International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Zhiyu Zhang


Speeding up Preimage and Key-Recovery Attacks with Highly Biased Differential-Linear Approximations
We present a framework for speeding up the search for preimages of candidate one-way functions based on highly biased differential-linear distinguishers. It is naturally applicable to preimage attacks on hash functions. Further, a variant of this framework applied to keyed functions leads to accelerated key-recovery attacks. Interestingly, our technique is able to exploit related-key differential-linear distinguishers in the single-key model without querying the target encryption oracle with unknown but related keys. This is in essence similar to how we speed up the key search based on the well known complementation property of DES, which calls for caution from the designers in building primitives meant to be secure in the single-key setting without a thorough cryptanalysis in the related-key model. We apply the method to sponge-based hash function Ascon-HASH, XOFs XOEsch/Ascon-XOF and AEAD Schwaemm, etc. Accelerated preimage or key-recovery attacks are obtained. Note that all the differential-linear distinguishers employed in this work are highly biased and thus can be experimentally verified.
Classical and Quantum Meet-in-the-Middle Nostradamus Attacks on AES-like Hashing
At EUROCRYPT 2006, Kelsey and Kohno proposed the so-called chosen target forced-prefix (CTFP) preimage attack, where for any challenge prefix P, the attacker can generate a suffix S such that H(P∥S) = y for some hash value y published in advance by the attacker. Consequently, the attacker can pretend to predict some event represented by P she did not know before, and thus this type of attack is also known as the Nostradamus attack. At ASIACRYPT 2022, Benedikt et al. convert Kelsey et al.’s attack to a quantum one, reducing the time complexity from O(√n · 22n/3) to O( 3√n · 23n/7). CTFP preimage attack is less investigated in the literature than (second-)preimage and collision attacks and lacks dedicated methods. In this paper, we propose the first dedicated Nostradamus attack based on the meet-in-the-middle (MITM) attack, and the MITM Nostradamus attack could be up to quadratically accelerated in the quantum setting. According to the recent works on MITM preimage attacks on AES-like hashing, we build an automatic tool to search for optimal MITM Nostradamus attacks and model the tradeoff between the offline and online phases. We apply our method to AES-MMO and Whirlpool, and obtain the first dedicated attack on round-reduced version of these hash functions. Our method and automatic tool are applicable to other AES-like hashings.
Improved MITM Cryptanalysis on Streebog
At ASIACRYPT 2012, Sasaki et al. introduced the guess-and-determine approach to extend the meet-in-the-middle (MITM) preimage attack. At CRYPTO 2021, Dong et al. proposed a technique to derive the solution spaces of nonlinear constrained neutral words in the MITM preimage attack. In this paper, we try to combine these two techniques to further improve the MITM preimage attacks. Based on the previous MILP-based automatic tools for MITM attacks, we introduce new constraints due to the combination of guess-and-determine and nonlinearly constrained neutral words to build a new automatic model.As a proof of work, we apply it to the Russian national standard hash function Streebog, which is also an ISO standard. We find the first 8.5-round preimage attack on Streebog-512 compression function and the first 7.5-round preimage attack on Streebog-256 compression function. In addition, we give the 8.5-round preimage attack on Streebog-512 hash function. Our attacks extend the best previous attacks by one round. We also improve the time complexity of the 7.5-round preimage attack on Streebog-512 hash function and 6.5-round preimage attack on Streebog-256 hash function.
Automatic Classical and Quantum Rebound Attacks on AES-like Hashing by Exploiting Related-key Differentials 📺
Collision attacks on AES-like hashing (hash functions constructed by plugging AES-like ciphers or permutations into the famous PGV modes or their variants) can be reduced to the problem of finding a pair of inputs respecting a differential of the underlying AES-like primitive whose input and output differences are the same. The rebound attack due to Mendel et al. is a powerful tool for achieving this goal, whose quantum version was first considered by Hosoyamada and Sasaki at EUROCRYPT 2020. In this work, we automate the process of searching for the configurations of rebound attacks by taking related-key differentials of the underlying block cipher into account with the MILP-based approach. In the quantum setting, our model guide the search towards characteristics that minimize the resources (e.g., QRAM) and complexities of the resulting rebound attacks. We apply our method to Saturnin-hash, Skinny, and Whirlpool and improved results are obtained.