## CryptoDB

### Léo Perrin

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

CRYPTO

New Design Techniques for Efficient Arithmetization-Oriented Hash Functions: Anemoi Permutations and Jive Compression Mode
Abstract

Advanced cryptographic protocols such as Zero-knowledge (ZK) proofs of knowledge, widely used in cryptocurrency applications such as Zcash, Monero, Filecoin, Tezos, Topos, demand new cryptographic hash functions that are efficient not only over the binary field $\F_2$, but also over large fields of prime characteristic $\F_p$. This need has been acknowledged by the wider community and new so-called Arithmetization-Oriented (AO) hash functions have been proposed, e.g. MiMC-Hash, Rescue, Poseidon, ReinforcedConcrete and Griffin to name a few.
In this paper we propose Anemoi: a new family of ZK-friendly permutations, that can be used to construct efficient hash functions and compression functions. The main features of these algorithms are that 1) they are designed to be efficient within multiple proof systems (e.g. Groth16, Plonk, etc.), 2) they contain dedicated functions optimised for specific applications (namely Merkle tree hashing and general purpose hashing), 3) they have highly competitive performance e.g. about a factor of 2 improvement over Poseidon and Rescue in terms of R1CS constraints, a 21%-35% Plonk constraint reduction over a highly optimized Poseidon implementation, as well as competitive native performance, running between two and three times faster than Rescue, depending on the field size.
On the theoretical side, Anemoi pushes further the frontier in understanding the design principles that are truly entailed by arithmetization-orientation. In particular, we identify and exploit a previously unknown relationship between CCZ-equivalence and arithmetization-orientation. In addition, we propose two new standalone components that can be easily reused in new designs. One is a new S-box called Flystel, based on the well-studied butterfly structure, and the second is Jive -- a new mode of operation, inspired by the ``Latin dance'' symmetric algorithms (Salsa, ChaCha and derivatives).
Our design is a conservative one: it uses a very classical Substitution-Permutation Network structure, and our detailed analysis of algebraic attacks highlights can be of independent interest.

2023

TOSC

Propagation of Subspaces in Primitives with Monomial Sboxes: Applications to Rescue and Variants of the AES
Abstract

Motivated by progress in the field of zero-knowledge proofs, so-called Arithmetization-Oriented (AO) symmetric primitives have started to appear in the literature, such as MiMC, Poseidon or Rescue. Due to the design constraints implied by this setting, these algorithms are defined using simple operations over large (possibly prime) fields. In particular, many rely on simple low-degree monomials for their non-linear layers, essentially using x ↦ x3 as an S-box.In this paper, we show that the structure of the material injected in each round (be it subkeys in a block cipher or round constants in a public permutation) could allow a specific pattern, whereby a well-defined affine space is mapped to another by the round function, and then to another, etc. Such chains of one-dimensional subspaces always exist over 2 rounds, and they can be extended to an arbitrary number of rounds, for any linear layer, provided that the round-constants are well chosen.As a consequence, for several ciphers like Rescue, or a variant of AES with a monomial Sbox, there exist some round-key sequences for which the cipher has an abnormally high differential uniformity, exceeding the size of the Sbox alphabet.Well-known security arguments, in particular based on the wide-trail strategy, have been reused in the AO setting by many designers. Unfortunately, our results show that such a traditional study may not be sufficient to guarantee security. To illustrate this, we present two new primitives (the tweakable block cipher Snare and the permutation-based hash function Stir) that are built using state-of-the-art security arguments, but which are actually deeply flawed. Indeed, the key schedule of Snare ensures the presence of a subspace chain that significantly simplifies an algebraic attack against it, and the round constants of Stir force the presence of a subspace chain aligned with the rate and capacity of the permutation. This in turns implies the existence of many easy-to-find solutions to the so-called CICO problem.

2023

TOSC

Commutative Cryptanalysis Made Practical
Abstract

About 20 years ago, Wagner showed that most of the (then) known techniques used in the cryptanalysis of block ciphers were particular cases of what he called commutative diagram cryptanalysis. However, to the best of our knowledge, this general framework has not yet been leveraged to find concrete attacks.In this paper, we focus on a particular case of this framework and develop commutative cryptanalysis, whereby an attacker targeting a primitive E constructs affine permutations A and B such that E ○ A = B ○ E with a high probability, possibly for some weak keys. We develop the tools needed for the practical use of this technique: first, we generalize differential uniformity into “A-uniformity” and differential trails into “commutative trails”, and second we investigate the commutative behaviour of S-box layers, matrix multiplications, and key additions.Equipped with these new techniques, we find probability-one distinguishers using only two chosen plaintexts for large classes of weak keys in both a modified Midori and in Scream. For the same weak keys, we deduce high probability truncated differentials that can cover an arbitrary number of rounds, but which do not correspond to any high probability differential trails. Similarly, we show the existence of a trade-off in our variant of Midori whereby the probability of the commutative trail can be decreased in order to increase the weak key density. We also show some statistical patterns in the AES super S-box that have a much higher probability than the best differentials, and which hold for a class of weak keys of density about 2−4.5.

2022

TOSC

Algebraic Attacks against Some Arithmetization-Oriented Primitives
Abstract

Recent advanced Zero-Knowledge protocols, along with other high-level constructions such as Multi-Party Computations (MPC), have highlighted the need for a new type of symmetric primitives that are not optimized for speed on the usual platforms (desktop computers, servers, microcontrollers, RFID tags...), but for their ability to be implemented using arithmetic circuits.Several primitives have already been proposed to satisfy this need. In order to enable an efficient arithmetization, they operate over large finite fields, and use round functions that can be modelled using low degree equations. The impact of these properties on their security remains to be completely assessed. In particular, algebraic attacks relying on polynomial root-finding become extremely relevant. Such attacks work by writing the cryptanalysis as systems of polynomial equations over the large field, and solving them with off-the-shelf tools (SageMath, NTL, Magma, . . . ).The need for further analysis of these new designs has been recently highlighted by the Ethereum Foundation, as it issued bounties for successful attacks against round-reduced versions of several of them.In this paper, we show that the security analysis performed by the designers (or challenge authors) of four such primitives is too optimistic, and that it is possible to improve algebraic attacks using insights gathered from a careful study of the round function.First, we show that univariate polynomial root-finding can be of great relevance n practice, as it allows us to solve many of the Ethereum Foundation’s challenges on Feistel–MiMC. Second, we introduce a trick to essentially shave off two full rounds at little to no cost for Substitution-Permutation Networks (SPN). This can be combined with univariate (resp. multivariate) root-finding, which allowed to solve some challenges for Poseidon (resp. Rescue–Prime). Finally, we also find an alternative way to set up a system of equations to attack Ciminion, leading to much faster attacks than expected by the designers.

2022

TOSC

Practical Cube Attack against Nonce-Misused Ascon
Abstract

Ascon is a sponge-based Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data that was selected as both one of the winners of the CAESAR competition and one of the finalists of the NIST lightweight cryptography standardization effort. As this competition comes to an end, we analyse the security of this algorithm against cube attacks. We present a practical cube attack against the full 6-round encryption in Ascon in the nonce-misuse setting. We note right away that this attack does not violate the security claims made by the designers of Ascon, due to this setting.Our cryptanalysis is a conditional cube attack that is capable of recovering the full capacity in practical time; but for Ascon-128, its extension to a key recovery or a forgery is still an open question. First, a careful analysis of the maximum-degree terms in the algebraic normal form of the Ascon permutation allows us to derive linear equations in half of the capacity bits given enough cube sums of dimension 32. Then, depending on the results of this first phase, we identify smaller-degree cubes that allow us to recover the remaining half of the capacity. Overall, our cryptanalysis has a complexity of about 240 adaptatively chosen plaintexts, and about 240 calls to the permutation. We have implemented the full attack and our experiments confirm our claims.Our results are built on a theoretical framework which allows us to easily identify monomials whose cube-sums provide linear equations in the capacity bits. The coefficients of these monomials have a more general form than those used in the previous attacks against Ascon, and our method enables us to re-frame previous results in a simpler form. Overall, it enables to gain a deeper understanding of the properties of the permutation, and in particular of its S-box, that make such state-recoveries possible.

2021

TOSC

MOE: Multiplication Operated Encryption with Trojan Resilience
📺
Abstract

In order to lower costs, the fabrication of Integrated Circuits (ICs) is increasingly delegated to offshore contract foundries, making them exposed to malicious modifications, known as hardware Trojans. Recent works have demonstrated that a strong form of Trojan-resilience can be obtained from untrusted chips by exploiting secret sharing and Multi-Party Computation (MPC), yet with significant cost overheads. In this paper, we study the possibility of building a symmetric cipher enabling similar guarantees in a more efficient manner. To reach this goal, we exploit a simple round structure mixing a modular multiplication and a multiplication with a binary matrix. Besides being motivated as a new block cipher design for Trojan resilience, our research also exposes the cryptographic properties of the modular multiplication, which is of independent interest.

2021

JOFC

Internal Symmetries and Linear Properties: Full-permutation Distinguishers and Improved Collisions on Gimli
Abstract

$$\mathsf {Gimli}$$ Gimli is a family of cryptographic primitives (both a hash function and an AEAD scheme) that has been selected for the second round of the NIST competition for standardizing new lightweight designs. The candidate $$\mathsf {Gimli}$$ Gimli is based on the permutation $$\mathsf {Gimli}$$ Gimli , which was presented at CHES 2017. In this paper, we study the security of both the permutation and the constructions that are based on it. We exploit the slow diffusion in $$\mathsf {Gimli}$$ Gimli and its internal symmetries to build, for the first time, a distinguisher on the full permutation of complexity $$2^{64}$$ 2 64 . We also provide a practical distinguisher on 23 out of the full 24 rounds of $$\mathsf {Gimli}$$ Gimli that has been implemented. Next, we give (full state) collision and semi-free start collision attacks on $$\mathsf {Gimli}$$ Gimli -Hash, reaching, respectively, up to 12 and 18 rounds. On the practical side, we compute a collision on 8-round $$\mathsf {Gimli}$$ Gimli -Hash. In the quantum setting, these attacks reach 2 more rounds. Finally, we perform the first study of linear trails in $$\mathsf {Gimli}$$ Gimli , and we find a linear distinguisher on the full permutation.

2020

CRYPTO

Cryptanalysis Results on Spook: Bringing Full-round Shadow-512 to the Light
📺
Abstract

Spook is one of the 32 candidates that has made it to the second round of the NIST Lightweight Cryptography Standardization process, and is particularly interesting since it proposes differential side channel resistance. In this paper, we present practical distinguishers of the full 6-step version of the underlying permutations of Spook, namely Shadow-512 and Shadow-384, solving challenges proposed by the designers on the permutation. We also propose practical forgeries with 4-step Shadow for the S1P mode of operation in the nonce misuse scenario, which is allowed by the CIML2 security game considered by the authors. All the results presented in this paper have been implemented.

2020

CRYPTO

Out of Oddity -- New Cryptanalytic Techniques against Symmetric Primitives Optimized for Integrity Proof Systems
📺
Abstract

The security and performance of many integrity proof systems like SNARKs, STARKs and Bulletproofs highly depend on the underlying hash function. For this reason several new proposals have recently been developed. These primitives obviously require an in-depth security evaluation, especially since their implementation constraints have led to less standard design approaches. This work compares the security levels offered by two recent families of such primitives, namely GMiMC and HadesMiMC. We exhibit low-complexity distinguishers against the GMiMC and HadesMiMC permutations for most parameters proposed in recently launched public challenges for STARK-friendly hash functions. In the more concrete setting of the sponge construction corresponding to the practical use in the ZK-STARK protocol, we present a practical collision attack on a round-reduced version of GMiMC and a preimage attack on some instances of HadesMiMC. To achieve those results, we adapt and generalize several cryptographic techniques to fields of odd characteristic.

2020

TOSC

Saturnin: a suite of lightweight symmetric algorithms for post-quantum security
📺
Abstract

The cryptographic algorithms needed to ensure the security of our communications have a cost. For devices with little computing power, whose number is expected to grow significantly with the spread of the Internet of Things (IoT), this cost can be a problem. A simple answer to this problem is a compromise on the security level: through a weaker round function or a smaller number of rounds, the security level can be decreased in order to cheapen the implementation of the cipher. At the same time, quantum computers are expected to disrupt the state of the art in cryptography in the near future. For public-key cryptography, the NIST has organized a dedicated process to standardize new algorithms. The impact of quantum computing is harder to assess in the symmetric case but its study is an active research area.In this paper, we specify a new block cipher, Saturnin, and its usage in different modes to provide hashing and authenticated encryption in such a way that we can rigorously argue its security in the post-quantum setting. Its security analysis follows naturally from that of the AES, while our use of components that are easily implemented in a bitsliced fashion ensures a low cost for our primitives. Our aim is to provide a new lightweight suite of algorithms that performs well on small devices, in particular micro-controllers, while providing a high security level even in the presence of quantum computers. Saturnin is a 256-bit block cipher with a 256-bit key and an additional 9-bit parameter for domain separation. Using it, we built two authenticated ciphers and a hash function.• Saturnin-CTR-Cascade is an authenticated cipher using the counter mode and a separate MAC. It requires two passes over the data but its implementation does not require the inverse block cipher.• Saturnin-Short is an authenticated cipher intended for messages with a length strictly smaller than 128 bits which uses only one call to Saturnin to providenconfidentiality and integrity.• Saturnin-Hash is a 256-bit hash function. In this paper, we specify this suite of algorithms and argue about their security in both the classical and the post-quantum setting.
https://project.inria.fr/saturnin/

2020

TOSC

Lightweight AEAD and Hashing using the Sparkle Permutation Family
📺
Abstract

We introduce the Sparkle family of permutations operating on 256, 384 and 512 bits. These are combined with the Beetle mode to construct a family of authenticated ciphers, Schwaemm, with security levels ranging from 120 to 250 bits. We also use them to build new sponge-based hash functions, Esch256 and Esch384. Our permutations are among those with the lowest footprint in software, without sacrificing throughput. These properties are allowed by our use of an ARX component (the Alzette S-box) as well as a carefully chosen number of rounds. The corresponding analysis is enabled by the long trail strategy which gives us the tools we need to efficiently bound the probability of all the differential and linear trails for an arbitrary number of rounds. We also present a new application of this approach where the only trails considered are those mapping the rate to the outer part of the internal state, such trails being the only relevant trails for instance in a differential collision attack. To further decrease the number of rounds without compromising security, we modify the message injection in the classical sponge construction to break the alignment between the rate and our S-box layer.

2020

CRYPTO

Alzette: a 64-bit ARX-box (feat. CRAX and TRAX)
📺
Abstract

S-boxes are the only source of non-linearity in many symmetric cryptographic primitives. While they are often defined as being functions operating on a small space, some recent designs propose the use of much larger ones (e.g., 32 bits). In this context, an S-box is then defined as a subfunction whose cryptographic properties can be estimated precisely.
In this paper, we present a 64-bit ARX-based S-box called Alzette which can be evaluated in constant time using only 12 instructions on modern CPUs. Its parallel application can also leverage vector (SIMD) instructions. One iteration of Alzette has differential and linear properties comparable to those of the AES S-box, while two iterations are at least as secure as the AES super S-box. Since the state size is much larger than the typical 4 or 8 bits, the study of the relevant cryptographic properties of Alzette is not trivial.
We further discuss how such wide S-boxes could be used to construct round functions of 64-, 128- and 256-bit (tweakable) block ciphers with good cryptographic properties that are guaranteed even in the related-tweak setting. We use these structures to design a very lightweight 64-bit block cipher (CRAX) which outerperforms SPECK-64/128 for short messages on micro-controllers, and a 256-bit tweakable block cipher (TRAX) which can be used to obtain strong security guarantees against powerful adversaries (nonce misuse, quantum attacks).

2020

ASIACRYPT

New results on Gimli: full-permutation distinguishers and improved collisions
📺 ★
Abstract

Gimli is a family of cryptographic primitives (both a hash function and an AEAD scheme) that has been selected for the second round of the NIST competition for standardizing new lightweight designs. The candidate Gimli is based on the permutation Gimli, which was presented at CHES 2017. In this paper, we study the security of both the permutation and the constructions that are based on it. We exploit the slow diffusion in Gimli and its internal symmetries to build, for the first time, a distinguisher on the full permutation of complexity $2^{64}$. We also provide a practical distinguisher on 23 out of the full 24 rounds of Gimli that has been implemented.
Next, we give (full state) collision and semi-free-start collision attacks on Gimli-Hash, reaching respectively up to 12 and 18 rounds. On the practical side, we compute a collision on 8-round Gimli-Hash. In the quantum setting, these attacks reach 2 more rounds. Finally, we perform the first study of linear trails in the permutation, and we propose differential-linear cryptanalysis that reach up to 17 rounds of Gimli.

2020

JOFC

Meet-in-the-Middle Attacks and Structural Analysis of Round-Reduced PRINCE
Abstract

NXP Semiconductors and its academic partners challenged the cryptographic community with finding practical attacks on the block cipher they designed, PRINCE. Instead of trying to attack as many rounds as possible using attacks which are usually impractical despite being faster than brute force, the challenge invites cryptographers to find practical attacks and encourages them to actually implement them. In this paper, we present new attacks on round-reduced PRINCE including the ones which won the challenge in the 4-, 6- and 8-round categories—the highest for which winners were identified. Our first attacks rely on a meet-in-the-middle approach and break up to ten rounds of the cipher. We also describe heuristic methods we used to find practical SAT-based and differential attacks. Finally, we also present an analysis of the cycle structure of the internal rounds of PRINCE leading both to a low complexity distinguisher for 4-round PRINCE-core and an alternative representation of the cipher valid in particular contexts and which highlights, in these cases, a poor diffusion.

2019

TOSC

Partitions in the S-Box of Streebog and Kuznyechik
📺
Abstract

Streebog and Kuznyechik are the latest symmetric cryptographic primitives standardized by the Russian GOST. They share the same S-Box, π, whose design process was not described by its authors. In previous works, Biryukov, Perrin and Udovenko recovered two completely different decompositions of this S-Box.We revisit their results and identify a third decomposition of π. It is an instance of a fairly small family of permutations operating on 2m bits which we call TKlog and which is closely related to finite field logarithms. Its simplicity and the small number of components it uses lead us to claim that it has to be the structure intentionally used by the designers of Streebog and Kuznyechik.The 2m-bit permutations of this type have a very strong algebraic structure: they map multiplicative cosets of the subfield GF(2m)* to additive cosets of GF(2m)*. Furthermore, the function relating each multiplicative coset to the corresponding additive coset is always essentially the same. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to expose this very strong algebraic structure.We also investigate other properties of the TKlog and show in particular that it can always be decomposed in a fashion similar to the first decomposition of Biryukov et al., thus explaining the relation between the two previous decompositions. It also means that it is always possible to implement a TKlog efficiently in hardware and that it always exhibits a visual pattern in its LAT similar to the one present in π. While we could not find attacks based on these new results, we discuss the impact of our work on the security of Streebog and Kuznyechik. To this end, we provide a new simpler representation of the linear layer of Streebog as a matrix multiplication in the exact same field as the one used to define π. We deduce that this matrix interacts in a non-trivial way with the partitions preserved by π.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Anomalies and Vector Space Search: Tools for S-Box Analysis
Abstract

S-boxes are functions with an input so small that the simplest way to specify them is their lookup table (LUT). How can we quantify the distance between the behavior of a given S-box and that of an S-box picked uniformly at random?To answer this question, we introduce various “anomalies”. These real numbers are such that a property with an anomaly equal to a should be found roughly once in a set of $$2^{a}$$ random S-boxes. First, we present statistical anomalies based on the distribution of the coefficients in the difference distribution table, linear approximation table, and for the first time, the boomerang connectivity table.We then count the number of S-boxes that have block-cipher like structures to estimate the anomaly associated to those. In order to recover these structures, we show that the most general tool for decomposing S-boxes is an algorithm efficiently listing all the vector spaces of a given dimension contained in a given set, and we present such an algorithm.Combining these approaches, we conclude that all permutations that are actually picked uniformly at random always have essentially the same cryptographic properties and the same lack of structure.

2016

CRYPTO

2016

TOSC

Exponential S-Boxes: a Link Between the S-Boxes of BelT and Kuznyechik/Streebog
Abstract

The block cipher Kuznyechik and the hash function Streebog were recently standardized by the Russian Federation. These primitives use a common 8-bit S-Box, denoted

2016

TOSC

Multiset-Algebraic Cryptanalysis of Reduced Kuznyechik, Khazad, and secret SPNs
Abstract

We devise the first closed formula for the number of rounds of a blockcipher with secret components so that these components can be revealed using multiset, algebraic-degree, or division-integral properties, which in this case are equivalent. Using the new result, we attack 7 (out of 9) rounds of Kuznyechik, the recent Russian blockcipher standard, thus halving its security margin. With the same technique we attack 6 (out of 8) rounds of Khazad, the legacy 64-bit blockcipher. Finally, we show how to cryptanalyze and find a decomposition of generic SPN construction for which the inner-components are secret. All the attacks are the best to date.

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2023
- Eurocrypt 2023
- FSE 2023
- FSE 2022
- FSE 2020
- FSE 2018

#### Coauthors

- Augustin Bariant (1)
- Jules Baudrin (2)
- Christof Beierle (2)
- Tim Beyne (1)
- Alex Biryukov (9)
- Aurélien Boeuf (1)
- Xavier Bonnetain (1)
- Clémence Bouvier (2)
- Pierre Briaud (1)
- Olivier Bronchain (1)
- Anne Canteaut (4)
- Luan Cardoso dos Santos (2)
- Pyrros Chaidos (1)
- Patrick Derbez (4)
- Daniel Dinu (1)
- Itai Dinur (1)
- Sébastien Duval (1)
- Maria Eichlseder (1)
- Sebastian Faust (1)
- Patrick Felke (1)
- Johann Großschädl (3)
- Antonio Flórez Gutiérrez (2)
- Paul Huynh (1)
- Dmitry Khovratovich (2)
- Virginie Lallemand (2)
- Gregor Leander (3)
- Gaëtan Leurent (5)
- María Naya-Plasencia (5)
- Patrick Neumann (1)
- Thomas Pornin (1)
- Robin Salen (1)
- Yu Sasaki (1)
- André Schrottenloher (4)
- Ferdinand Sibleyras (2)
- François-Xavier Standaert (1)
- Lukas Stennes (1)
- Shizhu Tian (1)
- Yosuke Todo (1)
- Aleksei Udovenko (7)
- Vesselin Velichkov (4)
- Qingju Wang (2)
- Friedrich Wiemer (1)
- Danny Willems (1)