International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Wenling Wu

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2020
ASIACRYPT
Quantum Circuit Implementations of AES with Fewer Qubits 📺
We propose some quantum circuit implementations of AES with the following improvements. Firstly, we propose some quantum circuits of the AES S-box and S-box$^{-1}$,which require fewer qubits than prior work. Secondly, we reduce the number of qubits in the zig-zag method by introducing the S-box$^{-1}$ operation in our quantum circuits of AES. Thirdly, we present a method to reduce the number of qubits in the key schedule of AES. While the previous quantum circuits of AES-128, AES-192, and AES-256 need at least 864, 896, and 1232 qubits respectively,our quantum circuit implementations of AES-128, AES-192, and AES-256 only require 512, 640, and 768 qubits respectively, where the number of qubits is reduced by more than 30\%.
2018
TOSC
Generalized Nonlinear Invariant Attack and a New Design Criterion for Round Constants 📺
The nonlinear invariant attack was introduced at ASIACRYPT 2016 by Todo et al.. The attack has received extensive attention of cryptographic community due to its practical application on the full-round block ciphers SCREAM, iSCREAM, and Midori64. However, the attack heavily relies on the choice of round constants and it becomes inefficient in the case these constants nonlinearly affect the so-called nonlinear invariants. In this article, to eliminate the impact from the round constants, a generalized nonlinear invariant attack which uses a pair of constants in the input of nonlinear invariants is proposed. The efficiency of this extended framework is practically confirmed by mounting a distinguishing attack on a variant of full-round iSCREAM cipher under a class of 280 weak keys. The considered variant of iSCREAM is however resistant against nonlinear invariant attack of Todo et al.. Furthermore, we investigate the resistance of block ciphers against generalized nonlinear invariant attacks with respect to the choice of round constants in an extended framework. We introduce a useful concept of closed-loop invariants of the substitution box (S-box) and show that the choice of robust round constants is closely related to the existence of linear structure of the closed-loop invariants of the substitution layer. In particular, we demonstrate that the design criteria for the round constants in Beierle et al.’s work at CRYPTO 2017 is not an optimal strategy. The round constants selected using this method may induce certain weaknesses that can be exploited in our generalized nonlinear invariant attack model. This scenario is efficiently demonstrated in the case of a slightly modified variant of the Midori64 block cipher.
2017
TOSC
Meet-in-the-Middle Attacks on Reduced-Round Midori64
Li Lin Wenling Wu
Midori is a lightweight block cipher designed by Banik et al. at ASIACRYPT 2015 to achieve low energy consumption. One version of Midori uses a 64-bit state, another uses a 128-bit state and we denote these versions Midori64 and Midori128. Each of these versions uses a 128-bit key. In this paper, we focus on the key-recovery attacks on reduced-round Midori64 with meet-in-the-middle method. We use the differential enumeration, key-bridging and key-dependent sieve techniques which are popular to analyze AES to attack Midori64. Using key-bridging and key-dependent sieve techniques directly to achieve the complexity lower bound is almost impossible, we give the model on how to achieve the complexity lower bound using these techniques. We also propose the state-bridge technique to use some key relations that are quite complicated and divided by some rounds. With a 6-round distinguisher, we achieve a 10-round attack. After that, by adding one round at the end, we get an 11-round attack. Finally, with a 7-round distinguisher, we get an attack on 12-round Midori64. To the best of our knowledge, these are recently the best attacks on Midori64 in the single-key setting.
2017
TOSC
Direct Construction of Optimal Rotational-XOR Diffusion Primitives
As a core component of SPN block cipher and hash function, diffusion layer is mainly introduced by matrices built from maximum distance separable (MDS) codes. Up to now, most MDS constructions require to perform an equivalent or even exhaustive search. In this paper, we study the cyclic structure of rotational-XOR diffusion layer, a commonly used diffusion primitive over (
2016
FSE
2016
TOSC
Multi-key Analysis of Tweakable Even-Mansour with Applications to Minalpher and OPP
The tweakable Even-Mansour construction generalizes the conventional Even-Mansour scheme through replacing round keys by strings derived from a master key and a tweak. Besides providing plenty of inherent variability, such a design builds a tweakable block cipher from some lower level primitive. In the present paper, we evaluate the multi-key security of TEM-1, one of the most commonly used one-round tweakable Even-Mansour schemes (formally introduced at CRYPTO 2015), which is constructed from a single n-bit permutation P and a function f(k, t) linear in k from some tweak space to {0, 1} n. Based on giant component theorem in random graph theory, we propose a collision-based multi-key attack on TEM-1 in the known-plaintext setting. Furthermore, inspired by the methodology of Fouque et al. presented at ASIACRYPT 2014, we devise a novel way of detecting collisions and eventually obtain a memory-efficient multi-key attack in the adaptive chosen-plaintext setting. As important applications, we utilize our techniques to analyze the authenticated encryption algorithms Minalpher (a second-round candidate of CAESAR) and OPP (proposed at EUROCRYPT 2016) in the multi-key setting. We describe knownplaintext attacks on Minalpher and OPP without nonce misuse, which enable us to recover almost all O(2n/3) independent masks by making O(2n/3) queries per key and costing O(22n/3) memory overall. After defining appropriate iterated functions and accordingly changing the mode of creating chains, we improve the basic blockwiseadaptive chosen-plaintext attack to make it also applicable for the nonce-respecting setting. While our attacks do not contradict the security proofs of Minalpher and OPP in the classical setting, nor pose an immediate threat to their uses, our results demonstrate their security margins in the multi-user setting should be carefully considered. We emphasize this is the very first third-party analysis on Minalpher and OPP.
2015
JOFC
2013
ASIACRYPT
2013
FSE
2012
ASIACRYPT
2012
ASIACRYPT
2012
FSE
2010
FSE

Program Committees

Asiacrypt 2021
Asiacrypt 2006