International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Gaëtan Cassiers

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2022
TCHES
Triplex: an Efficient and One-Pass Leakage-Resistant Mode of Operation
This paper introduces and analyzes Triplex, a leakage-resistant mode of operation based on Tweakable Block Ciphers (TBCs) with $2n$-bit tweaks. Triplex enjoys beyond-birthday ciphertext integrity in the presence of encryption and decryption leakage in a liberal model where all intermediate computations are leaked in full and only two TBC calls operating a long-term secret are protected with implementation-level countermeasures. It provides beyond-birthday confidentiality guarantees without leakage, and standard confidentiality guarantees with leakage for a single-pass mode embedding a re-keying process for the bulk of its computations (i.e., birthday confidentiality with encryption leakage under a bounded leakage assumption). Triplex improves leakage-resistant modes of operation relying on TBCs with $n$-bit tweaks when instantiated with large-tweak TBCs like Deoxys-TBC (a CAESAR competition laureate) or Skinny (used by the Romulus finalist of the NIST lightweight crypto competition). Its security guarantees are maintained in the multi-user setting.
2022
TCHES
Bitslicing Arithmetic/Boolean Masking Conversions for Fun and Profit with Application to Lattice-Based KEMs
Olivier Bronchain Gaëtan Cassiers
The performance of higher-order masked implementations of lattice-based based key encapsulation mechanisms (KEM) is currently limited by the costly conversions between arithmetic and boolean masking. While bitslicing has been shown to strongly speed up masked implementations of symmetric primitives, its use in arithmetic-to-Boolean and Boolean-to-arithmetic masking conversion gadgets has never been thoroughly investigated. In this paper, we first show that bitslicing can indeed accelerate existing conversion gadgets. We then optimize these gadgets, exploiting the degrees of freedom offered by bitsliced implementations. As a result, we introduce new arbitrary-order boolean masked addition, arithmetic-to-boolean and boolean-to-arithmetic masking conversion gadgets, each in two variants: modulo $2^k$ and modulo $p$ (for any integers $k$ and $p$). Practically, our new gadgets achieve a speedup of up to 25x over the state of the art. Turning to the KEM application, we develop the first open-source embedded (Cortex-M4) implementations of Kyber768 and Saber masked at arbitrary order. The implementations based on the new bitsliced gadgets achieve a speedup of 1.8x for Kyber and 3x for Saber, compared to the implementation based on state of the art gadgets. The bottleneck of the bitslice implementations is the masked Keccak-f[1600] permutation.
2022
TCHES
Triplex: an Efficient and One-Pass Leakage-Resistant Mode of Operation
This paper introduces and analyzes Triplex, a leakage-resistant mode of operation based on Tweakable Block Ciphers (TBCs) with 2n-bit tweaks. Triplex enjoys beyond-birthday ciphertext integrity in the presence of encryption and decryption leakage in a liberal model where all intermediate computations are leaked in full and only two TBC calls operating a long-term secret are protected with implementationlevel countermeasures. It provides beyond-birthday confidentiality guarantees without leakage, and standard confidentiality guarantees with leakage for a single-pass mode embedding a re-keying process for the bulk of its computations (i.e., birthday confidentiality with encryption leakage under a bounded leakage assumption). Triplex improves leakage-resistant modes of operation relying on TBCs with n-bit tweaks when instantiated with large-tweak TBCs like Deoxys-TBC (a CAESAR competition laureate) or Skinny (used by the Romulus finalist of the NIST lightweight crypto competition). Its security guarantees are maintained in the multi-user setting.
2022
TCHES
Bitslicing Arithmetic/Boolean Masking Conversions for Fun and Profit: with Application to Lattice-Based KEMs
Olivier Bronchain Gaëtan Cassiers
The performance of higher-order masked implementations of lattice-based based key encapsulation mechanisms (KEM) is currently limited by the costly conversions between arithmetic and Boolean masking. While bitslicing has been shown to strongly speed up masked implementations of symmetric primitives, its use in arithmetic-to-Boolean and Boolean-to-arithmetic masking conversion gadgets has never been thoroughly investigated. In this paper, we first show that bitslicing can indeed accelerate existing conversion gadgets. We then optimize these gadgets, exploiting the degrees of freedom offered by bitsliced implementations. As a result, we introduce new arbitrary-order Boolean masked addition, arithmetic-to-Boolean and Boolean-to-arithmetic masking conversion gadgets, each in two variants: modulo 2k and modulo p (for any integers k and p). Practically, our new gadgets achieve a speedup of up to 25x over the state of the art. Turning to the KEM application, we develop the first open-source embedded (Cortex-M4) implementations of Kyber768 and Saber masked at arbitrary order. The implementations based on the new bitsliced gadgets achieve a speedup of 1.8x for Kyber and 3x for Saber, compared to the implementation based on state-of-the-art gadgets. The bottleneck of the bitslice implementations is the masked Keccak-f[1600] permutation.
2021
TCHES
Provably Secure Hardware Masking in the Transition- and Glitch-Robust Probing Model: Better Safe than Sorry 📺
Gaëtan Cassiers François-Xavier Standaert
There exists many masking schemes to protect implementations of cryptographic operations against side-channel attacks. It is common practice to analyze the security of these schemes in the probing model, or its variant which takes into account physical effects such as glitches and transitions. Although both effects exist in practice and cause leakage, masking schemes implemented in hardware are often only analyzed for security against glitches. In this work, we fill this gap by proving sufficient conditions for the security of hardware masking schemes against transitions, leading to the design of new masking schemes and a proof of security for an existing masking scheme in presence of transitions. Furthermore, we give similar results in the stronger model where the effects of glitches and transitions are combined.
2021
CRYPTO
Towards Tight Random Probing Security 📺
Proving the security of masked implementations in theoretical models that are relevant to practice and match the best known attacks of the side-channel literature is a notoriously hard problem. The random probing model is a good candidate to contribute to this challenge, due to its ability to capture the continuous nature of physical leakage (contrary to the threshold probing model), while also being convenient to manipulate in proofs and to automate with verification tools. Yet, despite recent progresses in the design of masked circuits with good asymptotic security guarantees in this model, existing results still fall short when it comes to analyze the security of concretely useful circuits under realistic noise levels and with low number of shares. In this paper, we contribute to this issue by introducing a new composability notion, the Probe Distribution Table (PDT), and a new tool (called STRAPS, for the Sampled Testing of the RAndom Probing Security). Their combination allows us to significantly improve the tightness of existing analyses in the most practical (low noise, low number of shares) region of the design space. We illustrate these improvements by quantifying the random probing security of an AES S-box circuit, masked with the popular multiplication gadget of Ishai, Sahai and Wagner from Crypto 2003, with up to six shares.
2020
TCHES
Efficient and Private Computations with Code-Based Masking 📺
Code-based masking is a very general type of masking scheme that covers Boolean masking, inner product masking, direct sum masking, and so on. The merits of the generalization are twofold. Firstly, the higher algebraic complexity of the sharing function decreases the information leakage in “low noise conditions” and may increase the “statistical security order” of an implementation (with linear leakages). Secondly, the underlying error-correction codes can offer improved fault resistance for the encoded variables. Nevertheless, this higher algebraic complexity also implies additional challenges. On the one hand, a generic multiplication algorithm applicable to any linear code is still unknown. On the other hand, masking schemes with higher algebraic complexity usually come with implementation overheads, as for example witnessed by inner-product masking. In this paper, we contribute to these challenges in two directions. Firstly, we propose a generic algorithm that allows us (to the best of our knowledge for the first time) to compute on data shared with linear codes. Secondly, we introduce a new amortization technique that can significantly mitigate the implementation overheads of code-based masking, and illustrate this claim with a case study. Precisely, we show that, although performing every single code-based masked operation is relatively complex, processing multiple secrets in parallel leads to much better performances. This property enables code-based masked implementations of the AES to compete with the state-of-the-art in randomness complexity. Since our masked operations can be instantiated with various linear codes, we hope that these investigations open new avenues for the study of code-based masking schemes, by specializing the codes for improved performances, better side-channel security or improved fault tolerance.
2020
TOSC
Spook: Sponge-Based Leakage-Resistant Authenticated Encryption with a Masked Tweakable Block Cipher 📺
This paper defines Spook: a sponge-based authenticated encryption with associated data algorithm. It is primarily designed to provide security against side-channel attacks at a low energy cost. For this purpose, Spook is mixing a leakageresistant mode of operation with bitslice ciphers enabling efficient and low latency implementations. The leakage-resistant mode of operation leverages a re-keying function to prevent differential side-channel analysis, a duplex sponge construction to efficiently process the data, and a tag verification based on a Tweakable Block Cipher (TBC) providing strong data integrity guarantees in the presence of leakages. The underlying bitslice ciphers are optimized for the masking countermeasures against side-channel attacks. Spook is an efficient single-pass algorithm. It ensures state-of-the-art black box security with several prominent features: (i) nonce misuse-resilience, (ii) beyond-birthday security with respect to the TBC block size, and (iii) multiuser security at minimum cost with a public tweak. Besides the specifications and design rationale, we provide first software and hardware implementation results of (unprotected) Spook which confirm the limited overheads that the use of two primitives sharing internal components imply. We also show that the integrity of Spook with leakage, so far analyzed with unbounded leakages for the duplex sponge and a strongly protected TBC modeled as leak-free, can be proven with a much weaker unpredictability assumption for the TBC. We finally discuss external cryptanalysis results and tweaks to improve both the security margins and efficiency of Spook.
2020
CRYPTO
Mode-Level vs. Implementation-Level Physical Security in Symmetric Cryptography: A Practical Guide Through the Leakage-Resistance Jungle 📺
Triggered by the increasing deployment of embedded cryptographic devices (e.g., for the IoT), the design of authentication, encryption and authenticated encryption schemes enabling improved security against side-channel attacks has become an important research direction. Over the last decade, a number of modes of operation have been proposed and analyzed under different abstractions. In this paper, we investigate the practical consequences of these findings. For this purpose, we first translate the physical assumptions of leakage-resistance proofs into minimum security requirements for implementers. Thanks to this (heuristic) translation, we observe that (i) security against physical attacks can be viewed as a tradeoff between mode-level and implementation-level protection mechanisms, and (i}) security requirements to guarantee confidentiality and integrity in front of leakage can be concretely different for the different parts of an implementation. We illustrate the first point by analyzing several modes of operation with gradually increased leakage-resistance. We illustrate the second point by exhibiting leveled implementations, where different parts of the investigated schemes have different security requirements against leakage, leading to performance improvements when high physical security is needed. We finally initiate a comparative discussion of the different solutions to instantiate the components of a leakage-resistant authenticated encryption scheme.
2020
ASIACRYPT
Packed Multiplication: How to Amortize the Cost of Side-channel Masking? 📺
Higher-order masking countermeasures provide strong provable security against side-channel attacks at the cost of incurring significant overheads, which largely hinders its applicability. Previous works towards remedying cost mostly concentrated on ``local'' calculations, i.e., optimizing the cost of computation units such as a single AND gate or a field multiplication. This paper explores a complementary ``global'' approach, i.e., considering multiple operations in the masked domain as a batch and reducing randomness and computational cost via amortization. In particular, we focus on the amortization of $\ell$ parallel field multiplications for appropriate integer $\ell > 1$, and design a kit named {\it packed multiplication} for implementing such a batch. Higher-order masking countermeasures provide strong provable security against side-channel attacks at the cost of incurring significant overheads, which largely hinders its applicability. Previous works towards remedying cost mostly concentrated on ``local'' calculations, i.e., optimizing the cost of computation units such as a single AND gate or a field multiplication. This paper explores a complementary ``global'' approach, i.e., considering multiple operations in the masked domain as a batch and reducing randomness and computational cost via amortization. In particular, we focus on the amortization of $\ell$ parallel field multiplications for appropriate integer $\ell > 1$, and design a kit named {\it packed multiplication} for implementing such a batch. For $\ell+d\leq2^m$, when $\ell$ parallel multiplications over $\mathbb{F}_{2^{m}}$ with $d$-th order probing security are implemented, packed multiplication consumes $d^2+2\ell d + \ell$ bilinear multiplications and $2d^2 + d(d+1)/2$ random field variables, outperforming the state-of-the-art results with $O(\ell d^2)$ multiplications and $\ell \left \lfloor d^2/4\right \rfloor + \ell d$ randomness. To prove $d$-probing security for packed multiplications, we introduce some weaker security notions for multiple-inputs-multiple-outputs gadgets and use them as intermediate steps, which may be of independent interest. As parallel field multiplications exist almost everywhere in symmetric cryptography, lifting optimizations from ``local'' to ``global'' substantially enlarges the space of improvements. To demonstrate, we showcase the method on the AES Subbytes step, GCM and TET (a popular disk encryption). Notably, when $d=8$, our implementation of AES Subbytes in ARM Cortex M architecture achieves a gain of up to $33\%$ in total speeds and saves up to $68\%$ random bits than the state-of-the-art bitsliced implementation reported at ASIACRYPT~2018.
2019
TCHES
Towards Globally Optimized Masking: From Low Randomness to Low Noise Rate 📺
Gaëtan Cassiers François-Xavier Standaert
We improve the state-of-the-art masking schemes in two important directions. First, we propose a new masked multiplication algorithm that satisfies a recently introduced notion called Probe-Isolating Non-Interference (PINI). It captures a sufficient requirement for designing masked implementations in a trivial way, by combining PINI multiplications and linear operations performed share by share. Our improved algorithm has the best reported randomness complexity for large security orders (while the previous PINI multiplication was best for small orders). Second, we analyze the security of most existing multiplication algorithms in the literature against so-called horizontal attacks, which aim to reduce the noise of the actual leakages measured by an adversary, by combining the information of multiple target intermediate values. For this purpose, we leave the (abstract) probing model and consider a specialization of the (more realistic) noisy leakage / random probing models. Our (still partially heuristic but quantitative) analysis allows confirming the improved security of an algorithm by Battistello et al. from CHES 2016 in this setting. We then use it to propose new improved algorithms, leading to better tradeoffs between randomness complexity and noise rate, and suggesting the possibility to design efficient masked multiplication algorithms with constant noise rate in F2.