International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Damian Vizár

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2021
TOSC
Power Yoga: Variable-Stretch Security of CCM for Energy-Efficient Lightweight IoT
The currently ongoing NIST LWC project aims at identifying new standardization targets for lightweight authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD) and (optionally) lightweight cryptographic hashing. NIST has deemed it important for performance and cost to be optimized on relevant platforms, especially for short messages. Reyhanitabar, Vaudenay and Vizár (Asiacrypt 2016) gave a formal treatment for security of nonce-based AEAD with variable stretch, i.e., when the length of the authentication tag is changed between encryptions without changing the key. They argued that AEAD supporting variable stretch is of practical interest for constrained applications, especially low-power devices operated by battery, due to the ability to flexibly trade communication overhead and level of integrity.In this work, we investigate this hypothesis with affirmative results. We present vCCM, a variable-stretch variant of the standard CCM and prove it is secure when used with variable stretch. We then experimentally measure the energy consumption of a real-world wireless sensor node when encrypting and sending messages with vCCM and CCM, respectively. Our projections show that the flexible trade of integrity level and ciphertext expansion can lead up to 21% overall energy consumption reduction in certain scenarios. As vCCM is obtained from the widely-used CCM by a black-box transformation, allowing any existing CCM implementations to be reused as-is, our results can be immediately put to use in practice. vCCM is all the more relevant because neither the NIST LWC project, nor any of the candidates give a consideration for the support of variable stretch and the related integrity-overhead trade-off.
2021
TOSC
1, 2, 3, Fork: Counter Mode Variants based on a Generalized Forkcipher
A multi-forkcipher (MFC) is a generalization of the forkcipher (FC) primitive introduced by Andreeva et al. at ASIACRYPT’19. An MFC is a tweakable cipher that computes s output blocks for a single input block, with s arbitrary but fixed. We define the MFC security in the ind-prtmfp notion as indistinguishability from s tweaked permutations. Generalizing tweakable block ciphers (TBCs, s = 1), as well as forkciphers (s = 2), MFC lends itself well to building simple-to-analyze modes of operation that support any number of cipher output blocks.Our main contribution is the generic CTR encryption mode GCTR that makes parallel calls to an MFC to encrypt a message M. We analyze the set of all 36 “simple and natural” GCTR variants under the nivE security notion by Peyrin and Seurin rom CRYPTO’16. Our proof method makes use of an intermediate abstraction called tweakable CTR (TCTR) that captures the core security properties of GCTR common to all variants, making their analyses easier. Our results show that many of the schemes achieve from well beyond birthday bound (BBB) to full n-bit security under nonce respecting adversaries and some even BBB and close to full n-bit security in the face of realistic nonce misuse conditions.We finally present an efficiency comparison of GCTR using ForkSkinny (an MFC with s = 2) with the traditional CTR and the more recent CTRT modes, both are instantiated with the SKINNY TBC. Our estimations show that any GCTR variant with ForkSkinny can achieve an efficiency advantage of over 20% for moderately long messages, illustrating that the use of an efficient MFC with s ≥ 2 brings a clear speed-up.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Forkcipher: A New Primitive for Authenticated Encryption of Very Short Messages
Highly efficient encryption and authentication of short messages is an essential requirement for enabling security in constrained scenarios such as the CAN FD in automotive systems (max. message size 64 bytes), massive IoT, critical communication domains of 5G, and Narrowband IoT, to mention a few. In addition, one of the NIST lightweight cryptography project requirements is that AEAD schemes shall be “optimized to be efficient for short messages (e.g., as short as 8 bytes)”.In this work we introduce and formalize a novel primitive in symmetric cryptography called forkcipher. A forkcipher is a keyed primitive expanding a fixed-lenght input to a fixed-length output. We define its security as indistinguishability under a chosen ciphertext attack (for n-bit inputs to 2n-bit outputs). We give a generic construction validation via the new iterate-fork-iterate design paradigm.We then propose $$ {\mathsf {ForkSkinny}} $$ as a concrete forkcipher instance with a public tweak and based on SKINNY: a tweakable lightweight cipher following the TWEAKEY framework. We conduct extensive cryptanalysis of $$ {\mathsf {ForkSkinny}} $$ against classical and structure-specific attacks.We demonstrate the applicability of forkciphers by designing three new provably-secure nonce-based AEAD modes which offer performance and security tradeoffs and are optimized for efficiency of very short messages. Considering a reference block size of 16 bytes, and ignoring possible hardware optimizations, our new AEAD schemes beat the best SKINNY-based AEAD modes. More generally, we show forkciphers are suited for lightweight applications dealing with predominantly short messages, while at the same time allowing handling arbitrary messages sizes.Furthermore, our hardware implementation results show that when we exploit the inherent parallelism of $$ {\mathsf {ForkSkinny}} $$ we achieve the best performance when directly compared with the most efficient mode instantiated with SKINNY.
2016
ASIACRYPT
2016
TOSC
Linking Online Misuse-Resistant Authenticated Encryption and Blockwise Attack Models
Guillaume Endignoux Damian Vizár
Real-world applications of authenticated encryption often require the encryption to be computable online, e.g. to compute the ith block of ciphertext after having processed the first i blocks of plaintext. A significant line of research was dedicated to identifying security notions for online authenticated encryption schemes, that capture various security goals related to real-life scenarios. Fouque, Joux, Martinet and Valette proposed definitions of privacy and integrity against adversaries that can query their oracles in a blockwise-adaptive manner, to model memory-constrained applications. A decade later, Fleischmann, Forler and Lucks proposed the notion of online nonce misuse-resistant authenticated encryption (OAE) to capture the security of online authenticated encryption under nonce-reuse. In this work we investigate the relation between these notions. We first recast the blockwise notions of Fouque et al. to make them compatible with online authenticated encryption schemes that support headers. We then show that OAE and the conjunction of the blockwise notions are “almost” equivalent. We identify the missing property on the side of blockwise notions, and formalize it under the name PR-TAG. With PR-TAG being just an auxiliary definition, the equivalence we finally show suggests that OAE and the blockwise model for online authenticated encryption capture essentially the same notion of security.
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
FSE
2015
CRYPTO
2015
ASIACRYPT

Program Committees

FSE 2020
FSE 2019