## CryptoDB

### Meiqin Wang

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

EUROCRYPT

Massive Superpoly Recovery with a Meet-in-the-middle Framework -- Improved Cube Attacks on Trivium and Kreyvium
Abstract

The cube attack extracts the information of secret key bits by recovering the coefficient called superpoly in the output bit with respect to a subset of plaintexts/IV, which is called a cube. While the division property provides an efficient way to detect the structure of the superpoly, superpoly recovery could still be prohibitively costly if the number of rounds is sufficiently high. In particular, Core Monomial Prediction (CMP) was proposed at ASIACRYPT 2022 as a scaled-down version of Monomial Prediction (MP), which sacrifices accuracy for efficiency but ultimately gets stuck at 848 rounds of \trivium.
In this paper, we provide new insights into CMP by elucidating the algebraic meaning to the core monomial trails. We prove that it is sufficient to recover the superpoly by extracting all the core monomial trails, an approach based solely on CMP, thus demonstrating that CMP can achieve perfect accuracy as MP does. We further reveal that CMP is still MP in essence, but with variable substitutions on the target function. Inspired by the divide-and-conquer strategy that has been widely used in previous literature, we design a meet-in-the-middle (MITM) framework, in which the CMP-based approach can be embedded to achieve a speedup.
To illustrate the power of these new techniques, we apply the MITM framework to \trivium, \grain and \kreyvium. As a result, not only can the previous computational cost of superpoly recovery be reduced (e.g., 5x faster for superpoly recovery on 192-round \grain), but we also succeed in recovering superpolies for up to 851 rounds of \trivium and up to 899 rounds of \kreyvium. This surpasses the previous best results by respectively 3 and 4 rounds. Using the memory-efficient M\"obius transform proposed at EUROCRYPT 2021, we can perform key recovery attacks on target ciphers, even though the superpoly may contain over $2^{40}$ monomials. This leads to the best key recovery attacks on the target ciphers.

2023

TOSC

SoK: Modeling for Large S-boxes Oriented to Differential Probabilities and Linear Correlations
Abstract

Automatic methods for differential and linear characteristic search are well-established at the moment. Typically, the designers of novel ciphers also give preliminary analytical findings for analysing the differential and linear properties using automatic techniques. However, neither MILP-based nor SAT/SMT-based approaches have fully resolved the problem of searching for actual differential and linear characteristics of ciphers with large S-boxes. To tackle the issue, we present three strategies for developing SAT models for 8-bit S-boxes that are geared toward differential probabilities and linear correlations. While these approaches cannot guarantee a minimum model size, the time needed to obtain models is drastically reduced. The newly proposed SAT model for large S-boxes enables us to establish that the upper bound on the differential probability for 14 rounds of SKINNY-128 is 2−131, thereby completing the unsuccessful work of Abdelkhalek et al. We also analyse the seven AES-based constructions C1 - C7 designed by Jean and Nikolić and compute the minimum number of active S-boxes necessary to cause an internal collision using the SAT method. For two constructions C3 and C5, the current lower bound on the number of active S-boxes is increased, resulting in a more precise security analysis for these two structures.

2023

TOSC

Towards the Links of Cryptanalytic Methods on MPC/FHE/ZK-Friendly Symmetric-Key Primitives
Abstract

Symmetric-key primitives designed over the prime field Fp with odd characteristics, rather than the traditional Fn2 , are becoming the most popular choice for MPC/FHE/ZK-protocols for better efficiencies. However, the security of Fp is less understood as there are highly nontrivial gaps when extending the cryptanalysis tools and experiences built on Fn2 in the past few decades to Fp.At CRYPTO 2015, Sun et al. established the links among impossible differential, zero-correlation linear, and integral cryptanalysis over Fn2 from the perspective of distinguishers. In this paper, following the definition of linear correlations over Fp by Baignères, Stern and Vaudenay at SAC 2007, we successfully establish comprehensive links over Fp, by reproducing the proofs and offering alternatives when necessary. Interesting and important differences between Fp and Fn2 are observed.- Zero-correlation linear hulls can not lead to integral distinguishers for some cases over Fp, while this is always possible over Fn2proven by Sun et al..- When the newly established links are applied to GMiMC, its impossible differential, zero-correlation linear hull and integral distinguishers can be increased by up to 3 rounds for most of the cases, and even to an arbitrary number of rounds for some special and limited cases, which only appeared in Fp. It should be noted that all these distinguishers do not invalidate GMiMC’s security claims.The development of the theories over Fp behind these links, and properties identified (be it similar or different) will bring clearer and easier understanding of security of primitives in this emerging Fp field, which we believe will provide useful guides for future cryptanalysis and design.

2023

ASIACRYPT

Improved Quantum Circuits for AES: Reducing the Depth and the Number of Qubits
Abstract

Quantum computers hold the potential to solve problems that are intractable for classical computers, thereby driving increased interest in the development of new cryptanalytic ciphers. In NIST's post-quantum standardization process, the security categories are defined by the costs of quantum key search against AES. However, the cost estimates provided by Grassl et al. for the search are high. NIST has acknowledged that these initial classifications should be approached cautiously, since the costs of the most advanced attacks can be significantly reduced. Therefore, accurate resource estimations are crucial for evaluating the security of ciphers against quantum adversaries.
This paper presents a set of generic techniques for implementing AES quantum oracles, which are essential for quantum attacks such as Grover's algorithms. Firstly, we introduce the mixing-XOR technique to reuse the ancilla qubits. At ASIACRYPT 2022, Huang et al. proposed an S-box structure with 120 ancilla qubits. We are able to reduce the number of ancilla qubits to 83 without increasing the T-depth. Secondly, we propose the combined pipeline architecture with the share technique to combine the S-box and its reverse, which achieves it with only 98 ancilla qubits, resulting in a significant reduction of 59% compared to the independent structure. Thirdly, we use a general algorithm to determine the depth of quantum circuits, searching for the in-place circuit of AES MixColumns with depth 16. Applying these improvements, we achieve the lower quantum depth of AES circuits, obtaining more precise resource estimates for Grover's algorithm. For AES-128, -192, and -256, we only require the depth of 730, 876, and 1,018, respectively.
Recently, the community has also focused on the trade-off of the time and space cost of quantum circuits for AES. In this regard, we present quantum implementations of AES circuits with a lower DW-cost on the zig-zag architecture. Compared with the circuit proposed by Huang et al., the DW-cost is reduced by 35%.

2023

TOSC

Improved Attacks on LowMC with Algebraic Techniques
Abstract

The LowMC family of SPN block cipher proposed by Albrecht et al. was designed specifically for MPC-/FHE-/ZKP-friendly use cases. It is especially used as the underlying block cipher of PICNIC, one of the alternate third-round candidate digital signature algorithms for NIST post-quantum cryptography standardization. The security of PICNIC is highly related to the difficulty of recovering the secret key of LowMC from a given plaintext/ciphertext pair, which raises new challenges for security evaluation under extremely low data complexity.In this paper, we improve the attacks on LowMC under low data complexity, i.e. 1 or 2 chosen plaintext/ciphertext pairs. For the difference enumeration attack with 2 chosen plaintexts, we propose new algebraic methods to better exploit the nonlinear relation inside the introduced variables based on the attack framework proposed by Liu et al. at ASIACRYPT 2022. With this technique, we significantly extend the number of attack rounds for LowMC with partial nonlinear layers and improve the success probability from around 0.5 to over 0.9. The security margin of some instances can be reduced to only 3/4 rounds. For the key-recovery attack using a single plaintext, we adopt a different linearization strategy to reduce the huge memory consumption caused by the polynomial methods for solving multivariate equation systems. The memory complexity reduces drastically for all 5-/6-round LowMC instances with full nonlinear layers at the sacrifice of a small factor of time complexity. For 5-round LowMC instances with a block size of 129, the memory complexity decreases from 286.46 bits to 248.18 bits while the time complexity even slightly reduces. Our results indicate that the security for different instances of LowMC under extremely low data complexity still needs further exploration.

2022

EUROCRYPT

A Greater GIFT: Strengthening GIFT against Statistical Cryptanalysis
📺
Abstract

GIFT-64 is a 64-bit block cipher with a 128-bit key that is more lightweight than PRESENT. This paper provides a detailed analysis of GIFT-64 against differential and linear attacks. Our work complements automatic search methods for the best differential and linear characteristics with a careful manual analysis. This hybrid approach leads to new insights. In the differential setting, we theoretically explain the existence of differential characteristics with two active S-boxes per round and derive some novel properties of these characteristics. Furthermore, we prove that all optimal differential characteristics of GIFT-64 covering more than seven rounds must activate two S-boxes per round. We can construct all optimal characteristics by hand. In parallel to the work in the differential setting, we conduct a similar analysis in the linear setting. However, unlike the clear view in differential setting, the optimal linear characteristics of GIFT-64 must have at least one round activating only one S-box. Moreover, with the assistance of automatic searching methods, we identify 24 GIFT-64 variants achieving better resistance against differential attack while maintaining a similar security level against a linear attack. Since the new variants strengthen GIFT-64 against statistical cryptanalysis, we claim that the number of rounds could be reduced from 28 to 26 for the variants. This observation enables us to create a cipher with lower energy consumption than GIFT-64. Similarly to the case in GIFT-64, we do not claim any related-key security for the round-reduced variant as this is not relevant for most applications.

2022

TOSC

Towards Low-Latency Implementation of Linear Layers
📺
Abstract

Lightweight cryptography features a small footprint and/or low computational complexity. Low-cost implementations of linear layers usually play an important role in lightweight cryptography. Although it has been shown by Boyar et al. that finding the optimal implementation of a linear layer is a Shortest Linear Program (SLP) problem and NP-hard, there exist a variety of heuristic methods to search for near-optimal solutions. This paper considers the low-latency criteria and focuses on the heuristic search of lightweight implementation for linear layers. Most of the prior approach iteratively combines the inputs (of linear layers) to reach the output, which can be regarded as the forward search. To better adapt the low-latency criteria, we propose a new framework of backward search that attempts to iteratively split every output (into an XORing of two bits) until all inputs appear. By bounding the time of splitting, the new framework can find a sub-optimal solution with a minimized depth of circuits.We apply our new search algorithm to linear layers of block ciphers and find many low-latency candidates for implementations. Notably, for AES Mixcolumns, we provide an implementation with 103 XOR gates with a depth of 3, which is among the best hardware implementations of the AES linear layer. Besides, we obtain better implementations in XOR gates for 54.3% of 4256 Maximum Distance Separable (MDS) matrices proposed by Li et al. at FSE 2019. We also achieve an involutory MDS matrix (in M4(GL(8, F2))) whose implementation uses the lowest number (i.e., 86, saving 2 from the state-of-the-art result) of XORs with the minimum depth.

2022

TOSC

Addendum to Linear Cryptanalyses of Three AEADs with GIFT-128 as Underlying Primitives
Abstract

In ToSC 2021(2), Sun et al. implemented an automatic search with the Boolean satisfiability problem (SAT) method on GIFT-128 and identified a 19-round linear approximation with the expected linear potential being 2−117.43, which is utilised to launch a 24-round attack on the cipher. In this addendum, we discover a new 19-round linear approximation with a lower expected linear potential. However, in the attack, one more round can be appended after the distinguisher. As a result, we improve the previous optimal linear attack by one round and put forward a 25-round linear attack. Given that the optimal differential attack on GIFT-128, for now, covers 27-round, the resistances of the cipher against differential and linear attacks still have a 2-round gap.

2022

TOSC

Revisiting the Extension of Matsui’s Algorithm 1 to Linear Hulls: Application to TinyJAMBU
Abstract

At EUROCRYPT ’93, Matsui introduced linear cryptanalysis. Both Matsui’s Algorithm 1 and 2 use a linear approximation involving certain state bits. Algorithm 2 requires partial encryptions or decryptions to obtain these state bits after guessing extra key bits. For ciphers where only part of the state can be obtained, like some stream ciphers and authenticated encryption schemes, Algorithm 2 will not work efficiently since it is hard to implement partial encryptions or decryptions. In this case, Algorithm 1 is a good choice since it only involves these state bits, and one bit of key information can be recovered using a single linear approximation trail. However, when there are several strong trails containing the same state bits, known as the linear hull effect, recovering key bits with Algorithm 1 is infeasible. To overcome this, Röck and Nyberg extended Matsui’s Algorithm 1 to linear hulls. However, Röck and Nyberg found that their theoretical estimates are quite pessimistic for low success probabilities and too optimistic for high success probabilities. To deal with this, we construct new statistical models where the theoretical success probabilities are in a good accordance with experimental ones, so that we provide the first accurate analysis of the extension of Matsui’s Algorithm 1 to linear hulls. To illustrate the usefulness of our new models, we apply them to one of the ten finalists of the NIST Lightweight Cryptography (LWC) Standardization project: TinyJAMBU. We provide the first cryptanalysis under the nonce-respecting setting on the full TinyJAMBU v1 and the round-reduced TinyJAMBU v2, where partial key bits are recovered. Our results do not violate the security claims made by the designers.

2022

TOSC

More Inputs Makes Difference: Implementations of Linear Layers Using Gates with More Than Two Inputs
Abstract

Lightweight cryptography ensures cryptography applications to devices with limited resources. Low-area implementations of linear layers usually play an essential role in lightweight cryptography. The previous works have provided plenty of methods to generate low-area implementations using 2-input xor gates for various linear layers. However, it is still challenging to search for smaller implementations using two or more inputs xor gates. This paper, inspired by Banik et al., proposes a novel approach to construct a quantity of lower area implementations with (n + 1)- input gates based on the given implementations with n-input gates. Based on the novel algorithm, we present the corresponding search algorithms for n = 2 and n = 3, which means that we can efficiently convert an implementation with 2-input xor gates and 3-input xor gates to lower-area implementations with 3-input xor gates and 4-input xor gates, respectively.We improve the previous implementations of linear layers for many block ciphers according to the area with these search algorithms. For example, we achieve a better implementation with 4-input xor gates for AES MixColumns, which only requires 243 GE in the STM 130 nm library, while the previous public result is 258.9 GE. Besides, we obtain better implementations for all 5500 lightweight matrices proposed by Li et al. at FSE 2019, and the area for them is decreased by about 21% on average.

2022

ASIACRYPT

On the Field-Based Division Property: Applications to MiMC, Feistel MiMC and GMiMC
📺
Abstract

Recent practical applications using advanced cryptographic protocols such as multi-party computation (MPC) and zero-knowledge proofs (ZKP) have prompted a range of novel symmetric primitives described over large finite fields, characterized as arithmetization-oriented (AO) ciphers. Such designs, aiming to minimize the number of multiplications over fields, have a high risk of being vulnerable to algebraic attacks, especially to the higher-order differential attack. Thus, it is significant to carefully evaluate the growth of the algebraic degree. However, degree estimation for AO ciphers has been a challenge for cryptanalysts due to the lack of general and accurate methods.
In this paper, we extend the division property, a state-of-the-art frame- work for finding the upper bound of the algebraic degree over binary fields, to the scope of F2n, called general monomial prediction. It is a generic method to detect the algebraic degree for AO ciphers, even applicable to Feistel ciphers which have no better bounds than the trivial exponential one. In the general monomial prediction, our idea is to evaluate whether the polynomial representation of a block cipher contains some specific monomials. With a deep investigation of the arithmetical feature, we introduce the propagation rules of monomials for field-based operations, which can be efficiently modeled using the bit-vector theory of SMT. Then the new searching tool for degree estimation can be constructed due to the relationship between the algebraic degree and the exponents of monomials.
We apply our new framework to some important AO ciphers, including Feistel MiMC, GMiMC, and MiMC. For Feistel MiMC, we show that the algebraic degree grows significantly slower than the native exponential bound. For the first time, we present a secret-key higher-order differential distinguisher for up to 124 rounds, much better than the 83-round distinguisher for Feistel MiMC permutation proposed at CRYPTO 2020. We also exhibit a full-round zero-sum distinguisher with a data complexity of 2^{251}. Our method can be further extended for the general Feistel structure with more branches and exhibit higher-order differential distinguishers against the practical instance of GMiMC for up to 50 rounds. For MiMC in SP-networks, our results correspond to the exact algebraic degree proved by Bouvier. We also point out that the number of rounds in MiMC specification is not necessary to guarantee the security against the higher-order differential attack for MiMC-like schemes with different exponents. The investigation of different exponents provides some guidance on the cipher design.

2022

ASIACRYPT

Stretching Cube Attacks: Improved Methods to Recover Massive Superpolies
📺
Abstract

Cube attacks exploit the algebraic properties of symmetric ciphers by recovering a special polynomial, the superpoly, and subsequently the secret key. When the algebraic normal forms of the corresponding Boolean functions are not available, the division property based approach allows to recover the exact superpoly in a clever way. However, the computational cost to recover the superpoly becomes prohibitive as the number of rounds of the cipher increases. For example, the nested monomial predictions (NMP) proposed at ASIACRYPT 2021 stuck at round 845 for \trivium. To alleviate the bottleneck of the NMP technique, i.e., the unsolvable model due to the excessive number of monomial trails, we shift our focus to the so-called valuable terms of a specific middle round that contribute to the superpoly. Two new techniques are introduced, namely, Non-zero Bit-based Division Property (NBDP) and Core Monomial Prediction (CMP), both of which result in a simpler MILP model compared to the MILP model of MP. It can be shown that the CMP technique offers a substantial improvement over the monomial prediction technique in terms of computational complexity of recovering valuable terms. Combining the divide-and-conquer strategy with these two new techniques, we catch the valuable terms more effectively and thus avoid wasting computational resources on intermediate terms contributing nothing to the superpoly. As an illustration of the power of our techniques, we apply our framework to \trivium, \grain, \kreyvium and \acorn. As a result, the computational cost of earlier attacks can be significantly reduced and the exact ANFs of the superpolies for 846-, 847- and 848-round \trivium, 192-round \grain, 895-round \kreyvium and 776-round \acorn can be recovered in practical time, even though the superpoly of 848-round \trivium contains over 500 million terms; this corresponds to respectively 3, 1, 1 and 1 rounds more than the previous best results. Moreover, by investigating the internal properties of M\"obius transformation, we show how to perform key recovery using superpolies involving full key bits, which leads to the best key recovery attacks on the targeted ciphers.

2021

TOSC

Accelerating the Search of Differential and Linear Characteristics with the SAT Method
📺
Abstract

The introduction of the automatic search boosts the cryptanalysis of symmetric-key primitives to some degree. However, the performance of the automatic search is not always satisfactory for the search of long trails or ciphers with large state sizes. Compared with the extensive attention on the enhancement for the search with the mixed integer linear programming (MILP) method, few works care for the acceleration of the automatic search with the Boolean satisfiability problem (SAT) or satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) method. This paper intends to fill this vacancy. Firstly, with the additional encoding variables of the sequential counter circuit for the original objective function in the standard SAT method, we put forward a new encoding method to convert the Matsui’s bounding conditions into Boolean formulas. This approach does not rely on new auxiliary variables and significantly reduces the consumption of clauses for integrating multiple bounding conditions into one SAT problem. Then, we evaluate the accelerating effect of the novel encoding method under different sets of bounding conditions. With the observations and experience in the tests, a strategy on how to create the sets of bounding conditions that probably achieve extraordinary advances is proposed. The new idea is applied to search for optimal differential and linear characteristics for multiple ciphers. For PRESENT, GIFT-64, RECTANGLE, LBlock, TWINE, and some versions in SIMON and SPECK families of block ciphers, we obtain the complete bounds (full rounds) on the number of active S-boxes, the differential probability, as well as the linear bias. The acceleration method is also employed to speed up the search of related-key differential trails for GIFT-64. Based on the newly identified 18-round distinguisher with probability 2−58, we launch a 26-round key-recovery attack with 260.96 chosen plaintexts. To our knowledge, this is the longest attack on GIFT-64. Lastly, we note that the attack result is far from threatening the security of GIFT-64 since the designers recommended users to double the number of rounds under the related-key attack setting.

2021

TOSC

Linear Cryptanalyses of Three AEADs with GIFT-128 as Underlying Primitives
📺
Abstract

This paper considers the linear cryptanalyses of Authenticated Encryptions with Associated Data (AEADs) GIFT-COFB, SUNDAE-GIFT, and HyENA. All of these proposals take GIFT-128 as underlying primitives. The automatic search with the Boolean satisfiability problem (SAT) method is implemented to search for linear approximations that match the attack settings concerning these primitives. With the newly identified approximations, we launch key-recovery attacks on GIFT-COFB, SUNDAE-GIFT, and HyENA when the underlying primitives are replaced with 16-round, 17-round, and 16-round versions of GIFT-128. The resistance of GIFT-128 against linear cryptanalysis is also evaluated. We present a 24-round key-recovery attack on GIFT-128 with a newly obtained 19-round linear approximation. We note that the attack results in this paper are far from threatening the security of GIFT-COFB, SUNDAE-GIFT, HyENA, and GIFT-128.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Massive Superpoly Recovery with Nested Monomial Predictions
📺
Abstract

Determining the exact algebraic structure or some partial information of the superpoly
for a given cube is a necessary step in the cube attack -- a generic cryptanalytic technique
for symmetric-key primitives with some secret and public tweakable inputs.
Currently, the division property based approach is the most powerful tool
for exact superpoly recovery.
However, as the algebraic normal form (ANF) of the targeted output bit gets
increasingly complicated as the number of rounds grows, existing
methods for superpoly recovery quickly hit their bottlenecks. For example,
previous method stuck at round 842, 190, and 892 for \trivium, \grain, and \kreyvium, respectively.
In this paper, we propose a new framework
for recovering the exact ANFs of massive superpolies
based on the monomial prediction technique (ASIACRYPT 2020, an
alternative language for the division property).
In this framework, the targeted output bit is
first expressed as a polynomial of the bits of some
intermediate states. For each term appearing in
the polynomial, the monomial prediction technique is
applied to determine its superpoly if the corresponding
MILP model can be solved within a preset time limit.
Terms unresolved within the time limit are further
expanded as polynomials of the bits of some deeper intermediate
states with symbolic computation, whose terms are again
processed with monomial predictions. The above procedure
is iterated until all terms are resolved.
Finally, all the sub-superpolies are collected and assembled
into the superpoly of the targeted bit.
We apply the new
framework to \trivium, \grain, and \kreyvium.
As a result, the exact ANFs of the superpolies for
843-, 844- and 845-round \trivium,
191-round \grain and 894-round \kreyvium are recovered.
Moreover, with help of the M\"{o}bius transform, we present a novel key-recovery technique based on
superpolies involving \textit{all} key bits by exploiting the sparse structures, which leads to the best key-recovery attacks on the targets
considered.

2020

TOSC

Finding Bit-Based Division Property for Ciphers with Complex Linear Layers
📺
Abstract

The bit-based division property (BDP) is the most effective technique for finding integral characteristics of symmetric ciphers. Recently, automatic search tools have become one of the most popular approaches to evaluating the security of designs against many attacks. Constraint-aided automatic tools for the BDP have been applied to many ciphers with simple linear layers like bit-permutation. Constructing models of complex linear layers accurately and efficiently remains hard. A straightforward method proposed by Sun et al. (called the S method), decomposes a complex linear layer into basic operations like COPY and XOR, then models them one by one. However, this method can easily insert invalid division trails into the solution pool, which results in a quicker loss of the balanced property than the cipher itself would. In order to solve this problem, Zhang and Rijmen propose the ZR method to link every valid trail with an invertible sub-matrix of the matrix corresponding to the linear layer, and then generate linear inequalities to represent all the invertible sub-matrices. Unfortunately, the ZR method is only applicable to invertible binary matrices (defined in Definition 3).To avoid generating a huge number of inequalities for all the sub-matrices, we build a new model that only includes that the sub-matrix corresponding to a valid trail should be invertible. The computing scale of our model can be tackled by most of SMT/SAT solvers, which makes our method practical. For applications, we improve the previous BDP for LED and MISTY1. We also give the 7-round BDP results for Camellia with FL/FL−1, which is the longest to date.Furthermore, we remove the restriction of the ZR method that the matrix has to be invertible, which provides more choices for future designs. Thanks to this, we also reproduce 5-round key-dependent integral distinguishers proposed at Crypto 2016 which cannot be obtained by either the S or ZR methods.

2020

TOSC

Beyond-Birthday-Bound Security for 4-round Linear Substitution-Permutation Networks
📺
Abstract

Recent works of Cogliati et al. (CRYPTO 2018) have initiated provable treatments of Substitution-Permutation Networks (SPNs), one of the most popular approach to construct modern blockciphers. Such theoretical SPN models may employ non-linear diffusion layers, which enables beyond-birthday-bound provable security. Though, for the model of real world blockciphers, i.e., SPN models with linear diffusion layers, existing provable results are capped at birthday security up to $2^{n/2}$ adversarial queries, where $n$ is the size of the idealized S-boxes.
In this paper, we overcome this birthday barrier and prove that a 4-round SPN with linear diffusion layers and independent round keys is secure up to $2^{2n/3}$ queries. For this, we identify conditions on the linear layers that are sufficient for such security, which, unsurprisingly, turns out to be slightly stronger than Cogliati et al.'s conditions for birthday security. These provides additional theoretic supports for real world SPN blockciphers.

2020

TOSC

Differential Attacks on CRAFT Exploiting the Involutory S-boxes and Tweak Additions
📺
Abstract

CRAFT is a lightweight tweakable block cipher proposed at FSE 2019, which allows countermeasures against Differential Fault Attacks to be integrated into the cipher at the algorithmic level with ease. CRAFT employs a lightweight and involutory S-box and linear layer, such that the encryption function can be turned into decryption at a low cost. Besides, the tweakey schedule algorithm of CRAFT is extremely simple, where four 64-bit round tweakeys are generated and repeatedly used. Due to a combination of these features which makes CRAFT exceedingly lightweight, we find that some input difference at a particular position can be preserved through any number of rounds if the input pair follows certain truncated differential trails. Interestingly, in contrast to traditional differential analysis, the validity of this invariant property is affected by the positions where the constant additions take place. We use this property to construct “weak-tweakey” truncated differential distinguishers of CRAFT in the single-key model. Subsequently, we show how the tweak additions allow us to convert these weak-tweakey distinguishers into ordinary secret-key distinguishers based on which key-recovery attacks can be performed. Moreover, we show how to construct MILP models to search for truncated differential distinguishers exploiting this invariant property. As a result, we find a 15-round truncated differential distinguisher of CRAFT and extend it to a 19-round key-recovery attack with 260.99 data, 268 memory, 294.59 time complexity, and success probability 80.66%. Also, we find a 14-round distinguisher with probability 2−43 (experimentally verified), a 16-round distinguisher with probability 2−55, and a 20-round weak-key distinguisher (2118 weak keys) with probability 2−63. Experiments on round-reduced versions of the distinguishers show that the experimental probabilities are sometimes higher than predicted. Finally, we note that our result is far from threatening the security of the full CRAFT.

2020

TOSC

On the Usage of Deterministic (Related-Key) Truncated Differentials and Multidimensional Linear Approximations for SPN Ciphers
📺
Abstract

Among the few works realising the search of truncated differentials (TD) and multidimensional linear approximations (MDLA) holding for sure, the optimality of the distinguisher should be confirmed via an exhaustive search over all possible input differences/masks, which cannot be afforded when the internal state of the primitive has a considerable number of words. The incomplete search is also a long-term problem in the search of optimal impossible differential (ID) and zerocorrelation linear approximation (ZCLA) since all available automatic tools operate under fixed input and output differences/masks, and testing all possible combinations of differences/masks is impracticable for now. In this paper, we start by introducing an automatic approach based on the constraint satisfaction problem for the exploration of deterministic TDs and MDLAs. Since we transform the exhaustive search into an inherent feature of the searching model, the issue of incomplete search is settled. This tool is applied to search for related-key (RK) TDs of AES-192, and a new related-key differential-linear (DL) distinguisher is identified with a TD with certainty. Due to the novel property of the distinguisher, the previous RK DL attack on AES-192 is improved. Also, the new distinguisher is explained from the viewpoint of differentiallinear connectivity table (DLCT) and thus can be regarded as the first application of DLCT in the related-key attack scenario. As the second application of the tool, we propose a method to construct (RK) IDs and ZCLAs automatically. Benefiting from the control of the nonzero fixed differential pattern and the inherent feature of exhaustive search, the new searching scheme can discover longer distinguishers and hence possesses some superiorities over the previous methods. This technique is implemented with several primitives, and the provable security bounds of SKINNY and Midori64 against impossible differential distinguishing attack are generalised.

2020

ASIACRYPT

An Algebraic Formulation of the Division Property: Revisiting Degree Evaluations, Cube Attacks, and Key-Independent Sums
📺
Abstract

Since it was proposed in 2015 as a generalization
of integral properties, the division property has
evolved into a powerful tool for probing the
structures of Boolean functions whose
algebraic normal forms are not available.
We capture the most essential elements for the detection of division properties
from a pure algebraic perspective, proposing a technique named as {\it monomial prediction}, which
can be employed to determine the presence or absence of a
monomial in the product of the coordinate functions of a vectorial
Boolean function $\bs f$ by counting the number of the so-called {\it monomial trails}
across a sequence of simpler functions whose composition is $\bs f$.
Under the framework of the monomial prediction, we formally prove that
most algorithms for detecting division properties in previous literature
raise no false alarms but may miss.
We also establish the equivalence between the monomial prediction and
the three-subset bit-based division property without unknown subset presented at EUROCRYPT 2020,
and show that these two techniques are perfectly accurate.
This algebraic formulation gives more insights into division properties
and inspires new search strategies. With the monomial prediction,
we obtain the {\it exact} algebraic degrees of \TRIVIUM up
to 834 rounds for the first time. In the context of cube attacks,
we are able to explore a larger search space in limited time and
recover the exact algebraic normal forms of complex superpolies
with the help of a divide-and-conquer strategy. As a result,
we identify more cubes with smaller dimensions, leading
to improvements of some near-optimal attacks against 840-, 841-
and 842-round \TRIVIUM.

2019

TOSC

Related-Tweak Statistical Saturation Cryptanalysis and Its Application on QARMA
📺
Abstract

Statistical saturation attack takes advantage of a set of plaintext with some bits fixed while the others vary randomly, and then track the evolution of a non-uniform plaintext distribution through the cipher. Previous statistical saturation attacks are all implemented under single-key setting, and there is no public attack models under related-key/tweak setting. In this paper, we propose a new cryptanalytic method which can be seen as related-key/tweak statistical saturation attack by revealing the link between the related-key/tweak statistical saturation distinguishers and KDIB (Key Difference Invariant Bias) / TDIB (Tweak Difference Invariant Bias) ones. KDIB cryptanalysis was proposed by Bogdanov et al. at ASIACRYPT’13 and utilizes the property that there can exist linear trails such that their biases are deterministically invariant under key difference. And this method can be easily extended to TDIB distinguishers if the tweak is also alternated. The link between them provides a new and more efficient way to find related-key/tweak statistical saturation distinguishers in ciphers. Thereafter, an automatic searching algorithm for KDIB/TDIB distinguishers is also given in this paper, which can be implemented to find word-level KDIB distinguishers for S-box based key-alternating ciphers. We apply this algorithm to QARMA-64 and give related-tweak statistical saturation attack for 10-round QARMA-64 with outer whitening key. Besides, an 11-round attack on QARMA-128 is also given based on the TDIB technique. Compared with previous public attacks on QARMA including outer whitening key, all attacks presented in this paper are the best ones in terms of the number of rounds.

2018

TOSC

Cryptanalysis of AES-PRF and Its Dual
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Abstract

A dedicated pseudorandom function (PRF) called AES-PRF was proposed by Mennink and Neves at FSE 2018 (ToSC 2017, Issue 3). AES-PRF is obtained from AES by using the output of the 5-th round as the feed-forward to the output state. This paper presents extensive security analysis of AES-PRF and its variants. Specifically, we consider unbalanced variants where the output of the s-th round is used as the feed-forward. We also analyze the security of “dual” constructions of the unbalanced variants, where the input state is used as the feed-forward to the output of the s-th round. We apply an impossible differential attack, zero-correlation linear attack, traditional differential attack, zero correlation linear distinguishing attack and a meet-in-the-middle attack on these PRFs and reduced round versions. We show that AES-PRF is broken whenever s ≤ 2 or s ≥ 6, or reduced to 7 rounds, and Dual-AES-PRF is broken whenever s ≤ 4 or s ≥ 8. Our results on AES-PRF improve the initial security evaluation by the designers in various ways, and our results on Dual-AES-PRF give the first insight to its security.

2018

TOSC

More Accurate Differential Properties of LED64 and Midori64
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Abstract

In differential cryptanalysis, a differential is more valuable than the single trail belonging to it in general. The traditional way to compute the probability of the differential is to sum the probabilities of all trails within it. The automatic tool for the search of differentials based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) has been proposed and realises the task of finding multiple trails of a given differential. The problem is whether it is reliable to evaluate the probability of the differential traditionally. In this paper, we focus on two lightweight block ciphers – LED64 and Midori64 and show the more accurate estimation of differential probability considering the key schedule. Firstly, an automated tool based on Boolean Satisfiability Problem (SAT) is put forward to accomplish the automatic search of differentials for ciphers with S-boxes and is applied to LED64 and Midori64. Secondly, we provide an automatic approach to detect the right pairs following a given differential, which can be exploited to calculate the differential property. Applying this technique to the STEP function of LED64, we discover some differentials with enhanced probability. As a result, the previous attacks relying upon high probability differentials can be improved definitely. Thirdly, we present a method to compute an upper-bound of the weak-key ratio for a given differential, which is utilised to analyse 4-round differentials of Midori64. We detect two differentials whose weak-key ratios are much lower than the expected 50%. More than 78% of the keys will make these two differentials being impossible differentials. The idea of the estimation for an upper-bound of the weak-key ratio can be employed for other ciphers and allows us to launch differential attacks more reliably. Finally, we introduce how to compute the enhanced differential probability and evaluate the size of keys achieving the improved probability. Such a property may incur an efficient weak-key attack. For a 4-round differential of Midori64, we obtain an improved differential property for a portion of keys.

2017

ASIACRYPT

#### Program Committees

- Eurocrypt 2023
- Asiacrypt 2023
- Asiacrypt 2022
- Asiacrypt 2021
- FSE 2018
- FSE 2017
- Asiacrypt 2017
- FSE 2016
- Asiacrypt 2016
- Asiacrypt 2014

#### Coauthors

- Joël Alwen (1)
- Andrey Bogdanov (4)
- Christina Boura (1)
- Shiyao Chen (1)
- Huaifeng Chen (1)
- Jiamin Cui (1)
- Tingting Cui (1)
- Jingsong Cui (1)
- Patrick Derbez (1)
- Yanhong Fan (2)
- Kai Fu (1)
- Yansong Gao (1)
- David Gerault (1)
- Chun Guo (2)
- Yinghua Guo (1)
- Jian Guo (2)
- Hao Guo (1)
- Jiahui He (2)
- Lei Hu (2)
- Kai Hu (7)
- Senyang Huang (1)
- Tetsu Iwata (1)
- Keting Jia (1)
- Gregor Leander (1)
- Hao Lei (1)
- Muzhou Li (2)
- Li Liu (1)
- Qun Liu (3)
- Nicky Mouha (1)
- Kaisa Nyberg (1)
- Bart Preneel (4)
- Vincent Rijmen (1)
- Yu Sasaki (1)
- Danping Shi (1)
- Ling Su (1)
- Yimeng Sun (1)
- Ling Sun (13)
- Yue Sun (1)
- Siwei Sun (5)
- Yao Sun (1)
- Elmar Tischhauser (1)
- Yosuke Todo (2)
- Wei Wang (8)
- Weijia Wang (3)
- Qingju Wang (3)
- Xiaoyun Wang (2)
- Lei Wang (1)
- Haoyang Wang (1)
- Puwen Wei (2)
- Long Wen (3)
- Lixuan Wu (2)
- Zeyu Xu (1)
- Guangwu Xu (1)
- Jingyuan Zhao (2)
- Zhichao Zhao (1)