## CryptoDB

### João Ribeiro

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

CRYPTO

Improved Reductions from Noisy to Bounded and Probing Leakages via Hockey-Stick Divergences
Abstract

There exists a mismatch between the theory and practice of cryptography in the presence of leakage. On the theoretical front, the bounded leakage model, where the adversary learns bounded-length but noiseless information about secret components, and the random probing model, where the adversary learns some internal values of a leaking implementation with some probability, are convenient abstractions to analyze the security of numerous designs. On the practical front, side-channel attacks produce long transcripts which are inherently noisy but provide information about all internal computations, and this noisiness is usually evaluated with closely related metrics like the mutual information or statistical distance. Ideally, we would like to claim that resilience to bounded leakage or random probing implies resilience to noisy leakage evaluated according to these metrics. However, prior work (Duc, Dziembowski and Faust, Eurocrypt 2014; Brian et al., Eurocrypt 2021) has shown that proving such reductions with useful parameters is challenging.
In this work, we study noisy leakage models stemming from hockey-stick divergences, which generalize statistical distance and are also the basis of differential privacy. First, we show that resilience to bounded leakage and random probing implies resilience to our new noisy leakage model with improved parameters compared to models based on the statistical distance or mutual information. Second, we establish composition theorems for our model, showing that these connections extend to a setting where multiple leakages are obtained from a leaking implementation. We complement our theoretical results with a discussion of practical relevance, highlighting that (i) the reduction to bounded leakage applies to realistic leakage functions with noise levels that are decreased by several orders of magnitude compared to Brian et al., and (ii) the reduction to random probing usefully generalizes the seminal work of Duc, Dziembowski, and Faust, although it remains limited when the field size in which masking operates grows (i.e., hockey-stick divergences can better hide the field size dependency of the noise requirements, but do not annihilate it).

2024

TCC

Split-State Non-Malleable Codes and Secret Sharing Schemes for Quantum Messages
Abstract

Non-malleable codes are fundamental objects at the intersection of cryptography and coding theory. These codes provide security guarantees even in settings where error correction and detection are impossible, and have found applications to several other cryptographic tasks. One of the strongest and most well-studied adversarial tampering models is 2-split-state tampering. Here, a codeword is split into two parts which are stored in physically distant servers, and the adversary can then independently tamper with each part using arbitrary functions. This model can be naturally extended to the secret sharing setting with several parties by having the adversary independently tamper with each share. Previous works on non-malleable coding and secret sharing in the split-state tampering model only considered the encoding of classical messages. Furthermore, until recent work by Aggarwal, Boddu, and Jain (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 2024 & arXiv 2022), adversaries with quantum capabilities and shared entanglement had not been considered, and it is a priori not clear whether previous schemes remain secure in this model.
In this work, we introduce the notions of split-state non-malleable codes and secret sharing schemes for quantum messages secure against quantum adversaries with shared entanglement. Then, we present explicit constructions of such schemes that achieve low-error non-malleability. More precisely, for some constant c>0, we construct efficiently encodable and decodable split-state non-malleable codes and secret sharing schemes for quantum messages preserving entanglement with external systems and achieving security against quantum adversaries having shared entanglement with codeword length n, any message length at most n^c, and error \eps=2^{-{n^{c}}}. In the easier setting of average-case non-malleability, we achieve efficient non-malleable coding with rate close to 1/11.

2024

TCC

Unbounded Leakage-Resilience and Intrusion-Detection in a Quantum World
Abstract

Can an adversary hack into our computer and steal sensitive data such as cryptographic keys? This question is almost as old as the Internet and significant effort has been spent on designing mechanisms to prevent and detect hacking attacks. Once quantum computers arrive, will the situation remain the same or can we hope to live in a better world?
We first consider ubiquitous side-channel attacks, which aim to leak side information on secret system components, studied in the leakage-resilient cryptography literature. Classical leakage-resilient cryptography must necessarily impose restrictions on the type of leakage one aims to protect against. As a notable example, the most well-studied leakage model is that of bounded leakage, where it is assumed that an adversary learns at most l bits of leakage on secret components, for some leakage bound l. Although this leakage bound is necessary, many real-world side-channel attacks cannot be captured by bounded leakage. In this work, we design cryptographic schemes that provide guarantees against arbitrary side-channel attacks:
• Using techniques from unclonable quantum cryptography, we design several basic leakage- resilient primitives, such as public- and private-key encryption, (weak) pseudorandom func- tions, digital signatures and quantum money schemes which remain secure under (polyno- mially) unbounded classical leakage. In particular, this leakage can be much longer than the (quantum) secret being leaked upon. In our view, leakage is the result of observations of quantities such as power consumption and hence is most naturally viewed as classi- cal information. Notably, the leakage-resilience of our schemes holds even in the stronger “LOCC leakage” model where the adversary can obtain adaptive leakage for (polynomially) unbounded number of rounds.
• What if the adversary simply breaks into our system to steal our secret keys, rather than mounting only a side-channel attack? What if the adversary can even tamper with the data arbitrarily, for example to cover its tracks? We initiate the study of intrusion- detection in the quantum setting, where one would like to detect if security has been compromised even in the face of an arbitrary intruder attack which can leak and tamper with classical as well as quantum data. We design cryptographic schemes supporting intrusion detection for a host of primitives such as public- and private-key encryption, digital signature, functional encryption, program obfuscation and software protection. Our schemes are based on techniques from cryptography with secure key leasing and certified deletion

2022

CRYPTO

Public Randomness Extraction with Ephemeral Roles and Worst-Case Corruptions
📺
Abstract

We distill a simple information-theoretic model for randomness extraction motivated by the task of generating publicly verifiable randomness in blockchain settings and which is closely related to You-Only-Speak-Once (YOSO) protocols (CRYPTO 2021). With the goal of avoiding denial-of-service attacks, parties speak only once and in sequence by broadcasting a public value and forwarding secret values to future parties. Additionally, an unbounded adversary can corrupt any chosen subset of at most t parties. In contrast, existing YOSO protocols only handle random corruptions. As a notable example, considering worst-case corruptions allows us to reduce trust in the role assignment mechanism, which is assumed to be perfectly random in YOSO.
We study the maximum corruption threshold t which allows for unconditional randomness extraction in our model:
- With respect to feasibility, we give protocols for t corruptions and n=6t+1 or n=5t parties depending on whether the adversary learns secret values forwarded to corrupted parties immediately once they are sent or only once the corrupted party is executed, respectively. Both settings are motivated by practical implementations of secret value forwarding. To design such protocols, we go beyond the committee-based approach that is sufficient for random corruptions in YOSO but turns out to be sub-optimal for chosen corruptions.
- To complement our protocols, we show that low-error randomness extraction is impossible with corruption threshold t and n\leq 4t parties in both settings above. This also provides a separation between chosen and random corruptions, since the latter allows for randomness extraction with close to n/2 random corruptions.

2022

TOSC

Short Non-Malleable Codes from Related-Key Secure Block Ciphers, Revisited
Abstract

We construct non-malleable codes in the split-state model with codeword length m + 3λ or m + 5λ, where m is the message size and λ is the security parameter, depending on how conservative one is. Our scheme is very simple and involves a single call to a block cipher meeting a new security notion which we dub entropic fixed-related-key security, which essentially means that the block cipher behaves like a pseudorandom permutation when queried upon inputs sampled from a distribution with sufficient min-entropy, even under related-key attacks with respect to an arbitrary but fixed key relation. Importantly, indistinguishability only holds with respect to the original secret key (and not with respect to the tampered secret key).In a previous work, Fehr, Karpman, and Mennink (ToSC 2018) used a related assumption (where the block cipher inputs can be chosen by the adversary, and where indistinguishability holds even with respect to the tampered key) to construct a nonmalleable code in the split-state model with codeword length m + 2λ. Unfortunately, no block cipher (even an ideal one) satisfies their assumption when the tampering function is allowed to be cipher-dependent. In contrast, we are able to show that entropic fixed-related-key security holds in the ideal cipher model with respect to a large class of cipher-dependent tampering attacks (including those which break the assumption of Fehr, Karpman, and Mennink).

2022

TCC

On Secret Sharing, Randomness, and Random-less Reductions for Secret Sharing
Abstract

Secret-sharing is one of the most fundamental primitives in cryptography, and has found several applications. All known constructions of secret sharing (with the exception of those with a pathological choice of parameters) require access to uniform randomness. However, in practice it is extremely challenging to generate a source of uniform randomness. This has led to a large body of research devoted to designing randomized algorithms and cryptographic primitives from imperfect sources of randomness. Motivated by this, Bosley and Dodis (TCC 2007) asked whether it is even possible to construct a $2$-out-of-$2$ secret sharing scheme without access to uniform randomness.
In this work, we make significant progress towards answering this question. Namely, we resolve this question for secret sharing schemes with important additional properties: $1$-bit leakage-resilience and non-malleability. We prove that, for not too small secrets, it is impossible to construct any $2$-out-of-$2$ leakage-resilient or non-malleable secret sharing scheme without access to uniform randomness.
Given that the problem of whether $2$-out-of-$2$ secret sharing requires uniform randomness has been open for more than a decade, it is reasonable to consider intermediate problems towards resolving the open question. In a spirit similar to NP-completeness, we also study how the existence of a $t$-out-of-$n$ secret sharing without access to uniform randomness is related to the existence of a $t'$-out-of-$n'$ secret sharing without access to uniform randomness for a different choice of the parameters $t,n,t',n'$.

2021

EUROCRYPT

The Mother of All Leakages: How to Simulate Noisy Leakages via Bounded Leakage (Almost) for Free
📺
Abstract

We show that noisy leakage can be simulated in the information-theoretic setting using a single query of bounded leakage, up to a small statistical simulation error and a slight loss in the leakage parameter. The latter holds true in particular for one of the most used noisy-leakage models, where the noisiness is measured using the conditional average min-entropy (Naor and Segev, CRYPTO'09 and SICOMP'12).
Our reductions between noisy and bounded leakage are achieved in two steps. First, we put forward a new leakage model (dubbed the dense leakage model) and prove that dense leakage can be simulated in the information-theoretic setting using a single query of bounded leakage, up to small statistical distance. Second, we show that the most common noisy-leakage models fall within the class of dense leakage, with good parameters. We also provide a complete picture of the relationships between different noisy-leakage models, and prove lower bounds showing that our reductions are nearly optimal.
Our result finds applications to leakage-resilient cryptography, where we are often able to lift security in the presence of bounded leakage to security in the presence of noisy leakage, both in the information-theoretic and in the computational setting. Additionally, we show how to use lower bounds in communication complexity to prove that bounded-collusion protocols (Kumar, Meka, and Sahai, FOCS'19) for certain functions do not only require long transcripts, but also necessarily need to reveal enough information about the inputs.

2020

EUROCRYPT

How to Extract Useful Randomness from Unreliable Sources
📺
Abstract

For more than 30 years, cryptographers have been looking for public sources of uniform randomness in order to use them as a set-up to run appealing cryptographic protocols without relying on trusted third parties. Unfortunately, nowadays it is fair to assess that assuming the existence of physical phenomena producing public uniform randomness is far from reality.
It is known that uniform randomness cannot be extracted from a single weak source. A well-studied way to overcome this is to consider several independent weak sources. However, this means we must trust the various sampling processes of weak randomness from physical processes.
Motivated by the above state of affairs, this work considers a set-up where players can access multiple {\em potential} sources of weak randomness, several of which may be jointly corrupted by a computationally unbounded adversary. We introduce {\em SHELA} (Somewhere Honest Entropic Look Ahead) sources to model this situation.
We show that there is no hope of extracting uniform randomness from a {\em SHELA} source. Instead, we focus on the task of {\em Somewhere-Extraction} (i.e., outputting several candidate strings, some of which are uniformly distributed -- yet we do not know which). We give explicit constructions of {\em Somewhere-Extractors} for {\em SHELA} sources with good parameters.
Then, we present applications of the above somewhere-extractor where the public uniform randomness can be replaced by the output of such extraction from corruptible sources, greatly outperforming trivial solutions. The output of somewhere-extraction is also useful in other settings, such as a suitable source of random coins for many randomized algorithms.
In another front, we comprehensively study the problem of {\em Somewhere-Extraction} from a {\em weak} source, resulting in a series of bounds. Our bounds highlight the fact that, in most regimes of parameters (including those relevant for applications), {\em SHELA} sources significantly outperform {\em weak} sources of comparable parameters both when it comes to the process of {\em Somewhere-Extraction}, or in the task of amplification of success probability in randomized algorithms. Moreover, the low quality of somewhere-extraction from weak sources excludes its use in various efficient applications.

2019

CRYPTO

Stronger Leakage-Resilient and Non-Malleable Secret Sharing Schemes for General Access Structures
📺
Abstract

In this work we present a collection of compilers that take secret sharing schemes for an arbitrary access structure as input and produce either leakage-resilient or non-malleable secret sharing schemes for the same access structure. A leakage-resilient secret sharing scheme hides the secret from an adversary, who has access to an unqualified set of shares, even if the adversary additionally obtains some size-bounded leakage from all other secret shares. A non-malleable secret sharing scheme guarantees that a secret that is reconstructed from a set of tampered shares is either equal to the original secret or completely unrelated. To the best of our knowledge we present the first generic compiler for leakage-resilient secret sharing for general access structures. In the case of non-malleable secret sharing, we strengthen previous definitions, provide separations between them, and construct a non-malleable secret sharing scheme for general access structures that fulfills the strongest definition with respect to independent share tampering functions. More precisely, our scheme is secure against concurrent tampering: The adversary is allowed to (non-adaptively) tamper the shares multiple times, and in each tampering attempt can freely choose the qualified set of shares to be used by the reconstruction algorithm to reconstruct the tampered secret. This is a strong analogue of the multiple-tampering setting for split-state non-malleable codes and extractors.We show how to use leakage-resilient and non-malleable secret sharing schemes to construct leakage-resilient and non-malleable threshold signatures. Classical threshold signatures allow to distribute the secret key of a signature scheme among a set of parties, such that certain qualified subsets can sign messages. We construct threshold signature schemes that remain secure even if an adversary leaks from or tampers with all secret shares.

2018

TCC

Information-Theoretic Secret-Key Agreement: The Asymptotically Tight Relation Between the Secret-Key Rate and the Channel Quality Ratio
Abstract

Information-theoretic secret-key agreement between two parties Alice and Bob is a well-studied problem that is provably impossible in a plain model with public (authenticated) communication, but is known to be possible in a model where the parties also have access to some correlated randomness. One particular type of such correlated randomness is the so-called satellite setting, where uniform random bits (e.g., sent by a satellite) are received by the parties and the adversary Eve over inherently noisy channels. The antenna size determines the error probability, and the antenna is the adversary’s limiting resource much as computing power is the limiting resource in traditional complexity-based security. The natural assumption about the adversary is that her antenna is at most Q times larger than both Alice’s and Bob’s antenna, where, to be realistic, Q can be very large.The goal of this paper is to characterize the secret-key rate per transmitted bit in terms of Q. Traditional results in this so-called satellite setting are phrased in terms of the error probabilities $$\epsilon _A$$ϵA, $$\epsilon _B$$ϵB, and $$\epsilon _E$$ϵE, of the binary symmetric channels through which the parties receive the bits and, quite surprisingly, the secret-key rate has been shown to be strictly positive unless Eve’s channel is perfect ($$\epsilon _E=0$$ϵE=0) or either Alice’s or Bob’s channel output is independent of the transmitted bit (i.e., $$\epsilon _A=0.5$$ϵA=0.5 or $$\epsilon _B=0.5$$ϵB=0.5). However, the best proven lower bound, if interpreted in terms of the channel quality ratio Q, is only exponentially small in Q. The main result of this paper is that the secret-key rate decreases asymptotically only like $$1/Q^2$$1/Q2 if the per-bit signal energy, affecting the quality of all channels, is treated as a system parameter that can be optimized. Moreover, this bound is tight if Alice and Bob have the same antenna sizes.Motivated by considering a fixed sending signal power, in which case the per-bit energy is inversely proportional to the bit-rate, we also propose a definition of the secret-key rate per second (rather than per transmitted bit) and prove that it decreases asymptotically only like 1/Q.

#### Program Committees

- TCC 2023

#### Coauthors

- Divesh Aggarwal (3)
- Naresh Goud Boddu (1)
- Gianluca Brian (2)
- Alper Cakan (1)
- Eldon Chung (1)
- Ivan Damgård (1)
- Antonio Faonio (2)
- Vipul Goyal (2)
- Rahul Jain (1)
- Daniel Jost (1)
- Chen-Da Liu-Zhang (1)
- Ueli Maurer (1)
- Jesper Buus Nielsen (2)
- Maciej Obremski (6)
- Erick Purwanto (1)
- João Ribeiro (10)
- Lawrence Roy (1)
- Mark Simkin (2)
- Luisa Siniscalchi (1)
- Maciej Skórski (1)
- François-Xavier Standaert (1)
- Daniele Venturi (3)
- Ivan Visconti (1)