International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Tetsu Iwata

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2022
TOSC
Cryptanalysis of Rocca and Feasibility of Its Security Claim
Rocca is an authenticated encryption with associated data scheme for beyond 5G/6G systems. It was proposed at FSE 2022/ToSC 2021(2), and the designers make a security claim of achieving 256-bit security against key-recovery and distinguishing attacks, and 128-bit security against forgery attacks (the security claim regarding distinguishing attacks was subsequently weakened in the full version in ePrint 2022/116). A notable aspect of the claim is the gap between the privacy and authenticity security. In particular, the security claim regarding key-recovery attacks allows an attacker to obtain multiple forgeries through the decryption oracle. In this paper, we first present a full key-recovery attack on Rocca. The data complexity of our attack is 2128 and the time complexity is about 2128, where the attack makes use of the encryption and decryption oracles, and the success probability is almost 1. The attack recovers the entire 256-bit key in a single-key and nonce-respecting setting, breaking the 256-bit security claim against key-recovery attacks. We then extend the attack to various security models and discuss several countermeasures to see the feasibility of the security claim. Finally, we consider a theoretical question of whether achieving the security claim of Rocca is possible in the provable security paradigm. We present both negative and positive results to the question.
2021
TOSC
Provably Quantum-Secure Tweakable Block Ciphers 📺
Akinori Hosoyamada Tetsu Iwata
Recent results on quantum cryptanalysis show that some symmetric key schemes can be broken in polynomial time even if they are proven to be secure in the classical setting. Liskov, Rivest, and Wagner showed that secure tweakable block ciphers can be constructed from secure block ciphers in the classical setting. However, Kaplan et al. showed that their scheme can be broken by polynomial time quantum superposition attacks, even if underlying block ciphers are quantum-secure. Since then, it remains open if there exists a mode of block ciphers to build quantum-secure tweakable block ciphers. This paper settles the problem in the reduction-based provable security paradigm. We show the first design of quantum-secure tweakable block ciphers based on quantum-secure block ciphers, and present a provable security bound. Our construction is simple, and when instantiated with a quantum-secure n-bit block cipher, it is secure against attacks that query arbitrary quantum superpositions of plaintexts and tweaks up to O(2n/6) quantum queries. Our security proofs use the compressed oracle technique introduced by Zhandry. More precisely, we use an alternative formalization of the technique introduced by Hosoyamada and Iwata.
2021
CRYPTO
On Tight Quantum Security of HMAC and NMAC in the Quantum Random Oracle Model 📺
Akinori Hosoyamada Tetsu Iwata
HMAC and NMAC are the most basic and important constructions to convert Merkle-Damg{\aa}rd hash functions into message authentication codes (MACs) or pseudorandom functions (PRFs). In the quantum setting, at CRYPTO~2017, Song and Yun showed that HMAC and NMAC are quantum pseudorandom functions (qPRFs) under the standard assumption that the underlying compression function is a qPRF. Their proof guarantees security up to $O(2^{n/5})$ or $O(2^{n/8})$ quantum queries when the output length of HMAC and NMAC is $n$ bits. However, there is a gap between the provable security bound and a simple distinguishing attack that uses $O(2^{n/3})$ quantum queries. This paper settles the problem of closing the gap. We show that the tight bound of the number of quantum queries to distinguish HMAC or NMAC from a random function is $\Theta(2^{n/3})$ in the quantum random oracle model, where compression functions are modeled as quantum random oracles. To give the tight quantum bound, based on an alternative formalization of Zhandry's compressed oracle technique, we introduce a new proof technique focusing on the symmetry of quantum query records.
2020
TOSC
Iterative Block Ciphers from Tweakable Block Ciphers with Long Tweaks 📺
Ryota Nakamichi Tetsu Iwata
We consider a problem of constructing a secure block cipher from a tweakable block cipher (TBC) with long tweaks. Given a TBC with n-bit blocks and Γn-bit tweaks for Γ ≥ 1, one of the constructions by Minematsu in DCC 2015 shows that a simple iteration of the TBC for 3d rounds yields a block cipher with dn-bit blocks that is secure up to 2dn/2 queries, where d = Γ + 1. In this paper, we show three results.1. Iteration of 3d − 2 rounds is enough for the security up to 2dn/2 queries, i.e., the security remains the same even if we reduce the number of rounds by two.2. When the number of queries is limited to 2n, d+1 rounds are enough, and with d + l rounds for 1 ≤ l ≤ d − 1, the security bound improves as l grows.3. A d-round construction gives a block cipher secure up to 2n/2 queries, i.e., it achieves the classical birthday-bound security. Our results show that a block cipher with beyond-birthday-bound (BBB) security (with respect to n) is obtained as low as d + 1 rounds, and we draw the security spectrum of d + l round version in the range of 1 ≤ l ≤ d−1 and l = 2d−2 for BBB security, and l = 0 for birthday-bound security.
2020
TOSC
Duel of the Titans: The Romulus and Remus Families of Lightweight AEAD Algorithms 📺
In this article, we propose two new families of very lightweight and efficient authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD) modes, Romulus and Remus, that provide security beyond the birthday bound with respect to the block-length n. The former uses a tweakable block cipher (TBC) as internal primitive and can be proven secure in the standard model. The later uses a block cipher (BC) as internal primitive and can be proven secure in the ideal cipher model. Both our modes allow to switch very easily from the nonce-respecting to the nonce-misuse scenario.Previous constructions, such as ΘCB3, are quite computationally efficient, yet needing a large memory for implementation, which makes them unsuitable for platforms where lightweight cryptography should play a key role. Romulus and Remus break this barrier by introducing a new architecture evolved from a BC mode COFB. They achieve the best of what can be possible with TBC – the optimal computational efficiency (rate-1 operation) and the minimum state size of a TBC mode (i.e., (n + t)-bit for n-bit block, t-bit tweak TBC), with almost equivalent provable security as ΘCB3. Actually, our comparisons show that both our designs present superior performances when compared to all other recent lightweight AEAD modes, being BC-based, TBC-based or sponge-based, in the nonce-respecting or nonce-misuse scenario. We eventually describe how to instantiate Romulus and Remus modes using the Skinny lightweight tweakable block cipher proposed at CRYPTO 2016, including the hardware implementation results
2020
TOSC
Beyond-Birthday-Bound Secure Cryptographic Permutations from Ideal Ciphers with Long Keys 📺
Ryota Nakamichi Tetsu Iwata
Coron et al. showed a construction of a 3-round 2n-bit cryptographic permutation from three independent n-bit ideal ciphers with n-bit keys (TCC 2010). Guo and Lin showed a construction of a (2d − 1)-round dn-bit cryptographic permutation from 2d − 1 independent n-bit ideal ciphers with kn-bit keys, where d = k + 1 (Cryptography and Communications, 2015). These constructions have an indifferentiability security bound of O(q2/2n) against adversaries that make at most q queries. The bound is commonly referred to as birthday-bound security. In this paper, we show that a 5-round version of Coron et al.’s construction and (2d+1)-round version of Guo and Lin’s construction yield a cryptographic permutation with an indifferentiability security bound of O(q2/22n), i.e., by adding two more rounds, these constructions have beyond-birthday-bound security. Furthermore, under the assumption that q ≤ 2n, we show that Guo and Lin’s construction with 2d+2l−1 rounds yields a cryptographic permutation with a security bound of O(q2/2(l+1)n), where 1 ≤ l ≤ d − 1, i.e., the security bound exponentially improves by adding every two more rounds, up to 4d − 3 rounds. To the best of our knowledge, our result gives the first cryptographic permutation that is built from n-bit ideal ciphers and has a full n-bit indifferentiability security bound.
2020
JOFC
Cryptanalysis of OCB2: Attacks on Authenticity and Confidentiality
We present practical attacks on OCB2. This mode of operation of a blockcipher was designed with the aim to provide particularly efficient and provably secure authenticated encryption services, and since its proposal about 15 years ago it belongs to the top performers in this realm. OCB2 was included in an ISO standard in 2009. An internal building block of OCB2 is the tweakable blockcipher obtained by operating a regular blockcipher in $${\text {XEX}}^*$$ XEX ∗  mode. The latter provides security only when evaluated in accordance with certain technical restrictions that, as we note, are not always respected by OCB2. This leads to devastating attacks against OCB2’s security promises: We develop a range of very practical attacks that, amongst others, demonstrate universal forgeries and full plaintext recovery. We complete our report with proposals for (provably) repairing OCB2. As a direct consequence of our findings, OCB2 is currently in a process of removal from ISO standards. Our attacks do not apply to OCB1 and OCB3, and our privacy attacks on OCB2 require an active adversary.
2019
JOFC
Blockcipher-Based Authenticated Encryption: How Small Can We Go?
This paper presents a lightweight blockcipher-based authenticated encryption mode mainly focusing on minimizing the implementation size, i.e., hardware gates or working memory on software. The mode is called $$\textsf {COFB}$$COFB, for COmbined FeedBack. $$\textsf {COFB}$$COFB uses an n-bit blockcipher as the underlying primitive and relies on the use of a nonce for security. In addition to the state required for executing the underlying blockcipher, $$\textsf {COFB}$$COFB needs only n / 2 bits state as a mask. Till date, for all existing constructions in which masks have been applied, at least n bit masks have been used. Thus, we have shown the possibility of reducing the size of a mask without degrading the security level much. Moreover, it requires one blockcipher call to process one input block. We show $$\textsf {COFB}$$COFB is provably secure up to $$O(2^{n/2}/n)$$O(2n/2/n) queries which is almost up to the standard birthday bound. We first present an idealized mode $$\textsf {iCOFB}$$iCOFB along with the details of its provable security analysis. Next, we extend the construction to the practical mode COFB. We instantiate COFB with two 128-bit blockciphers, AES-128 and GIFT-128, and present their implementation results on FPGAs. We present two implementations, with and without CAESAR hardware API. When instantiated with AES-128 and implemented without CAESAR hardware API, COFB achieves only a few more than 1000 Look-Up-Tables (LUTs) while maintaining almost the same level of provable security as standard AES-based AE, such as GCM. When instantiated with GIFT-128, COFB performs much better in hardware area. It consumes less than 1000 LUTs while maintaining the same security level. However, when implemented with CAESAR hardware API, there are significant overheads both in hardware area and in throughput. COFB with AES-128 achieves about 1475 LUTs. COFB with GIFT-128 achieves a few more than 1000 LUTs. Though there are overheads, still both these figures show competitive implementation results compared to other authenticated encryption constructions.
2019
TOSC
ZOCB and ZOTR: Tweakable Blockcipher Modes for Authenticated Encryption with Full Absorption 📺
We define ZOCB and ZOTR for nonce-based authenticated encryption with associated data, and analyze their provable security. These schemes use a tweakable blockcipher (TBC) as the underlying primitive, and fully utilize its input to process a plaintext and associated data (AD). This property is commonly referred to as full absorption, and this has been explored for schemes based on a permutation or a pseudorandom function (PRF). Our schemes improve the efficiency of TBC-based counterparts of OCB and OTR called OCB3 (Krovetz and Rogaway, FSE 2011) and OTR (Minematsu, EUROCRYPT 2014). Specifically, ΘCB3 and OTR have an independent part to process AD, and our schemes integrate this process into the encryption part of a plaintext by using the tweak input of the TBC. Up to a certain length of AD, ZOCB and ZOTR completely eliminate the independent process for it. Even for longer AD, our schemes process it efficiently by fully using the tweak input of the TBC. For this purpose, based on previous tweak extension schemes for TBCs, we introduce a scheme called XTX*. To our knowledge, ZOCB and ZOTR are the first efficiency improvement of ΘCB3 and OTR in terms of the number of TBC calls. Compared to Sponge-based and PRF-based schemes, ZOCB and ZOTR allow fully parallel computation of the underlying primitive, and have a unique design feature that an authentication tag is independent of a part of AD. We present experimental results illustrating the practical efficiency gain and clarifying the efficiency cost for it with a concrete instantiation. The results show that for long input data, our schemes have gains, while we have efficiency loss for short input data.
2019
CRYPTO
Cryptanalysis of OCB2: Attacks on Authenticity and Confidentiality 📺
We present practical attacks on OCB2. This mode of operation of a blockcipher was designed with the aim to provide particularly efficient and provably-secure authenticated encryption services, and since its proposal about 15 years ago it belongs to the top performers in this realm. OCB2 was included in an ISO standard in 2009.An internal building block of OCB2 is the tweakable blockcipher obtained by operating a regular blockcipher in $$ \text {XEX} ^*$$ mode. The latter provides security only when evaluated in accordance with certain technical restrictions that, as we note, are not always respected by OCB2. This leads to devastating attacks against OCB2’s security promises: We develop a range of very practical attacks that, amongst others, demonstrate universal forgeries and full plaintext recovery. We complete our report with proposals for (provably) repairing OCB2. To our understanding, as a direct consequence of our findings, OCB2 is currently in a process of removal from ISO standards. Our attacks do not apply to OCB1 and OCB3, and our privacy attacks on OCB2 require an active adversary.
2019
ASIACRYPT
4-Round Luby-Rackoff Construction is a qPRP
Akinori Hosoyamada Tetsu Iwata
The Luby-Rackoff construction, or the Feistel construction, is one of the most important approaches to construct secure block ciphers from secure pseudorandom functions. The 3- and 4-round Luby-Rackoff constructions are proven to be secure against chosen-plaintext attacks (CPAs) and chosen-ciphertext attacks (CCAs), respectively, in the classical setting. However, Kuwakado and Morii showed that a quantum superposed chosen-plaintext attack (qCPA) can distinguish the 3-round Luby-Rackoff construction from a random permutation in polynomial time. In addition, Ito et al. recently showed a quantum superposed chosen-ciphertext attack (qCCA) that distinguishes the 4-round Luby-Rackoff construction. Since Kuwakado and Morii showed the result, a problem of much interest has been how many rounds are sufficient to achieve provable security against quantum query attacks. This paper answers to this fundamental question by showing that 4-rounds suffice against qCPAs. Concretely, we prove that the 4-round Luby-Rackoff construction is secure up to $$O(2^{n/12})$$ quantum queries. We also give a query upper bound for the problem of distinguishing the 4-round Luby-Rackoff construction from a random permutation by showing a distinguishing qCPA with $$O(2^{n/6})$$ quantum queries. Our result is the first to demonstrate the security of a typical block-cipher construction against quantum query attacks, without any algebraic assumptions. To give security proofs, we use an alternative formalization of Zhandry’s compressed oracle technique.
2018
TOSC
Cryptanalysis of AES-PRF and Its Dual 📺
A dedicated pseudorandom function (PRF) called AES-PRF was proposed by Mennink and Neves at FSE 2018 (ToSC 2017, Issue 3). AES-PRF is obtained from AES by using the output of the 5-th round as the feed-forward to the output state. This paper presents extensive security analysis of AES-PRF and its variants. Specifically, we consider unbalanced variants where the output of the s-th round is used as the feed-forward. We also analyze the security of “dual” constructions of the unbalanced variants, where the input state is used as the feed-forward to the output of the s-th round. We apply an impossible differential attack, zero-correlation linear attack, traditional differential attack, zero correlation linear distinguishing attack and a meet-in-the-middle attack on these PRFs and reduced round versions. We show that AES-PRF is broken whenever s ≤ 2 or s ≥ 6, or reduced to 7 rounds, and Dual-AES-PRF is broken whenever s ≤ 4 or s ≥ 8. Our results on AES-PRF improve the initial security evaluation by the designers in various ways, and our results on Dual-AES-PRF give the first insight to its security.
2017
CRYPTO
2017
TOSC
Cryptanalysis of PMACx, PMAC2x, and SIVx
Kazuhiko Minematsu Tetsu Iwata
At CT-RSA 2017, List and Nandi proposed two variable input length pseudorandom functions (VI-PRFs) called PMACx and PMAC2x, and a deterministic authenticated encryption scheme called SIVx. These schemes use a tweakable block cipher (TBC) as the underlying primitive, and are provably secure up to the query complexity of 2n, where n denotes the block length of the TBC. In this paper, we falsify the provable security claims by presenting concrete attacks. We show that with the query complexity of O(2n/2), i.e., with the birthday complexity, PMACx, PMAC2x, and SIVx are all insecure.
2017
TOSC
Reconsidering the Security Bound of AES-GCM-SIV
Tetsu Iwata Yannick Seurin
We make a number of remarks about the AES-GCM-SIV nonce-misuse resistant authenticated encryption scheme currently considered for standardization by the Crypto Forum Research Group (CFRG). First, we point out that the security analysis proposed in the ePrint report 2017/168 is incorrect, leading to overly optimistic security claims. We correct the bound and re-assess the security guarantees offered by the scheme for various parameters. Second, we suggest a simple modification to the key derivation function which would improve the security of the scheme with virtually no efficiency penalty.
2017
CHES
Blockcipher-Based Authenticated Encryption: How Small Can We Go?
This paper presents a design of authenticated encryption (AE) focusing on minimizing the implementation size, i.e., hardware gates or working memory on software. The scheme is called $$\textsf {COFB}$$, for COmbined FeedBack. $$\textsf {COFB}$$ uses an n-bit blockcipher as the underlying primitive, and relies on the use of a nonce for security. In addition to the state required for executing the underlying blockcipher, $$\textsf {COFB}$$ needs only n / 2 bits state as a mask. Till date, for all existing constructions in which masks have been applied, at least n bit masks have been used. Thus, we have shown the possibility of reducing the size of a mask without degrading the security level much. Moreover, it requires one blockcipher call to process one input block. We show $$\textsf {COFB}$$ is provably secure up to $$O(2^{n/2}/n)$$ queries which is almost up to the standard birthday bound. We also present our hardware implementation results. Experimental implementation results suggest that our proposal has a good performance and the smallest footprint among all known blockcipher-based AE.
2016
TOSC
Stronger Security Variants of GCM-SIV
Tetsu Iwata Kazuhiko Minematsu
At CCS 2015, Gueron and Lindell proposed GCM-SIV, a provably secure authenticated encryption scheme that remains secure even if the nonce is repeated. While this is an advantage over the original GCM, we first point out that GCM-SIV allows a trivial distinguishing attack with about 248 queries, where each query has one plaintext block. This shows the tightness of the security claim and does not contradict the provable security result. However, the original GCM resists the attack, and this poses a question of designing a variant of GCM-SIV that is secure against the attack. We present a minor variant of GCM-SIV, which we call GCM-SIV1, and discuss that GCM-SIV1 resists the attack, and it offers a security trade-off compared to GCM-SIV. As the main contribution of the paper, we explore a scheme with a stronger security bound. We present GCM-SIV2 which is obtained by running two instances of GCM-SIV1 in parallel and mixing them in a simple way. We show that it is secure up to 285.3 query complexity, where the query complexity is measured in terms of the total number of blocks of the queries. Finally, we generalize this to show GCM-SIVr by running r instances of GCM-SIV1 in parallel, where r ≥ 3, and show that the scheme is secure up to 2128r/(r+1) query complexity. The provable security results are obtained under the standard assumption that the blockcipher is a pseudorandom permutation.
2015
FSE
2014
FSE
2014
FSE
2013
FSE
2012
CRYPTO
2010
FSE
2009
FSE
2007
FSE
2006
FSE
2005
FSE
2004
FSE
2003
FSE
2002
FSE
2001
FSE
2000
FSE
1999
ASIACRYPT
1999
ASIACRYPT

Program Committees

FSE 2022
Asiacrypt 2021
Eurocrypt 2021
Crypto 2020
FSE 2019
FSE 2018
Crypto 2018
Crypto 2017
FSE 2017
FSE 2016
Crypto 2016
Crypto 2015
FSE 2015
Asiacrypt 2015 (Program chair)
Eurocrypt 2015
Asiacrypt 2014 (Program chair)
Asiacrypt 2013
FSE 2013
Eurocrypt 2012
Asiacrypt 2012
FSE 2011
FSE 2010 (Program chair)
Asiacrypt 2009
FSE 2009
FSE 2008
Asiacrypt 2007
FSE 2007
Eurocrypt 2006