtan Cassiers and Clément Hoffmann and Yulia Kuzovkova and Joost Renes and Tobias Schneider and Markus Schönauer and François-Xavier Standaert and Christine van Vredendaal},