Out of Oddity -- New Cryptanalytic Techniques against Symmetric Primitives Optimized for Integrity Proof Systems 📺
The security and performance of many integrity proof systems like SNARKs, STARKs and Bulletproofs highly depend on the underlying hash function. For this reason several new proposals have recently been developed. These primitives obviously require an in-depth security evaluation, especially since their implementation constraints have led to less standard design approaches. This work compares the security levels offered by two recent families of such primitives, namely GMiMC and HadesMiMC. We exhibit low-complexity distinguishers against the GMiMC and HadesMiMC permutations for most parameters proposed in recently launched public challenges for STARK-friendly hash functions. In the more concrete setting of the sponge construction corresponding to the practical use in the ZK-STARK protocol, we present a practical collision attack on a round-reduced version of GMiMC and a preimage attack on some instances of HadesMiMC. To achieve those results, we adapt and generalize several cryptographic techniques to fields of odd characteristic.
Spook: Sponge-Based Leakage-Resistant Authenticated Encryption with a Masked Tweakable Block Cipher 📺
This paper defines Spook: a sponge-based authenticated encryption with associated data algorithm. It is primarily designed to provide security against side-channel attacks at a low energy cost. For this purpose, Spook is mixing a leakageresistant mode of operation with bitslice ciphers enabling efficient and low latency implementations. The leakage-resistant mode of operation leverages a re-keying function to prevent differential side-channel analysis, a duplex sponge construction to efficiently process the data, and a tag verification based on a Tweakable Block Cipher (TBC) providing strong data integrity guarantees in the presence of leakages. The underlying bitslice ciphers are optimized for the masking countermeasures against side-channel attacks. Spook is an efficient single-pass algorithm. It ensures state-of-the-art black box security with several prominent features: (i) nonce misuse-resilience, (ii) beyond-birthday security with respect to the TBC block size, and (iii) multiuser security at minimum cost with a public tweak. Besides the specifications and design rationale, we provide first software and hardware implementation results of (unprotected) Spook which confirm the limited overheads that the use of two primitives sharing internal components imply. We also show that the integrity of Spook with leakage, so far analyzed with unbounded leakages for the duplex sponge and a strongly protected TBC modeled as leak-free, can be proven with a much weaker unpredictability assumption for the TBC. We finally discuss external cryptanalysis results and tweaks to improve both the security margins and efficiency of Spook.
bison Instantiating the Whitened Swap-Or-Not Construction 📺
We give the first practical instance – bison – of the Whitened Swap-Or-Not construction. After clarifying inherent limitations of the construction, we point out that this way of building block ciphers allows easy and very strong arguments against differential attacks.
Searching for Subspace Trails and Truncated Differentials
Grassi et al. [Gra+16] introduced subspace trail cryptanalysis as a generalization of invariant subspaces and used it to give the first five round distinguisher for Aes. While it is a generic method, up to now it was only applied to the Aes and Prince. One problem for a broad adoption of the attack is a missing generic analysis algorithm. In this work we provide efficient and generic algorithms that allow to compute the provably best subspace trails for any substitution permutation cipher.
Linear Cryptanalysis: Key Schedules and Tweakable Block Ciphers
This paper serves as a systematization of knowledge of linear cryptanalysis and provides novel insights in the areas of key schedule design and tweakable block ciphers. We examine in a step by step manner the linear hull theorem in a general and consistent setting. Based on this, we study the influence of the choice of the key scheduling on linear cryptanalysis, a – notoriously difficult – but important subject. Moreover, we investigate how tweakable block ciphers can be analyzed with respect to linear cryptanalysis, a topic that surprisingly has not been scrutinized until now.
Shorter Linear Straight-Line Programs for MDS Matrices
Recently a lot of attention is paid to the search for efficiently implementable MDS matrices for lightweight symmetric primitives. Most previous work concentrated on locally optimizing the multiplication with single matrix elements. Separate from this line of work, several heuristics were developed to find shortest linear straightline programs. Solving this problem actually corresponds to globally optimizing multiplications by matrices. In this work we combine those, so far largely independent lines of work. As a result, we achieve implementations of known, locally optimized, and new MDS matrices that significantly outperform all implementations from the literature. Interestingly, almost all previous locally optimized constructions behave very similar with respect to the globally optimized implementation. As a side effect, our work reveals the so far best implementation of the Aes Mix- Columns operation with respect to the number of XOR operations needed.
- Davide Bellizia (1)
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- Olivier Bronchain (1)
- Anne Canteaut (2)
- Gaëtan Cassiers (1)
- Itai Dinur (1)
- Sébastien Duval (1)
- Maria Eichlseder (1)
- Chun Guo (1)
- Thorsten Kranz (2)
- Virginie Lallemand (1)
- Gregor Leander (6)
- Gaëtan Leurent (2)
- Itamar Levi (1)
- Charles Momin (1)
- María Naya-Plasencia (1)
- Patrick Neumann (1)
- Olivier Pereira (1)
- Léo Perrin (1)
- Thomas Peters (1)
- Yu Sasaki (1)
- François-Xavier Standaert (1)
- Ko Stoffelen (1)
- Cihangir Tezcan (1)
- Yosuke Todo (1)
- Balazs Udvarhelyi (1)