## CryptoDB

### Siwei Sun

#### ORCID: 0000-0002-3058-2377

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

CRYPTO

Speeding up Preimage and Key-Recovery Attacks with Highly Biased Differential-Linear Approximations
Abstract

We present a framework for speeding up the search for preimages of candidate one-way functions based on highly biased differential-linear distinguishers. It is naturally applicable to preimage attacks on hash functions. Further, a variant of this framework applied to keyed functions leads to accelerated key-recovery attacks. Interestingly, our technique is able to exploit related-key differential-linear distinguishers in the single-key model without querying the target encryption oracle with unknown but related keys. This is in essence similar to how we speed up the key search based on the well known complementation property of DES, which calls for caution from the designers in building primitives meant to be secure in the single-key setting without a thorough cryptanalysis in the related-key model. We apply the method to sponge-based hash function Ascon-HASH, XOFs XOEsch/Ascon-XOF and AEAD Schwaemm, etc. Accelerated preimage or key-recovery attacks are obtained. Note that all the differential-linear distinguishers employed in this work are highly biased and thus can be experimentally verified.

2024

ASIACRYPT

The First Practical Collision for 31-Step SHA-256
Abstract

SHA-256 is a hash function standardized by NIST and has been widely deployed in real-world applications, e.g., Bitcoin. Recently, an improved collision attack on 31-step SHA-256 was proposed by Li- Liu-Wang at EUROCRYPT 2024, whose time and memory complexity are 2^{49.8} and 2^{48}, respectively. Such a result indicates that we are close to a practical collision attack on 31-step SHA-256, and that the current bottleneck is the memory complexity. To overcome such an obstacle, we develop a novel memory-efficient attack in this paper, which allows us to find the first practical colliding message pair for 31-step SHA-256 in only 1.2 hours with 64 threads and negligible memory. This technique is general and Li-Liu-Wang’s collision attack on 31-step SHA-512 can also be significantly improved, i.e., the time and memory complexity can be improved by a factor of 2^{20.9} and 2^{42.1}, respectively. Although we have set a new record in the practical collision attack on SHA-256, which improves the previous best practical attack published at EUROCRYPT 2013 by 3 steps, the attack is still far from threatening the security of SHA-256 since it has 64 steps in total. On the other hand, our new attack shows that nearly half of full SHA-256 can be practically cracked now, and it should be viewed as a major progress in the cryptanalysis of SHA-256 since 2013.

2023

EUROCRYPT

Exploiting Non-Full Key Additions: Full-Fledged Automatic Demirci-Sel{\c{c}}uk Meet-in-the-Middle Cryptanalysis of SKINNY
Abstract

The Demirci-Sel{\c{c}}uk meet-in-the-middle (DS-MITM) attack is
a sophisticated variant of differential attacks.
Due to its sophistication, it is hard to efficiently find the best
DS-MITM attacks on most ciphers \emph{except} for AES.
Moreover, the current automatic tools
only capture the most basic version of DS-MITM attacks, and the
critical techniques developed for enhancing the attacks
(e.g., differential enumeration and key-dependent-sieve) still rely
on manual work. In this paper, we develop a full-fledged automatic
framework integrating all known techniques
(differential enumeration, key-dependent-sieve, and key bridging, etc)
for the DS-MITM attack that can produce key-recovery
attacks directly rather than only search for distinguishers. Moreover,
we develop a new technique that is able to exploit partial key additions
to generate more linear relations beneficial to the attacks.
We apply the framework to the SKINNY family of block ciphers
and significantly improved results are obtained. In particular,
all known DS-MITM attacks on the respective versions of SKINNY are improved by at least 2 rounds,
and the data, memory, or time complexities of some attacks
are reduced even compared to previous best attacks penetrating less rounds.

2023

TOSC

SAT-aided Automatic Search of Boomerang Distinguishers for ARX Ciphers
Abstract

In Addition-Rotation-Xor (ARX) ciphers, the large domain size obstructs the application of the boomerang connectivity table. In this paper, we explore the problem of computing this table for a modular addition and the automatic search of boomerang characteristics for ARX ciphers. We provide dynamic programming algorithms to efficiently compute this table and its variants. These algorithms are the most efficient up to now. For the boomerang connectivity table, the execution time is 42(n − 1) simple operations while the previous algorithm costs 82(n − 1) simple operations, which generates a smaller model in the searching phase. After rewriting these algorithms with boolean expressions, we construct the corresponding Boolean Satisfiability Problem models. Two automatic search frameworks are also proposed based on these models. This is the first time bringing the SAT-aided automatic search techniques into finding boomerang attacks on ARX ciphers. Finally, under these frameworks, we find out the first verifiable 10-round boomerang trail for SPECK32/64 with probability 2−29.15 and a 12-round trail for SPECK48/72 with probability 2−44.15. These are the best distinguishers for them so far. We also perceive that the previous boomerang attacks on LEA are constructed with an incorrect computation of the boomerang connection probability. The result is then fixed by our frameworks.

2023

TOSC

Classical and Quantum Meet-in-the-Middle Nostradamus Attacks on AES-like Hashing
Abstract

At EUROCRYPT 2006, Kelsey and Kohno proposed the so-called chosen target forced-prefix (CTFP) preimage attack, where for any challenge prefix P, the attacker can generate a suffix S such that H(P∥S) = y for some hash value y published in advance by the attacker. Consequently, the attacker can pretend to predict some event represented by P she did not know before, and thus this type of attack is also known as the Nostradamus attack. At ASIACRYPT 2022, Benedikt et al. convert Kelsey et al.’s attack to a quantum one, reducing the time complexity from O(√n · 22n/3) to O( 3√n · 23n/7). CTFP preimage attack is less investigated in the literature than (second-)preimage and collision attacks and lacks dedicated methods. In this paper, we propose the first dedicated Nostradamus attack based on the meet-in-the-middle (MITM) attack, and the MITM Nostradamus attack could be up to quadratically accelerated in the quantum setting. According to the recent works on MITM preimage attacks on AES-like hashing, we build an automatic tool to search for optimal MITM Nostradamus attacks and model the tradeoff between the offline and online phases. We apply our method to AES-MMO and Whirlpool, and obtain the first dedicated attack on round-reduced version of these hash functions. Our method and automatic tool are applicable to other AES-like hashings.

2022

EUROCRYPT

Key Guessing Strategies for Linear Key-Schedule Algorithms in Rectangle Attacks
📺
Abstract

When generating quartets for the rectangle attack on ciphers with linear key-schedule ciphers, we find the right quartets which may suggest key candidates have to satisfy some nonlinear relationships. However, some quartets generated always violate these relationships, so that they will never suggest any key candidates. Inspired by previous rectangle frameworks, we find that guessing certain key cells before generating quartets may reduce the number of those invalid quartets. However, guessing a lot of key cells at once may lose the benefit from the early abort technique, which may lead to a higher overall complexity. To get better tradeoff, we build a new rectangle attack framework on ciphers with linear key-schedule with the purpose of reducing the overall complexity or attacking more rounds.
In the tradeoff model, there are many parameters affecting the overall complexity, especially for the choices of the number and positions of key guessing cells before generating quartets. To identify optimal parameters, we build a uniform automatic tool on SKINNY as an example, which includes the optimal rectangle distinguishers for key-recovery phase, the number and positions of key guessing cells before generating quartets, the size of key counters to build that affecting the exhaustive search step, etc. Based on the automatic tool, we identify a 32-round key-recovery attack on SKINNY-128-384 in the related-key setting, which extends the best previous attack by 2 rounds. For other versions with n-2n or n-3n, we also achieve one more round than before. In addition, using the previous rectangle distinguishers, we achieve better attacks on round-reduced ForkSkinny, Deoxys-BC-384 and GIFT-64. At last, we discuss the conversion of our rectangle framework from related-key setting into single-key setting and give new single-key rectangle attack on 10-round Serpent.

2022

TOSC

Improved MITM Cryptanalysis on Streebog
Abstract

At ASIACRYPT 2012, Sasaki et al. introduced the guess-and-determine approach to extend the meet-in-the-middle (MITM) preimage attack. At CRYPTO 2021, Dong et al. proposed a technique to derive the solution spaces of nonlinear constrained neutral words in the MITM preimage attack. In this paper, we try to combine these two techniques to further improve the MITM preimage attacks. Based on the previous MILP-based automatic tools for MITM attacks, we introduce new constraints due to the combination of guess-and-determine and nonlinearly constrained neutral words to build a new automatic model.As a proof of work, we apply it to the Russian national standard hash function Streebog, which is also an ISO standard. We find the first 8.5-round preimage attack on Streebog-512 compression function and the first 7.5-round preimage attack on Streebog-256 compression function. In addition, we give the 8.5-round preimage attack on Streebog-512 hash function. Our attacks extend the best previous attacks by one round. We also improve the time complexity of the 7.5-round preimage attack on Streebog-512 hash function and 6.5-round preimage attack on Streebog-256 hash function.

2022

CRYPTO

Rotational Differential-Linear Distinguishers of ARX Ciphers with Arbitrary Output Linear Masks
📺
Abstract

The rotational differential-linear attacks, proposed at EUROCRYPT 2021, is a generalization of differential-linear attacks by replacing the differential part of the attacks with rotational differentials. At EUROCRYPT 2021, Liu et al. presented a method based on Morawiecki et al.’s technique (FSE 2013) for evaluating the rotational differential-linear correlations for the special cases where the output linear masks are unit vectors. With this method, some powerful (rotational) differential-linear distinguishers with output linear masks being unit vectors against Friet, Xoodoo, and Alzette were discovered. However, how to compute the rotational differential-linear correlations for arbitrary output masks was left open. In this work, we partially solve this open problem by presenting an efficient algorithm for computing the (rotational) differential-linear correlation of modulo additions for arbitrary output linear masks, based on which a technique for evaluating the (rotational) differential-linear correlation of ARX ciphers is derived. We apply the technique to Alzette, SipHash, Chacha, and Speck. As a result, significantly improved (rotational) differential-linear distinguishers including deterministic ones are identified. All results of this work are practical and experimentally verified to confirm the validity of our methods. In addition, we try to explain the experimental distinguishers employed in FSE 2008, FSE 2016, and CRYPTO 2020 against Chacha. The predicted correlations are close to the experimental ones.

2022

ASIACRYPT

Synthesizing Quantum Circuits of AES with Lower T-depth and Less Qubits
📺
Abstract

The significant progress in the development of quantum computers has made the study of cryptanalysis based on quantum computing an active topic. To accurately estimate the resources required to carry out quantum attacks, the involved quantum algorithms have to be synthesized into quantum circuits with basic quantum gates. In this work, we present several generic synthesis and optimization techniques for circuits implementing the quantum oracles of iterative symmetric-key ciphers that are commonly employed in quantum attacks based on Grover and Simon's algorithms. Firstly, a general structure for implementing the round functions of block ciphers in-place is proposed. Then, we present some novel techniques for synthesizing efficient quantum circuits of linear and non-linear cryptographic building blocks. We apply these techniques to AES and systematically investigate the strategies for depth-width trade-offs. Along the way, we derive a quantum circuit for the AES S-box with provably minimal T-depth based on some new observations on its classical circuit. As a result, the T-depth and width (number of qubits) required for implementing the quantum circuits of AES are significantly reduced. Compared with the circuit proposed in EUROCRYPT 2020, the T-depth is reduced from 60 to 40 without increasing the width or 30 with a slight increase in width. These circuits are fully implemented in Microsoft Q# and the source code is publicly available. Compared with the circuit proposed in ASIACRYPT 2020, the width of one of our circuits is reduced from 512 to 371, and the Toffoli-depth is reduced from 2016 to 1558 at the same time. Actually, we can reduce the width to 270 at the cost of increased depth. Moreover, a full spectrum of depth-width trade-offs is provided, setting new records for the synthesis and optimization of quantum circuits of AES.

2022

TOSC

New Properties of the Double Boomerang Connectivity Table
Abstract

The double boomerang connectivity table (DBCT) is a new table proposed recently to capture the behavior of two consecutive S-boxes in boomerang attacks. In this paper, we observe an interesting property of DBCT of S-box that the ladder switch and the S-box switch happen in most cases for two continuous S-boxes, and for some S-boxes only S-box switch and ladder switch are possible. This property implies an additional criterion for S-boxes to resist the boomerang attacks and provides as well a new evaluation direction for an S-box. Using an extension of the DBCT, we verify that some boomerang distinguishers of TweAES and Deoxys are flawed. On the other hand, inspired by the property, we put forward a formula for estimating boomerang cluster probabilities. Furthermore, we introduce the first model to search for boomerang distinguishers with good cluster probabilities. Applying the model to CRAFT, we obtain 9-round and 10-round boomerang distinguishers with a higher probability than that of previous works.

2022

JOFC

Rotational Differential-Linear Cryptanalysis Revisited
Abstract

The differential-linear attack, combining the power of the two most effective techniques for symmetric-key cryptanalysis, was proposed by Langford and Hellman at CRYPTO 1994. From the exact formula for evaluating the bias of a differential-linear distinguisher (JoC 2017), to the differential-linear connectivity table technique for dealing with the dependencies in the switch between the differential and linear parts (EUROCRYPT 2019), and to the improvements in the context of cryptanalysis of ARX primitives (CRYPTO 2020, EUROCRYPT 2021), we have seen significant development of the differential-linear attack during the last four years. In this work, we further extend this framework by replacing the differential part of the attack by rotational-XOR differentials. Along the way, we establish the theoretical link between the rotational-XOR differential and linear approximations and derive the closed formula for the bias of rotational differential-linear distinguishers, completely generalizing the results on ordinary differential-linear distinguishers due to Blondeau, Leander, and Nyberg (JoC 2017) to the case of rotational differential-linear cryptanalysis. We then revisit the rotational cryptanalysis from the perspective of differential-linear cryptanalysis and generalize Morawiecki et al.’s technique for analyzing Keccak , which leads to a practical method for estimating the bias of a (rotational) differential-linear distinguisher in the special case where the output linear mask is a unit vector. Finally, we apply the rotational differential-linear technique to the cryptographic permutations involved in FRIET , Xoodoo , Alzette , and SipHash . This gives significant improvements over existing cryptanalytic results, or offers explanations for previous experimental distinguishers without a theoretical foundation. To confirm the validity of our analysis, all distinguishers with practical complexities are verified experimentally. Moreover, we discuss the possibility of applying the rotational differential-linear technique to S-box-based designs or keyed primitives, and propose some open problems for future research.

2021

EUROCRYPT

Rotational Cryptanalysis From a Differential-Linear Perspective - Practical Distinguishers for Round-reduced FRIET, Xoodoo, and Alzette
📺
Abstract

The differential-linear attack, combining the power of the
two most effective techniques for symmetric-key cryptanalysis, was proposed by Langford and Hellman at CRYPTO 1994. From the exact formula for evaluating the bias of a differential-linear distinguisher (JoC2017), to the differential-linear connectivity table (DLCT) technique for
dealing with the dependencies in the switch between the differential and
linear parts (EUROCRYPT 2019), and to the improvements in the context of cryptanalysis of ARX primitives (CRYPTO 2020), we have seen significant development of the differential-linear attack during the last four years. In this work, we further extend this framework by replacing
the differential part of the attack by rotational-xor differentials. Along
the way, we establish the theoretical link between the rotational-xor differential and linear approximations, revealing that it is nontrivial to
directly apply the closed formula for the bias of ordinary differentiallinear attack to rotational differential-linear cryptanalysis. We then revisit the rotational cryptanalysis from the perspective of differentiallinear cryptanalysis and generalize Morawiecki et al.’s technique for analyzing Keccak, which leads to a practical method for estimating the
bias of a (rotational) differential-linear distinguisher in the special case
where the output linear mask is a unit vector. Finally, we apply the rotational differential-linear technique to the permutations involved in FRIET,
Xoodoo, Alzette, and SipHash. This gives significant improvements over
existing cryptanalytic results, or offers explanations for previous experimental distinguishers without a theoretical foundation. To confirm the
validity of our analysis, all distinguishers with practical complexities are
verified experimentally.

2021

EUROCRYPT

Automatic Search of Meet-in-the-Middle Preimage Attacks on AES-like Hashing
📺
Abstract

The Meet-in-the-Middle (MITM) preimage attack is highly effective in breaking the preimage resistance of many hash functions, including but not limited to the full MD5, HAVAL, and Tiger, and reduced SHA-0/1/2. It was also shown to be a threat to hash functions built on block ciphers like AES by Sasaki in 2011. Recently, such attacks on AES hashing modes evolved from merely using the freedom of choosing the internal state to also exploiting the freedom of choosing the message state. However, detecting such attacks especially those evolved variants is difficult. In previous works, the search space of the configurations of such attacks is limited, such that manual analysis is practical, which results in sub-optimal solutions. In this paper, we remove artificial limitations in previous works, formulate the essential ideas of the construction of the attack in well-defined ways, and translate the problem of searching for the best attacks into optimization problems under constraints in Mixed-Integer-Linear-Programming (MILP) models. The MILP models capture a large solution space of valid attacks; and the objectives of the MILP models are attack configurations with the minimized computational complexity. With such MILP models and using the off-the-shelf solver, it is efficient to search for the best attacks exhaustively. As a result, we obtain the first attacks against the full (5-round) and an extended (5.5-round) version of Haraka-512 v2, and 8-round AES-128 hashing modes, as well as improved attacks covering more rounds of Haraka-256 v2 and other members of AES and Rijndael hashing modes.

2021

TOSC

Misuse-Free Key-Recovery and Distinguishing Attacks on 7-Round Ascon
📺
Abstract

Being one of the winning algorithms of the CAESAR competition and currently a second round candidate of the NIST lightweight cryptography standardization project, the authenticated encryption scheme Ascon (designed by Dobraunig, Eichlseder, Mendel, and Schläffer) has withstood extensive self and third-party cryptanalysis. The best known attack on Ascon could only penetrate up to 7 (out of 12) rounds due to Li et al. (ToSC Vol I, 2017). However, it violates the data limit of 264 blocks per key specified by the designers. Moreover, the best known distinguishers of Ascon in the AEAD context reach only 6 rounds. To fill these gaps, we revisit the security of 7-round Ascon in the nonce-respecting setting without violating the data limit as specified in the design. First, we introduce a new superpoly-recovery technique named as partial polynomial multiplication for which computations take place between the so-called degree-d homogeneous parts of the involved Boolean functions for a 2d-dimensional cube. We apply this method to 7-round Ascon and present several key recovery attacks. Our best attack can recover the 128-bit secret key with a time complexity of about 2123 7-round Ascon permutations and requires 264 data and 2101 bits memory. Also, based on division properties, we identify several 60 dimensional cubes whose superpolies are constant zero after 7 rounds. We further improve the cube distinguishers for 4, 5 and 6 rounds. Although our results are far from threatening the security of full 12-round Ascon, they provide new insights in the security analysis of Ascon.

2021

CRYPTO

Meet-in-the-Middle Attacks Revisited: Key-recovery, Collision, and Preimage Attacks
📺
Abstract

At EUROCRYPT 2021, Bao et al. proposed an automatic method for systematically exploring the configuration space of meet-in-the-middle (MITM) preimage attacks. We further extend it into a constraint-based framework for finding exploitable MITM characteristics in the context of key-recovery and collision attacks by taking the subtle peculiarities of both scenarios into account. Moreover, to perform attacks based on MITM characteristics with nonlinear constrained neutral words, which have not been seen before, we present a procedure for deriving the solution spaces of neutral words without solving the corresponding nonlinear equations or increasing the overall time complexities of the attack. We apply our method to concrete symmetric-key primitives, including SKINNY, ForkSkinny, Romulus-H, Saturnin, Grostl, Whirlpool, and hashing modes with AES-256. As a result, we identify the first 23-round key-recovery attack on \skinny-$n$-$3n$ and the first 24-round key-recovery attack on ForkSkinny-$n$-$3n$ in the single-key model. Moreover, improved (pseudo) preimage
or collision attacks on round-reduced Whirlpool, Grostl, and hashing modes with AES-256 are obtained. In particular, imploying the new representation of the \AES key schedule due to Leurent and Pernot (EUROCRYPT 2021), we identify the first preimage attack on 10-round AES-256 hashing.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Automatic Classical and Quantum Rebound Attacks on AES-like Hashing by Exploiting Related-key Differentials
📺
Abstract

Collision attacks on AES-like hashing (hash functions constructed
by plugging AES-like ciphers or permutations into the famous PGV modes or their variants)
can be reduced to the problem of finding a pair of inputs respecting
a differential of the underlying AES-like primitive whose input and
output differences are the same. The rebound attack due to Mendel et al.
is a powerful tool for achieving this goal, whose quantum version
was first considered by Hosoyamada and Sasaki at EUROCRYPT 2020.
In this work, we automate the process of searching for the configurations
of rebound attacks by taking related-key differentials of the underlying
block cipher into account with the MILP-based approach.
In the quantum setting, our model guide the search towards
characteristics that minimize the resources (e.g., QRAM)
and complexities of the resulting rebound attacks.
We apply our method to Saturnin-hash, Skinny, and Whirlpool and improved results are obtained.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Massive Superpoly Recovery with Nested Monomial Predictions
📺
Abstract

Determining the exact algebraic structure or some partial information of the superpoly
for a given cube is a necessary step in the cube attack -- a generic cryptanalytic technique
for symmetric-key primitives with some secret and public tweakable inputs.
Currently, the division property based approach is the most powerful tool
for exact superpoly recovery.
However, as the algebraic normal form (ANF) of the targeted output bit gets
increasingly complicated as the number of rounds grows, existing
methods for superpoly recovery quickly hit their bottlenecks. For example,
previous method stuck at round 842, 190, and 892 for \trivium, \grain, and \kreyvium, respectively.
In this paper, we propose a new framework
for recovering the exact ANFs of massive superpolies
based on the monomial prediction technique (ASIACRYPT 2020, an
alternative language for the division property).
In this framework, the targeted output bit is
first expressed as a polynomial of the bits of some
intermediate states. For each term appearing in
the polynomial, the monomial prediction technique is
applied to determine its superpoly if the corresponding
MILP model can be solved within a preset time limit.
Terms unresolved within the time limit are further
expanded as polynomials of the bits of some deeper intermediate
states with symbolic computation, whose terms are again
processed with monomial predictions. The above procedure
is iterated until all terms are resolved.
Finally, all the sub-superpolies are collected and assembled
into the superpoly of the targeted bit.
We apply the new
framework to \trivium, \grain, and \kreyvium.
As a result, the exact ANFs of the superpolies for
843-, 844- and 845-round \trivium,
191-round \grain and 894-round \kreyvium are recovered.
Moreover, with help of the M\"{o}bius transform, we present a novel key-recovery technique based on
superpolies involving \textit{all} key bits by exploiting the sparse structures, which leads to the best key-recovery attacks on the targets
considered.

2020

TOSC

Lightweight Iterative MDS Matrices: How Small Can We Go?
📺
Abstract

As perfect building blocks for the diffusion layers of many symmetric-key primitives, the construction of MDS matrices with lightweight circuits has received much attention from the symmetric-key community. One promising way of realizing low-cost MDS matrices is based on the iterative construction: a low-cost matrix becomes MDS after rising it to a certain power. To be more specific, if At is MDS, then one can implement A instead of At to achieve the MDS property at the expense of an increased latency with t clock cycles. In this work, we identify the exact lower bound of the number of nonzero blocks for a 4 × 4 block matrix to be potentially iterative-MDS. Subsequently, we show that the theoretically lightest 4 × 4 iterative MDS block matrix (whose entries or blocks are 4 × 4 binary matrices) with minimal nonzero blocks costs at least 3 XOR gates, and a concrete example achieving the 3-XOR bound is provided. Moreover, we prove that there is no hope for previous constructions (GFS, LFS, DSI, and spares DSI) to beat this bound. Since the circuit latency is another important factor, we also consider the lower bound of the number of iterations for certain iterative MDS matrices. Guided by these bounds and based on the ideas employed to identify them, we explore the design space of lightweight iterative MDS matrices with other dimensions and report on improved results. Whenever we are unable to find better results, we try to determine the bound of the optimal solution. As a result, the optimality of some previous results is proved.

2020

TOSC

Differential Attacks on CRAFT Exploiting the Involutory S-boxes and Tweak Additions
📺
Abstract

CRAFT is a lightweight tweakable block cipher proposed at FSE 2019, which allows countermeasures against Differential Fault Attacks to be integrated into the cipher at the algorithmic level with ease. CRAFT employs a lightweight and involutory S-box and linear layer, such that the encryption function can be turned into decryption at a low cost. Besides, the tweakey schedule algorithm of CRAFT is extremely simple, where four 64-bit round tweakeys are generated and repeatedly used. Due to a combination of these features which makes CRAFT exceedingly lightweight, we find that some input difference at a particular position can be preserved through any number of rounds if the input pair follows certain truncated differential trails. Interestingly, in contrast to traditional differential analysis, the validity of this invariant property is affected by the positions where the constant additions take place. We use this property to construct “weak-tweakey” truncated differential distinguishers of CRAFT in the single-key model. Subsequently, we show how the tweak additions allow us to convert these weak-tweakey distinguishers into ordinary secret-key distinguishers based on which key-recovery attacks can be performed. Moreover, we show how to construct MILP models to search for truncated differential distinguishers exploiting this invariant property. As a result, we find a 15-round truncated differential distinguisher of CRAFT and extend it to a 19-round key-recovery attack with 260.99 data, 268 memory, 294.59 time complexity, and success probability 80.66%. Also, we find a 14-round distinguisher with probability 2−43 (experimentally verified), a 16-round distinguisher with probability 2−55, and a 20-round weak-key distinguisher (2118 weak keys) with probability 2−63. Experiments on round-reduced versions of the distinguishers show that the experimental probabilities are sometimes higher than predicted. Finally, we note that our result is far from threatening the security of the full CRAFT.

2020

TOSC

On the Security Margin of TinyJAMBU with Refined Differential and Linear Cryptanalysis
📺
Abstract

This paper presents the first third-party security analysis of TinyJAMBU, which is one of 32 second-round candidates in NIST’s lightweight cryptography standardization process. TinyJAMBU adopts an NLFSR based keyed-permutation that computes only a single NAND gate as a non-linear component per round. The designers evaluated the minimum number of active AND gates, however such a counting method neglects the dependency between multiple AND gates. There also exist previous works considering such dependencies with stricter models, however those are known to be too slow. In this paper, we present a new model that provides a good balance of efficiency and accuracy by only taking into account the first-order correlation of AND gates that frequently occurs in TinyJAMBU. With the refined model, we show a 338-round differential with probability 2−62.68 that leads to a forgery attack breaking 64-bit security. This implies that the security margin of TinyJAMBU with respect to the number of unattacked rounds is approximately 12%. We also show a differential on full 384 rounds with probability 2−70.64, thus the security margin of full rounds with respect to the data complexity, namely the gap between the claimed security bits and the attack complexity, is less than 8 bits. Our attacks also point out structural weaknesses of the mode that essentially come from the minimal state size to be lightweight.

2020

ASIACRYPT

Quantum Collision Attacks on AES-like Hashing with Low Quantum Random Access Memories
📺
Abstract

At EUROCRYPT 2020, Hosoyamada and Sasaki proposed the first dedicated quantum attack on hash functions -- a quantum version of the rebound attack exploiting differentials whose probabilities are too low to be useful in the classical setting. This work opens up a new perspective toward the security of hash functions against quantum attacks. In particular, it tells us that the search for differentials should not stop at the classical birthday bound. Despite these interesting and promising implications, the concrete attacks described by Hosoyamada and Sasaki make use of large quantum random access memories (qRAMs), a resource whose availability in the foreseeable future is controversial even in the quantum computation community. Without large qRAMs, these attacks incur significant increases in time complexities. In this work, we reduce or even avoid the use of qRAMs by performing a quantum rebound attack based on differentials with non-full-active super S-boxes. Along the way, an MILP-based method is proposed to systematically explore the search space of useful truncated differentials with respect to rebound attacks. As a result, we obtain improved attacks on \aes-\texttt{MMO}, \aes-\texttt{MP}, and the first classical collision attacks on 4- and 5-round \grostl-\texttt{512}.
Interestingly, the use of non-full-active super S-box differentials in the analysis of \aes-\texttt{MMO} gives rise to new difficulties in collecting enough starting points. To overcome this issue, we consider attacks involving two message blocks to gain more degrees of freedom, and we successfully compress the qRAM demand of the collision attacks on \texttt{AES}-\texttt{MMO} and \texttt{AES}-\texttt{MP} (EUROCRYPT 2020) from $2^{48}$ to a range from $2^{16}$ to $0$, while still maintaining a comparable time complexity.
To the best of our knowledge, these are the first dedicated quantum attacks on hash functions that slightly outperform Chailloux, Naya-Plasencia, and Schrottenloher's generic quantum collision attack (ASIACRYPT 2017) in a model where large qRAMs are not available. This work demonstrates again how a clever combination of classical cryptanalytic technique and quantum computation leads to improved attacks, and shows that the direction pointed out by Hosoyamada and Sasaki deserves further investigation.

2020

ASIACRYPT

An Algebraic Formulation of the Division Property: Revisiting Degree Evaluations, Cube Attacks, and Key-Independent Sums
📺
Abstract

Since it was proposed in 2015 as a generalization
of integral properties, the division property has
evolved into a powerful tool for probing the
structures of Boolean functions whose
algebraic normal forms are not available.
We capture the most essential elements for the detection of division properties
from a pure algebraic perspective, proposing a technique named as {\it monomial prediction}, which
can be employed to determine the presence or absence of a
monomial in the product of the coordinate functions of a vectorial
Boolean function $\bs f$ by counting the number of the so-called {\it monomial trails}
across a sequence of simpler functions whose composition is $\bs f$.
Under the framework of the monomial prediction, we formally prove that
most algorithms for detecting division properties in previous literature
raise no false alarms but may miss.
We also establish the equivalence between the monomial prediction and
the three-subset bit-based division property without unknown subset presented at EUROCRYPT 2020,
and show that these two techniques are perfectly accurate.
This algebraic formulation gives more insights into division properties
and inspires new search strategies. With the monomial prediction,
we obtain the {\it exact} algebraic degrees of \TRIVIUM up
to 834 rounds for the first time. In the context of cube attacks,
we are able to explore a larger search space in limited time and
recover the exact algebraic normal forms of complex superpolies
with the help of a divide-and-conquer strategy. As a result,
we identify more cubes with smaller dimensions, leading
to improvements of some near-optimal attacks against 840-, 841-
and 842-round \TRIVIUM.

2020

ASIACRYPT

Quantum Circuit Implementations of AES with Fewer Qubits
📺
Abstract

We propose some quantum circuit implementations of AES with the following improvements. Firstly, we propose some quantum circuits of the AES S-box and S-box$^{-1}$,which require fewer qubits than prior work. Secondly, we reduce the
number of qubits in the zig-zag method by introducing the S-box$^{-1}$ operation
in our quantum circuits of AES. Thirdly, we present a method to reduce the number of qubits in the key schedule of AES. While the previous quantum circuits of AES-128, AES-192, and AES-256 need at least 864, 896, and 1232 qubits respectively,our quantum circuit implementations of AES-128, AES-192, and AES-256 only require 512, 640, and 768 qubits respectively, where the number of qubits is reduced by more than 30\%.

2019

TOSC

Constructing Low-latency Involutory MDS Matrices with Lightweight Circuits
📺
Abstract

MDS matrices are important building blocks providing diffusion functionality for the design of many symmetric-key primitives. In recent years, continuous efforts are made on the construction of MDS matrices with small area footprints in the context of lightweight cryptography. Just recently, Duval and Leurent (ToSC 2018/FSE 2019) reported some 32 × 32 binary MDS matrices with branch number 5, which can be implemented with only 67 XOR gates, whereas the previously known lightest ones of the same size cost 72 XOR gates.In this article, we focus on the construction of lightweight involutory MDS matrices, which are even more desirable than ordinary MDS matrices, since the same circuit can be reused when the inverse is required. In particular, we identify some involutory MDS matrices which can be realized with only 78 XOR gates with depth 4, whereas the previously known lightest involutory MDS matrices cost 84 XOR gates with the same depth. Notably, the involutory MDS matrix we find is much smaller than the AES MixColumns operation, which requires 97 XOR gates with depth 8 when implemented as a block of combinatorial logic that can be computed in one clock cycle. However, with respect to latency, the AES MixColumns operation is superior to our 78-XOR involutory matrices, since the AES MixColumns can be implemented with depth 3 by using more XOR gates.We prove that the depth of a 32 × 32 MDS matrix with branch number 5 (e.g., the AES MixColumns operation) is at least 3. Then, we enhance Boyar’s SLP-heuristic algorithm with circuit depth awareness, such that the depth of its output circuit is limited. Along the way, we give a formula for computing the minimum achievable depth of a circuit implementing the summation of a set of signals with given depths, which is of independent interest. We apply the new SLP heuristic to a large set of lightweight involutory MDS matrices, and we identify a depth 3 involutory MDS matrix whose implementation costs 88 XOR gates, which is superior to the AES MixColumns operation with respect to both lightweightness and latency, and enjoys the extra involution property.

2019

CRYPTO

Correlation of Quadratic Boolean Functions: Cryptanalysis of All Versions of Full $\mathsf {MORUS}$
📺
Abstract

We show that the correlation of any quadratic Boolean function can be read out from its so-called disjoint quadratic form. We further propose a polynomial-time algorithm that can transform an arbitrary quadratic Boolean function into its disjoint quadratic form. With this algorithm, the exact correlation of quadratic Boolean functions can be computed efficiently.We apply this method to analyze the linear trails of $$\mathsf {MORUS}$$ (one of the seven finalists of the CAESAR competition), which are found with the help of a generic model for linear trails of $$\mathsf {MORUS}$$-like key-stream generators. In our model, any tool for finding linear trails of block ciphers can be used to search for trails of $$\mathsf {MORUS}$$-like key-stream generators. As a result, a set of trails with correlation $$2^{-38}$$ is identified for all versions of full $$\mathsf {MORUS}$$, while the correlations of previously published best trails for $$\mathsf {MORUS}$$-640 and $$\mathsf {MORUS}$$-1280 are $$2^{-73}$$ and $$2^{-76}$$ respectively (ASIACRYPT 2018). This significantly improves the complexity of the attack on $$\mathsf {MORUS}$$-1280-256 from $$2^{152}$$ to $$2^{76}$$. These new trails also lead to the first distinguishing and message-recovery attacks on $$\mathsf {MORUS}$$-640-128 and $$\mathsf {MORUS}$$-1280-128 with surprisingly low complexities around $$2^{76}$$.Moreover, we observe that the condition for exploiting these trails in an attack can be more relaxed than previously thought, which shows that the new trails are superior to previously published ones in terms of both correlation and the number of ciphertext blocks involved.

2018

ASIACRYPT

Programming the Demirci-Selçuk Meet-in-the-Middle Attack with Constraints
Abstract

Cryptanalysis with SAT/SMT, MILP and CP has increased in popularity among symmetric-key cryptanalysts and designers due to its high degree of automation. So far, this approach covers differential, linear, impossible differential, zero-correlation, and integral cryptanalysis. However, the Demirci-Selçuk meet-in-the-middle ($$\mathcal {DS}$$-$$\mathsf {MITM}$$) attack is one of the most sophisticated techniques that has not been automated with this approach. By an in-depth study of Derbez and Fouque’s work on $$\mathcal {DS}$$-$$\mathsf {MITM}$$ analysis with dedicated search algorithms, we identify the crux of the problem and present a method for automatic $$\mathcal {DS}$$-$$\mathsf {MITM}$$ attack based on general constraint programming, which allows the cryptanalysts to state the problem at a high level without having to say how it should be solved. Our method is not only able to enumerate distinguishers but can also partly automate the key-recovery process. This approach makes the $$\mathcal {DS}$$-$$\mathsf {MITM}$$ cryptanalysis more straightforward and easier to follow, since the resolution of the problem is delegated to off-the-shelf constraint solvers and therefore decoupled from its formulation. We apply the method to SKINNY, TWINE, and LBlock, and we get the currently known best $$\mathcal {DS}$$-$$\mathsf {MITM}$$ attacks on these ciphers. Moreover, to demonstrate the usefulness of our tool for the block cipher designers, we exhaustively evaluate the security of $$8! = 40320$$ versions of LBlock instantiated with different words permutations in the F functions. It turns out that the permutation used in the original LBlock is one of the 64 permutations showing the strongest resistance against the $$\mathcal {DS}$$-$$\mathsf {MITM}$$ attack. The whole process is accomplished on a PC in less than 2 h. The same process is applied to TWINE, and similar results are obtained.

2018

TOSC

Cryptanalysis of AES-PRF and Its Dual
📺
Abstract

A dedicated pseudorandom function (PRF) called AES-PRF was proposed by Mennink and Neves at FSE 2018 (ToSC 2017, Issue 3). AES-PRF is obtained from AES by using the output of the 5-th round as the feed-forward to the output state. This paper presents extensive security analysis of AES-PRF and its variants. Specifically, we consider unbalanced variants where the output of the s-th round is used as the feed-forward. We also analyze the security of “dual” constructions of the unbalanced variants, where the input state is used as the feed-forward to the output of the s-th round. We apply an impossible differential attack, zero-correlation linear attack, traditional differential attack, zero correlation linear distinguishing attack and a meet-in-the-middle attack on these PRFs and reduced round versions. We show that AES-PRF is broken whenever s ≤ 2 or s ≥ 6, or reduced to 7 rounds, and Dual-AES-PRF is broken whenever s ≤ 4 or s ≥ 8. Our results on AES-PRF improve the initial security evaluation by the designers in various ways, and our results on Dual-AES-PRF give the first insight to its security.

2017

TOSC

Analysis of AES, SKINNY, and Others with Constraint Programming
Abstract

Search for different types of distinguishers are common tasks in symmetrickey cryptanalysis. In this work, we employ the constraint programming (CP) technique to tackle such problems. First, we show that a simple application of the CP approach proposed by Gerault et al. leads to the solution of the open problem of determining the exact lower bound of the number of active S-boxes for 6-round AES-128 in the related-key model. Subsequently, we show that the same approach can be applied in searching for integral distinguishers, impossible differentials, zero-correlation linear approximations, in both the single-key and related-(twea)key model. We implement the method using the open source constraint solver Choco and apply it to the block ciphers PRESENT, SKINNY, and HIGHT (ARX construction). As a result, we find 16 related-tweakey impossible differentials for 12-round SKINNY-64-128 based on which we construct an 18-round attack on SKINNY-64-128 (one target version for the crypto competition https://sites.google.com/site/skinnycipher announced at ASK 2016). Moreover, we show that in some cases, when equipped with proper strategies (ordering heuristic, restart and dynamic branching strategy), the CP approach can be very efficient. Therefore, we suggest that the constraint programming technique should become a convenient tool at hand of the symmetric-key cryptanalysts.

#### Program Committees

- Eurocrypt 2024
- FSE 2023
- FSE 2022
- FSE 2020

#### Coauthors

- Zhenzhen Bao (1)
- Patrick Derbez (2)
- Xiaoyang Dong (7)
- Kai Fu (1)
- Fei Gao (1)
- David Gerault (1)
- Yinghua Guo (1)
- Jian Guo (1)
- Hao Guo (1)
- Lei Hu (16)
- Kai Hu (4)
- Jialiang Hua (2)
- Zhenyu Huang (1)
- Tetsu Iwata (1)
- Pascal Lafourcade (1)
- Chaoyun Li (3)
- Zheng Li (2)
- Chao Li (3)
- Yingxin Li (1)
- Shun Li (2)
- Ximeng Liu (1)
- Yunwen Liu (3)
- Fukang Liu (1)
- Xiaoshuang Ma (1)
- Zhongfeng Niu (1)
- Qihua Niu (2)
- Kexin Qiao (2)
- Lingyue Qin (1)
- Raghvendra Rohit (1)
- Dhiman Saha (1)
- Sumanta Sarkar (1)
- Yu Sasaki (2)
- Danping Shi (9)
- Ferdinand Sibleyras (1)
- Ling Song (3)
- Bing Sun (1)
- Ling Sun (2)
- Siwei Sun (31)
- Yao Sun (1)
- Yosuke Todo (4)
- Caibing Wang (1)
- Qingju Wang (2)
- Xiaoyun Wang (6)
- Gaoli Wang (1)
- Haoyang Wang (1)
- Peng Wang (1)
- Meiqin Wang (6)
- Dachao Wang (1)
- Baocang Wang (1)
- Congming Wei (1)
- Zihao Wei (2)
- Wenling Wu (1)
- Qianqian Yang (3)
- Zhiyu Zhang (4)
- Yingjie Zhang (1)
- Jian Zou (1)