International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Tal Malkin

Affiliation: Columbia University

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2019
EUROCRYPT
Non-Malleable Codes Against Bounded Polynomial Time Tampering 📺
We construct efficient non-malleable codes (NMC) that are (computationally) secure against tampering by functions computable in any fixed polynomial time. Our construction is in the plain (no-CRS) model and requires the assumptions that (1) $$\mathbf {E}$$E is hard for $$\mathbf {NP}$$NP circuits of some exponential $$2^{\beta n}$$2βn ($$\beta >0$$β>0) size (widely used in the derandomization literature), (2) sub-exponential trapdoor permutations exist, and (3) $$\mathbf {P}$$P-certificates with sub-exponential soundness exist.While it is impossible to construct NMC secure against arbitrary polynomial-time tampering (Dziembowski, Pietrzak, Wichs, ICS ’10), the existence of NMC secure against $$O(n^c)$$O(nc)-time tampering functions (for any fixedc), was shown (Cheraghchi and Guruswami, ITCS ’14) via a probabilistic construction. An explicit construction was given (Faust, Mukherjee, Venturi, Wichs, Eurocrypt ’14) assuming an untamperable CRS with length longer than the runtime of the tampering function. In this work, we show that under computational assumptions, we can bypass these limitations. Specifically, under the assumptions listed above, we obtain non-malleable codes in the plain model against $$O(n^c)$$O(nc)-time tampering functions (for any fixed c), with codeword length independent of the tampering time bound.Our new construction of NMC draws a connection with non-interactive non-malleable commitments. In fact, we show that in the NMC setting, it suffices to have a much weaker notion called quasi non-malleable commitments—these are non-interactive, non-malleable commitments in the plain model, in which the adversary runs in $$O(n^c)$$O(nc)-time, whereas the honest parties may run in longer (polynomial) time. We then construct a 4-tag quasi non-malleable commitment from any sub-exponential OWF and the assumption that $$\mathbf {E}$$E is hard for some exponential size $$\mathbf {NP}$$NP-circuits, and use tag amplification techniques to support an exponential number of tags.
2019
TCC
Is Information-Theoretic Topology-Hiding Computation Possible?
Topology-hiding computation (THC) is a form of multi-party computation over an incomplete communication graph that maintains the privacy of the underlying graph topology. Existing THC protocols consider an adversary that may corrupt an arbitrary number of parties, and rely on cryptographic assumptions such as DDH.In this paper we address the question of whether information-theoretic THC can be achieved by taking advantage of an honest majority. In contrast to the standard MPC setting, this problem has remained open in the topology-hiding realm, even for simple “privacy-free” functions like broadcast, and even when considering only semi-honest corruptions.We uncover a rich landscape of both positive and negative answers to the above question, showing that what types of graphs are used and how they are selected is an important factor in determining the feasibility of hiding topology information-theoretically. In particular, our results include the following. We show that topology-hiding broadcast (THB) on a line with four nodes, secure against a single semi-honest corruption, implies key agreement. This result extends to broader classes of graphs, e.g., THB on a cycle with two semi-honest corruptions.On the other hand, we provide the first feasibility result for information-theoretic THC: for the class of cycle graphs, with a single semi-honest corruption. Given the strong impossibilities, we put forth a weaker definition of distributional-THC, where the graph is selected from some distribution (as opposed to worst-case). We present a formal separation between the definitions, by showing a distribution for which information theoretic distributional-THC is possible, but even topology-hiding broadcast is not possible information-theoretically with the standard definition.We demonstrate the power of our new definition via a new connection to adaptively secure low-locality MPC, where distributional-THC enables parties to “reuse” a secret low-degree communication graph even in the face of adaptive corruptions.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Public-Key Function-Private Hidden Vector Encryption (and More)
We construct public-key function-private predicate encryption for the “small superset functionality,” recently introduced by Beullens and Wee (PKC 2019). This functionality captures several important classes of predicates:Point functions. For point function predicates, our construction is equivalent to public-key function-private anonymous identity-based encryption.Conjunctions. If the predicate computes a conjunction, our construction is a public-key function-private hidden vector encryption scheme. This addresses an open problem posed by Boneh, Raghunathan, and Segev (ASIACRYPT 2013).d-CNFs and read-once conjunctions of d-disjunctions for constant-size d. Our construction extends the group-based obfuscation schemes of Bishop et al. (CRYPTO 2018), Beullens and Wee (PKC 2019), and Bartusek et al. (EUROCRYPT 2019) to the setting of public-key function-private predicate encryption. We achieve an average-case notion of function privacy, which guarantees that a decryption key $$\mathsf {sk} _f$$ reveals nothing about f as long as f is drawn from a distribution with sufficient entropy. We formalize this security notion as a generalization of the (enhanced) real-or-random function privacy definition of Boneh, Raghunathan, and Segev (CRYPTO 2013). Our construction relies on bilinear groups, and we prove security in the generic bilinear group model.
2018
JOFC
2018
EUROCRYPT
2018
EUROCRYPT
2018
CRYPTO
A Simple Obfuscation Scheme for Pattern-Matching with Wildcards 📺
We give a simple and efficient method for obfuscating pattern matching with wildcards. In other words, we construct a way to check an input against a secret pattern, which is described in terms of prescribed values interspersed with unconstrained “wildcard” slots. As long as the support of the pattern is sufficiently sparse and the pattern itself is chosen from an appropriate distribution, we prove that a polynomial-time adversary cannot find a matching input, except with negligible probability. We rely upon the generic group heuristic (in a regular group, with no multilinearity). Previous work [9, 10, 32] provided less efficient constructions based on multilinear maps or LWE.
2018
CRYPTO
Hardness of Non-interactive Differential Privacy from One-Way Functions 📺
A central challenge in differential privacy is to design computationally efficient non-interactive algorithms that can answer large numbers of statistical queries on a sensitive dataset. That is, we would like to design a differentially private algorithm that takes a dataset $$D \in X^n$$D∈Xn consisting of some small number of elements n from some large data universe X, and efficiently outputs a summary that allows a user to efficiently obtain an answer to any query in some large family Q.Ignoring computational constraints, this problem can be solved even when X and Q are exponentially large and n is just a small polynomial; however, all algorithms with remotely similar guarantees run in exponential time. There have been several results showing that, under the strong assumption of indistinguishability obfuscation, no efficient differentially private algorithm exists when X and Q can be exponentially large. However, there are no strong separations between information-theoretic and computationally efficient differentially private algorithms under any standard complexity assumption.In this work we show that, if one-way functions exist, there is no general purpose differentially private algorithm that works when X and Q are exponentially large, and n is an arbitrary polynomial. In fact, we show that this result holds even if X is just subexponentially large (assuming only polynomially-hard one-way functions). This result solves an open problem posed by Vadhan in his recent survey [52].
2016
EUROCRYPT
2016
TCC
2015
TCC
2014
TCC
2014
ASIACRYPT
2013
TCC
2013
ASIACRYPT
2013
EUROCRYPT
2012
TCC
2011
TCC
2011
TCC
2011
EUROCRYPT
2011
ASIACRYPT
2010
JOFC
2009
TCC
2009
ASIACRYPT
2009
ASIACRYPT
2009
EUROCRYPT
2008
TCC
2007
ASIACRYPT
2007
CRYPTO
2007
TCC
2007
EPRINT
ProSiBIR: Proactive Signer-Base Intrusion Resilient Signatures
Philip Atzemoglou Tal Malkin
The notion of Signer-Base Intrusion-Resilient (SiBIR) signatures was introduced in [IR02] as a scheme that can withstand an arbitrary number of key-exposures, as long as both of its modules are not compromised simultaneously. This was achieved by dividing time into predefined time periods, each corresponding to a different time-evolving secret key, while maintaining a constant public key. The two modules of this scheme consist of a signer that can generate signatures on its own, and a base that is used to update the signer's key as it evolves through time. The purpose of this paper is to provide a model for multi-signer, multi-base intrusion-resilient signatures. This proactive SiBIR scheme essentially breaks the preexisting notions of signer and base, to an arbitrary number of signer and base modules. This tends to implementations where multiple parties need to agree for a document to be signed. An attacker needs to break into all the signers at the same time in order to forge a signature for that period. Moreover, he needs to break into all the bases as well, at that same time period, in order to "break" the scheme and generate future signatures. Thereby, by assuming a large number of bases, the risk of our scheme being compromised becomes arbitrarily small. We provide an implementation that's provably secure in the random oracle model, based on the strong RSA assumption. We also yield a modest improvement in the upperbound of our scheme's insecurity function, as opposed to the one presented in [IR02].
2007
EPRINT
A Block Cipher based PRNG Secure Against Side-Channel Key Recovery
We study the security of a block cipher-based pseudorandom number generator (PRNG), both in the black box world and in the physical world, separately. We first show that the construction is a secure PRNG in the black box world, relying on standard computational assumptions. Then, we demonstrate its security against a Bayesian side-channel key recovery adversary. As a main result, we show that our construction guarantees that the success rate of the adversary does not increase with the number of physical bservations, but in a limited and controlled way. Besides, we observe that, under common assumptions on side-channel attack strategies, increasing the security parameter (typically the block cipher key size) by a polynomial factor involves an increase of a side-channel attack complexity by an exponential factor, as usually expected for secure cryptographic primitives. Therefore, we believe this work provides a first interesting example of the way the algorithmic design of a cryptographic scheme influences its side-channel resistance.
2006
TCC
2006
EPRINT
Towards a Separation of Semantic and CCA Security for Public Key Encryption
We address the question of whether or not semantically secure public-key encryption primitives imply the existence of chosen ciphertext attack (CCA) secure primitives. We show a black-box separation, using the methodology introduced by Impagliazzo and Rudich, for a large non-trivial class of constructions. In particular, we show that if the proposed CCA construction's decryption algorithm does not query the semantically secure primitive's encryption algorithm, then the proposed construction cannot be CCA secure
2006
PKC
2006
EPRINT
A Unified Framework for the Analysis of Side-Channel Key Recovery Attacks (extended version)
The fair evaluation and comparison of side-channel attacks and countermeasures has been a long standing open question, limiting further developments in the field. Motivated by this challenge, this work makes a step in this direction and proposes a framework for the analysis of cryptographic implementations that includes a theoretical model and an application methodology. The model is based on commonly accepted hypotheses about side-channels that computations give rise to. It allows quantifying the effect of practically relevant leakage functions with a combination of information theoretic and security metrics, measuring the quality of an implementation and the strength of an adversary, respectively. From a theoretical point of view, we demonstrate formal connections between these metrics and discuss their intuitive meaning. From a practical point of view, the model implies a unified methodology for the analysis of side-channel key recovery attacks. The proposed solution allows getting rid of most of the subjective parameters that were limiting previous specialized and often ad hoc approaches in the evaluation of physically observable devices. It typically determines the extent to which basic (but practically essential) questions such as "How to compare two implementations?" or "How to compare two side-channel adversaries?" can be answered in a sound fashion.
2005
EUROCRYPT
2004
EUROCRYPT
2004
TCC
2004
TCC
2004
JOFC
2004
JOFC
2004
EPRINT
The Hierarchy of Key Evolving Signatures and a Characterization of Proxy Signatures
For the last two decades the notion and implementations of proxy signatures have been used to allow transfer of digital signing power within some context (in order to enable flexibility of signers within organizations and among entities). On the other hand, various notions of the key-evolving signature paradigms (forward-secure, key-insulated, and intrusion-resilient signatures) have been suggested in the last few years for protecting the security of signature schemes, localizing the damage of secret key exposure. In this work we relate the various notions via direct and concrete security reductions that are tight. We start by developing the first formal model for fully hierarchical proxy signatures, which, as we point out, also addresses vulnerabilities of previous schemes when self-delegation is used. Next, we prove that proxy signatures are, in fact, equivalent to key-insulated signatures. We then use this fact and other results to establish a tight hierarchy among the key-evolving notions, showing that intrusion-resilient signatures and key-insulated signatures are equivalent, and imply forward-secure signatures. We also introduce other relations among extended notions. Besides the importance of understanding the relationships among the various notions that were originally designed with different goals or with different system configuration in mind, our findings imply new designs of schemes. For example, many proxy signatures have been presented without formal model and proofs, whereas using our results we can employ the work on key-insulated schemes to suggest new provably secure designs of proxy signatures schemes.
2002
EUROCRYPT
2001
EUROCRYPT
2001
EPRINT
On adaptive vs. non-adaptive security of multiparty protocols
Security analysis of multiparty cryptographic protocols distinguishes between two types of adversarial settings: In the non-adaptive setting, the set of corrupted parties is chosen in advance, before the interaction begins. In the adaptive setting, the adversary chooses who to corrupt during the course of the computation. We study the relations between adaptive security (i.e., security in the adaptive setting) and non-adaptive security, according to two definitions and in several models of computation. While affirming some prevailing beliefs, we also obtain some unexpected results. Some highlights of our results are: o According to the definition of Dodis-Micali-Rogaway (which is set in the information-theoretic model), adaptive and non-adaptive security are equivalent. This holds for both honest-but-curious and Byzantine adversaries, and for any number of parties. o According to the definition of Canetti, for honest-but-curious adversaries, adaptive security is equivalent to non-adaptive security when the number of parties is logarithmic, and is strictly stronger than non-adaptive security when the number of parties is super-logarithmic. For Byzantine adversaries, adaptive security is strictly stronger than non-adaptive security, for any number of parties.
2001
EPRINT
Secure Multiparty Computation of Approximations
Approximation algorithms can sometimes be used to obtain efficient solutions where no efficient exact computation is known. In particular, approximations are often useful in a distributed setting where the inputs are held by different parties and are extremely large. Furthermore, for some applications, the parties want to cooperate to compute a function of their inputs without revealing more information than they have to. Suppose the function $\fhat$ is an approximation to the function $f$. Secure multiparty computation of $f$ allows the parties to compute $f$ without revealing more than they have to, but it requires some additional overhead in computation and communication. Hence, if computation of $f$ is inefficient or just efficient enough to be practical, then secure computation of $f$ may be impractically expensive. Furthermore, a secure computation of $\fhat$ is not necessarily as private as a secure computation of $f$, because the output of $\fhat$ may reveal more information than the output of $f$. In this paper, we present definitions and protocols of secure multiparty approximate computation that show how to realize most of the cost savings available by using $\fhat$ instead of $f$ without losing the privacy of a secure computation of $f$. We make three contributions. First, we give formal definitions of secure multiparty approximate computations. Second, we present an efficient, sublinear-communication, private approximate computation for the Hamming distance; we also give an efficient, polylogarithmic-communication solution for the $L^{2}$ distance in a relaxed model. Finally, we give an efficient private approximation of the permanent and other related \#P-hard problems.
2001
EPRINT
Composition and Efficiency Tradeoffs for Forward-Secure Digital Signatures
Forward-secure digital signatures, initially proposed by Anderson in CCS 97 and formalized by Bellare and Miner in Crypto 99, are signature schemes which enjoy the additional guarantee that a compromise of the secret key at some point in time does not help forge signatures allegedly signed in an earlier time period. Consequently, if the secret key is lost, then the key can be safely revoked without invalidating previously-issued signatures. Since the introduction of the concept, several forward-secure signature schemes have been proposed, with varying performance both in terms of space and time. Which scheme is most useful in practice typically depends on the requirements of the specific application. In this paper we propose and study some general composition operations that can be used to combine existing signature schemes (whether forward-secure or not) into new forward-secure signature schemes. Our schemes offer interesting trade-offs between the various efficiency parameters, achieving a greater flexibility in accommodating the requirements of different applications. As an extension of our techniques, we also construct the first efficient forward-secure signature scheme where the total number of time periods for which the public key is used does not have to be fixed in advance. The scheme can be used for practically unbounded time, and the performance depends (minimally) only on the time elapsed so far. Our scheme achieves excellent performance overall, is very competitive with previous schemes with respect to all parameters, and outperforms each of the previous schemes in at least one parameter. Moreover, the scheme can be based on any underlying digital signature scheme, and does not rely on specific assumptions. Its forward security is proven in the standard model, without using a random oracle.
2000
CRYPTO
2000
EUROCRYPT
1999
CRYPTO
1999
EUROCRYPT
1998
EPRINT
A Random Server Model for Private Information Retrieval (or How to Achieve Information Theoretic PIR Avoiding Data Replication)
Private information retrieval (PIR) schemes enable users to obtain information from databases while keeping their queries secret from the database managers. We propose a new model for PIR, utilizing auxiliary random servers to provide privacy services for database access. In this model, prior to any on-line communication where users request queries, the database engages in an initial preprocessing setup stage with the random servers. Using this model we achieve the first PIR information theoretic solution in which the database does not need to give away its data to be replicated, and with minimal on-line computation cost for the database. This solves privacy and efficiency problems inherent to all previous solutions. In particular, all previous information theoretic PIR schemes required multiple replications of the database into separate entities which are not allowed to communicate with each other; and in all previous schemes (including ones which do not achieve information theoretic security), the amount of computation performed by the database on-line for every query is at least linear in the size of the database. In contrast, in our solutions the database does not give away its contents to any other entity; and after the initial setup stage, which costs at most O(n log n) in computation, the database needs to perform only O(1) amount of computation to answer questions of users on-line. All the extra on-line computation is done by the auxiliary random servers.

Program Committees

Eurocrypt 2020
TCC 2018
Eurocrypt 2017
TCC 2016
Crypto 2012
TCC 2012
Crypto 2008
Crypto 2006
TCC 2006
Crypto 2005
TCC 2005
Crypto 2004
PKC 2003