Effective and Efficient Masking with Low Noise using Small-Mersenne-Prime Ciphers Abstract
Embedded devices used in security applications are natural targets for physical attacks. Thus, enhancing their side-channel resistance is an important research challenge. A standard solution for this purpose is the use of Boolean masking schemes, as they are well adapted to current block ciphers with efficient bitslice representations. Boolean masking guarantees that the security of an implementation grows exponentially in the number of shares under the assumption that leakages are sufficiently noisy (and independent). Unfortunately, it has been shown that this noise assumption is hardly met on low-end devices. In this paper, we therefore investigate techniques to mask cryptographic algorithms in such a way that their resistance can survive an almost complete lack of noise. Building on seed theoretical results of Dziembowski et al., we put forward that arithmetic encodings in prime fields can reach this goal. We first exhibit the gains that such encodings lead to thanks to a simulated information theoretic analysis of their leakage (with up to six shares). We then provide figures showing that on platforms where optimized arithmetic adders and multipliers are readily available (i.e., most MCUs and FPGAs), performing masked operations in small to medium Mersenne-prime fields as opposed to binary extension fields will not lead to notable implementation overheads. We compile these observations into a new AES-like block cipher, called AES-prime, which is well-suited to illustrate the remarkable advantages of masking in prime fields. We also confirm the practical relevance of our findings by evaluating concrete software (ARM Cortex-M3) and hardware (Xilinx Spartan-6) implementations. Our experimental results show that security gains over Boolean masking (and, more generally, binary encodings) can reach orders of magnitude despite the same amount of information being leaked per share.
Prime-Field Masking in Hardware and its Soundness against Low-Noise SCA Attacks Abstract
A recent study suggests that arithmetic masking in prime fields leads to stronger security guarantees against passive physical adversaries than Boolean masking. Indeed, it is a common observation that the desired security amplification of Boolean masking collapses when the noise level in the measurements is too low. Arithmetic encodings in prime fields can help to maintain an exponential increase of the attack complexity in the number of shares even in such a challenging context. In this work, we contribute to this emerging topic in two main directions. First, we propose novel masked hardware gadgets for secure squaring in prime fields (since squaring is non-linear in non-binary fields) which prove to be significantly more resource-friendly than corresponding masked multiplications. We then formally show their local and compositional security for arbitrary orders. Second, we attempt to >experimentally evaluate the performance vs. security tradeoff of prime-field masking. In order to enable a first comparative case study in this regard, we exemplarily consider masked implementations of the AES as well as the recently proposed AESprime. AES-prime is a block cipher partially resembling the standard AES, but based on arithmetic operations modulo a small Mersenne prime. We present cost and performance figures for masked AES and AES-prime implementations, and experimentally evaluate their susceptibility to low-noise side-channel attacks. We consider both the dynamic and the static power consumption for our low-noise analyses and emulate strong adversaries. Static power attacks are indeed known as a threat for side-channel countermeasures that require a certain noise level to be effective because of the adversary’s ability to reduce the noise through intra-trace averaging. Our results show consistently that for the noise levels in our practical experiments, the masked prime-field implementations provide much higher security for the same number of shares. This compensates for the overheads prime computations lead to and remains true even if / despite leaking each share with a similar Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) as their binary equivalents. We hope our results open the way towards new cipher designs tailored to best exploit the advantages of prime-field masking.
Don’t Learn What You Already Know: Scheme-Aware Modeling for Profiling Side-Channel Analysis against Masking Abstract
Over the past few years, deep-learning-based attacks have emerged as a de facto standard, thanks to their ability to break implementations of cryptographic primitives without pre-processing, even against widely used counter-measures such as hiding and masking. However, the recent works of Bronchain and Standaert at Tches 2020 questioned the soundness of such tools if used in an uninformed setting to evaluate implementations protected with higher-order masking. On the opposite, worst-case evaluations may be seen as possibly far from what a real-world adversary could do, thereby leading to too conservative security bounds. In this paper, we propose a new threat model that we name scheme-aware benefiting from a trade-off between uninformed and worst-case models. Our scheme-aware model is closer to a real-world adversary, in the sense that it does not need to have access to the random nonces used by masking during the profiling phase like in a worst-case model, while it does not need to learn the masking scheme as implicitly done by an uninformed adversary. We show how to combine the power of deep learning with the prior knowledge of scheme-aware modeling. As a result, we show on simulations and experiments on public datasets how it sometimes allows to reduce by an order of magnitude the profiling complexity, i.e., the number of profiling traces needed to satisfyingly train a model, compared to a fully uninformed adversary.
A Comprehensive Study of Deep Learning for Side-Channel Analysis 📺 Abstract
Recently, several studies have been published on the application of deep learning to enhance Side-Channel Attacks (SCA). These seminal works have practically validated the soundness of the approach, especially against implementations protected by masking or by jittering. Concurrently, important open issues have emerged. Among them, the relevance of machine (and thereby deep) learning based SCA has been questioned in several papers based on the lack of relation between the accuracy, a typical performance metric used in machine learning, and common SCA metrics like the Guessing entropy or the key-discrimination success rate. Also, the impact of the classical side-channel counter-measures on the efficiency of deep learning has been questioned, in particular by the semi-conductor industry. Both questions enlighten the importance of studying the theoretical soundness of deep learning in the context of side-channel and of developing means to quantify its efficiency, especially with respect to the optimality bounds published so far in the literature for side-channel leakage exploitation. The first main contribution of this paper directly concerns the latter point. It is indeed proved that minimizing the Negative Log Likelihood (NLL for short) loss function during the training of deep neural networks is actually asymptotically equivalent to maximizing the Perceived Information introduced by Renauld et al. at EUROCRYPT 2011 as a lower bound of the Mutual Information between the leakage and the target secret. Hence, such a training can be considered as an efficient and effective estimation of the PI, and thereby of the MI (known to be complex to accurately estimate in the context of secure implementations). As a second direct consequence of our main contribution, it is argued that, in a side-channel exploitation context, choosing the NLL loss function to drive the training is sound from an information theory point of view. As a third contribution, classical counter-measures like Boolean masking or execution flow shuffling, initially dedicated to classical SCA, are proved to stay sound against deep Learning based attacks.
- Gaëtan Cassiers (1)
- Valence Cristiani (1)
- Cécile Dumas (1)
- Maxime Lecomte (1)
- Pierrick Méaux (1)
- Charles Momin (1)
- Thorben Moos (2)
- Emmanuel Prouff (1)
- François-Xavier Standaert (3)