## CryptoDB

### Mark Zhandry

#### ORCID: 0000-0001-7071-6272

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

CRYPTO

Adaptive Security in SNARGs via iO and Lossy Functions
Abstract

We construct an adaptively sound SNARGs in the plain model with CRS
relying on the assumptions of (subexponential) indistinguishability obfuscation (iO),
subexponential one-way functions and a notion of lossy functions we call
length parameterized lossy functions. Length parameterized lossy functions take
in separate security and input length parameters and have the property that the
function image size in lossy mode depends only on the security parameter.
We then show a novel way of constructing such functions from the Learning with
Errors (LWE) assumption.
Our work provides an alternative path towards achieving adaptively secure
SNARGs from the recent work of Waters and Wu. Their work required
the use of (essentially) perfectly re-randomizable one way functions (in addition to
obfuscation). Such functions are only currently known to be realizable from
assumptions such as discrete log or factoring that are known to not hold
in a quantum setting.

2024

CRYPTO

Limits on the Power of Prime-Order Groups: Separating Q-Type from Static Assumptions
Abstract

Subgroup decision techniques on cryptographic groups and pairings have been critical for numerous applications. Originally conceived in the composite-order setting, there is a large body of work showing how to instantiate subgroup decision techniques in the prime-order setting as well. In this work, we demonstrate the first barrier to this research program, by demonstrating an important setting where composite-order techniques cannot be replicated in the prime-order setting.
In particular, we focus on the case of q-type assumptions, which are ubiquitous in group- and pairing-based cryptography, but unfortunately are less desirable than the more well-understood static assumptions. Subgroup decision techniques have had great success in removing q-type assumptions, even allowing q-type assumptions to be generically based on static assumptions on composite-order groups. Our main result shows that the same likely does \emph{not} hold in the prime order setting. Namely, we show that a large class of q-type assumptions, including the security definition of a number of cryptosystems, cannot be proven secure in a black box way from any static assumption.

2023

EUROCRYPT

A Lower Bound on the Length of Signatures Based on Group Actions and Generic Isogenies
Abstract

We give the first black box lower bound for signature protocols that can be described as group actions, which include many based on isogenies. We show that, for a large class of signature schemes making black box use of a (potentially non-abelian) group action, the signature length must be $\Omega(\lambda^2/\log\lambda)$. Our class of signatures generalizes all known signatures that derive security exclusively from the group action, and our lower bound matches the state of the art, showing that the signature length cannot be improved without deviating from the group action framework.

2023

EUROCRYPT

Another Round of Breaking and Making Quantum Money: How to Not Build It from Lattices, and More
Abstract

This work provides both negative and positive results for publicly verifiable quantum money.
** In the first part, we give a general theorem, showing that a certain natural class of quantum money schemes from lattices cannot be secure. We use this theorem to break the recent quantum money proposal of Khesin, Lu, and Shor.
** In the second part, we propose a framework for building quantum money and quantum lightning we call invariant money which abstracts and formalizes some ideas of quantum money from knots by Farhi et al.(ITCS'12) and its precedent work by Lutomirski et al.(ICS'10). In addition to formalizing this framework, we provide concrete hard computational problems loosely inspired by classical knowledge-of-exponent assumptions, whose hardness would imply the security of *quantum lightning*, a strengthening of quantum money where not even the bank can duplicate banknotes.
** We discuss potential instantiations of our framework, including an oracle construction using cryptographic group actions and instantiations from rerandomizable functional encryption, isogenies over elliptic curves, and knots.

2023

CRYPTO

Tracing Quantum State Distinguishers via Backtracking
Abstract

We show the following results:
- The post-quantum equivalence of indisitnguishability obfuscation and differing inputs obfuscation in the restricted setting where the outputs differ on at most a polynomial number of points. Our result handles the case where the auxiliary input may contain a \emph{quantum state}; previous results could only handle classical auxiliary input.
- Bounded collusion traitor tracing from general public key encryption, where the decoder is allowed to contain a quantum state. The parameters of the scheme grow polynomially in the collusion bound.
- Collusion-resistant traitor tracing with constant-size ciphertexts from general public key encryption, again for quantum state decoders. The public key and secret keys grow polynomially in the number of users.
- Traitor tracing with embedded identities, again forquantum state decoders, under a variety of different assumptions with different parameter size trade-offs.
Traitor tracing and differing inputs obfuscation with quantum decoders / auxiliary input arises naturally when considering the post-quantum security of these primitives. We obtain our results by abstracting out a core algorithmic model, which we call the Back One Step (BOS) model. We prove a general theorem, reducing many quantum results including ours to designing \emph{classical} algorithms in the BOS model. We then provide simple algorithms for the particular instances studied in this work.

2023

CRYPTO

Computational Wiretap Coding from Indistinguishability Obfuscation
Abstract

A wiretap coding scheme for a pair of noisy channels $(\chB,\chE)$ enables Alice to reliably communicate a message to Bob by sending its encoding over $\chB$, while hiding the message from an adversary Eve who obtains the same encoding over $\chE$.
A necessary condition for the feasibility of writeup coding is that $\chB$ is not a {\em degradation} of $\chE$, namely Eve cannot simulate Bob’s view. While insufficient in the information-theoretic setting, a recent work of Ishai, Korb, Lou, and Sahai (Crypto 2022) showed that the non-degradation condition {\em is} sufficient in the computational setting, assuming idealized flavors of obfuscation. The question of basing a similar feasibility result on standard cryptographic assumptions was left open, even in simple special cases.
In this work, we settle the question for all discrete memoryless channels where the (common) input alphabet of $\chB$ and $\chE$ is {\em binary}, and with arbitrary finite output alphabet, under the standard assumptions that indistinguishability obfuscation and injective PRGs exist. In particular, this establishes the feasibility of computational wiretap coding when $\chB$ is a binary symmetric channel with crossover probability $p$ and $\chE$ is a binary erasure channel with erasure probability $e$, where $e>2p$.
On the information-theoretic side, our result builds on a new polytope characterization of channel degradation for pairs of binary-input channels, which may be of independent interest.

2023

CRYPTO

Security-Preserving Distributed Samplers: How to Generate any CRS in One Round without Random Oracles
Abstract

A distributed sampler is a way for several mutually distrusting parties to non-interactively generate a common reference string (CRS) that all parties trust. Previous work constructs distributed samplers in the random oracle model, or in the standard model with very limited security guarantees. This is no accident, as standard model distributed samplers with full security were shown impossible.
In this work, we provide new definitions for distributed samplers which we show achieve meaningful security guarantees in the standard model. In particular, our notion implies that the hardness of a wide range of security games is preserved when the CRS is replaced with a distributed sampler. We also show how to realize our notion of distributed samplers. A core technical tool enabling our construction is a new notion of single-message zero knowledge.

2023

ASIACRYPT

The Relationship Between Idealized Models Under Computationally Bounded Adversaries
Abstract

The random oracle, generic group, and generic bilinear map models (ROM, GGM, GBM, respectively) are fundamental heuristics used to justify new computational assumptions and prove the security of efficient cryptosystems. While known to be invalid in some contrived
settings, the heuristics generally seem reasonable for real-world applications.
In this work, we ask: which heuristics are closer to reality? Or conversely, which heuristics are a larger leap? We answer this question through the framework of computational indifferentiability, showing that the ROM is a strictly \milder" heuristic than the GGM, which in turn is strictly
milder than the GBM. While this may seem like the expected outcome, we explain why it does not follow from prior works, and is not the a priori obvious conclusion. In order to prove our results, we develop new ideas for proving computational indifferentiable separations.

2023

TCC

Multi-Instance Randomness Extraction and Security against Bounded-Storage Mass Surveillance
Abstract

Consider a state-level adversary who observes and stores large amounts of encrypted data from all users on the Internet, but does not have the capacity to store it all. Later, it may target certain "persons of interest" in order to obtain their decryption keys. We would like to guarantee that, if the adversary's storage capacity is only (say) 1% of the total encrypted data size, then even if it can later obtain the decryption keys of arbitrary users, it can only learn something about the contents of (roughly) 1% of the ciphertexts, while the rest will maintain full security. This can be seen as an extension of incompressible cryptography (Dziembowski CRYPTO '06, Guan, Wichs and Zhandry EUROCRYPT '22) to the multi-user setting. We provide solutions in both the symmetric key and public key setting with various trade-offs in terms of computational assumptions and efficiency.
As the core technical tool, we study an information-theoretic problem which we refer to as "multi-instance randomness extraction". Suppose $X_1$, $\ldots$, $X_t$ are correlated random variables whose total joint min-entropy rate is $\alpha$, but we know nothing else about their individual entropies. We choose $t$ random and independent seeds $S_1,\ldots, S_t$ and attempt to individually extract some small amount of randomness $Y_i = Ext(X_i; S_i)$ from each $X_i$. We'd like to say that roughly an $\alpha$-fraction of the extracted outputs $Y_i$ should be indistinguishable from uniform even given all the remaining extracted outputs and all the seeds. We show that this indeed holds for specific extractors based on Hadamard and Reed-Muller codes.

2022

TCC

Adaptive Multiparty NIKE
Abstract

We construct adaptively secure multiparty non-interactive key exchange (NIKE) from polynomially-hard indistinguishability obfuscation and other standard assumptions. This improves on all prior such protocols, which required sub-exponential hardness. Along the way, we establish several compilers which simplify the task of constructing new multiparty NIKE protocols, and also establish a close connection with a particular type of constrained PRF.

2022

EUROCRYPT

Quantum Algorithms for Variants of Average-Case Lattice Problems via Filtering
📺
Abstract

We show polynomial-time quantum algorithms for the following problems:
(*) Short integer solution (SIS) problem under the infinity norm, where the public matrix is very wide, the modulus is a polynomially large prime, and the bound of infinity norm is set to be half of the modulus minus a constant.
(*) Extrapolated dihedral coset problem (EDCP) with certain parameters.
(*) Learning with errors (LWE) problem given LWE-like quantum states with polynomially large moduli and certain error distributions, including bounded uniform distributions and Laplace distributions.
We show polynomial-time quantum algorithms for the following problems:
(*) Short integer solution (SIS) problem under the infinity norm, where the public matrix is very wide, the modulus is a polynomially large prime, and the bound of infinity norm is set to be half of the modulus minus a constant.
(*) Learning with errors (LWE) problem given LWE-like quantum states with polynomially large moduli and certain error distributions, including bounded uniform distributions and Laplace distributions.
(*) Extrapolated dihedral coset problem (EDCP) with certain parameters.
The SIS, LWE, and EDCP problems in their standard forms are as hard as solving lattice problems in the worst case. However, the variants that we can solve are not in the parameter regimes known to be as hard as solving worst-case lattice problems. Still, no classical or quantum polynomial-time algorithms were known for the variants of SIS and LWE we consider. For EDCP, our quantum algorithm slightly extends the result of Ivanyos et al. (2018).
Our algorithms for variants of SIS and EDCP use the existing quantum reductions from those problems to LWE, or more precisely, to the problem of solving LWE given LWE-like quantum states. Our main contribution is solving LWE given LWE-like quantum states with interesting parameters using a filtering technique.
We show polynomial-time quantum algorithms for the following problems:
(*) Short integer solution (SIS) problem under the infinity norm, where the public matrix is very wide, the modulus is a polynomially large prime, and the bound of infinity norm is set to be half of the modulus minus a constant.
(*) Learning with errors (LWE) problem given LWE-like quantum states with polynomially large moduli and certain error distributions, including bounded uniform distributions and Laplace distributions.
(*) Extrapolated dihedral coset problem (EDCP) with certain parameters.
The SIS, LWE, and EDCP problems in their standard forms are as hard as solving lattice problems in the worst case. However, the variants that we can solve are not in the parameter regimes known to be as hard as solving worst-case lattice problems. Still, no classical or quantum polynomial-time algorithms were known for the variants of SIS and LWE we consider. For EDCP, our quantum algorithm slightly extends the result of Ivanyos et al. (2018).
Our algorithms for variants of SIS and EDCP use the existing quantum reductions from those problems to LWE, or more precisely, to the problem of solving LWE given LWE-like quantum states. Our main contribution is solving LWE given LWE-like quantum states with interesting parameters using a filtering technique.

2022

EUROCRYPT

Incompressible Cryptography
📺
Abstract

Incompressible encryption allows us to make the ciphertext size flexibly large and ensures that an adversary learns nothing about the encrypted data, even if the decryption key later leaks, unless she stores essentially the entire ciphertext. Incompressible signatures can be made arbitrarily large and ensure that an adversary cannot produce a signature on any message, even one she has seen signed before, unless she stores one of the signatures essentially in its entirety.
In this work, we give simple constructions of both incompressible public-key encryption and signatures under minimal assumptions. Furthermore, large incompressible ciphertexts (resp. signatures) can be decrypted (resp. verified) in a streaming manner with low storage. In particular, these notions strengthen the related concepts of disappearing encryption and signatures, recently introduced by Guan and Zhandry (TCC 2021), whose previous constructions relied on sophisticated techniques and strong, non-standard assumptions. We extend our constructions to achieve an optimal "rate", meaning the large ciphertexts (resp. signatures) can contain almost equally large messages, at the cost of stronger assumptions.

2022

CRYPTO

On the Feasibility of Unclonable Encryption and, More
📺
Abstract

Unclonable encryption, first introduced by Broadbent and Lord (TQC'20), is a one-time encryption scheme with the following security guarantee: any non-local adversary (A, B, C) cannot simultaneously distinguish encryptions of two equal length messages. This notion is termed as unclonable indistinguishability. Prior works focused on achieving a weaker notion of unclonable encryption, where we required that any non-local adversary (A, B, C) cannot simultaneously recover the entire message m. Seemingly innocuous, understanding the feasibility of encryption schemes satisfying unclonable indistinguishability (even for 1-bit messages) has remained elusive.
We make progress towards establishing the feasibility of unclonable encryption.
(*) We show that encryption schemes satisfying unclonable indistinguishability exist unconditionally in the quantum random oracle model.
(*) Towards understanding the necessity of oracles, we present a negative result stipulating that a large class of encryption schemes cannot satisfy unclonable indistinguishability.
(*) Finally, we also establish the feasibility of another closely related primitive: copy-protection for single-bit output point functions. Prior works only established the feasibility of copy-protection for multi-bit output point functions or they achieved constant security error for single-bit output point functions.

2022

CRYPTO

New Constructions of Collapsing Hashes
📺
Abstract

Collapsing is the preferred post-quantum security notion for hash functions, needed to lift many classical results to the quantum setting. Unfortunately, the only existing standard-model proofs of collapsing hashes require LWE. We construct the first collapsing hashes from the quantum hardness of any one of the following problems:
- LPN in a variety of low noise or high-hardness regimes, essentially matching what is known for collision resistance from LPN.
- Finding cycles on certain exponentially-large expander graphs, such as those arising from isogenies on elliptic curves.
- The "optimal" hardness of finding collisions in *any* hash function.
- The *polynomial* hardness of finding collisions, assuming a certain plausible regularity condition on the hash.
As an immediate corollary, we obtain the first statistically hiding post-quantum commitments and post-quantum succinct arguments (of knowledge) under the same assumptions. Our results are obtained by a general theorem which shows how to construct a collapsing hash H' from a post-quantum collision-resistant hash function H, regardless of whether or not H itself is collapsing, assuming H satisfies a certain regularity condition we call "semi-regularity".

2022

CRYPTO

To Label, or Not To Label (in Generic Groups)
📺
Abstract

Generic groups are an important tool for analyzing the feasibility and in-feasibility of group-based cryptosystems. There are two distinct wide-spread versions of generic groups, Shoup's and Maurer's, the main difference being whether or not group elements are given explicit labels. The two models are often treated as equivalent. In this work, however, we demonstrate that the models are in fact quite different, and care is needed when stating generic group results:
- We show that numerous textbook constructions are \emph{not} captured by Maurer, but are captured by Shoup. In the other direction, any construction captured by Maurer \emph{is} captured by Shoup.
- For constructions that exist in both models, we show that security is equivalent for ``single stage'' games, but Shoup security is strictly stronger than Maurer security for some ``multi-stage'' games.
- The existing generic group un-instantiability results do not apply to Maurer. We fill this gap with a new un-instantiability result.
- We explain how the known black box separations between generic groups and identity-based encryption do not fully apply to Shoup, and resolve this by providing such a separation.
- We give a new un-instantiability result for the \emph{algebraic} group model.

2022

CRYPTO

Augmented Random Oracles
📺
Abstract

We propose a new paradigm for justifying the security of random oracle-based protocols, which we call the Augmented Random Oracle Model (AROM). We show that the AROM captures a wide range of important random oracle impossibility results. Thus a proof in the AROM implies some resiliency to such impossibilities. We then consider three ROM transforms which are subject to impossibilities: Fiat-Shamir (FS), Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO), and Encrypt-with-Hash (EwH). We show in each case how to obtain security in the AROM by strengthening the building blocks or modifying the transform.
Along the way, we give a couple other results. We improve the assumptions needed for the FO and EwH impossibilities from indistinguishability obfuscation to circularly secure LWE; we argue that our AROM still captures this improved impossibility. We also demonstrate that there is no ``best possible'' hash function, by giving a pair of security properties, both of which can be instantiated in the standard model separately, which cannot be simultaneously satisfied by a single hash function.

2022

ASIACRYPT

Full Quantum Equivalence of Group Action DLog and CDH, and More
📺 ★
Abstract

Cryptographic group actions are a relaxation of standard cryptographic groups that have less structure. This lack of structure allows them to be plausibly quantum resistant despite Shor's algorithm, while still having a number of applications. The most famous example of group actions are built from isogenies on elliptic curves.
Our main result is that CDH for abelian group actions is quantumly equivalent to discrete log. Galbraith et al. (Mathematical Cryptology) previously showed perfectly solving CDH to be equivalent to discrete log quantumly; our result works for any non-negligible advantage. We also explore several other questions about group action and isogeny protocols.

2022

TCC

Collusion-Resistant Copy-Protection for Watermarkable Functionalities
Abstract

Copy-protection is the task of encoding a program into a quantum state to prevent illegal duplications. A line of recent works studied copy-protection schemes under "1 -> 2 attacks": the adversary receiving one program copy can not produce two valid copies. However, under most circumstances, vendors need to sell more than one copy of a program and still ensure that no duplicates can be generated. In this work, we initiate the study of collusion-resistant copy-protection in the plain model. Our results are twofold:
* For the first time, we show that all major watermarkable functionalities can be copy-protected (including unclonable decryption, digital signatures, and PRFs). Among these, copy-protection of digital signature schemes is not known before. The feasibility of copy-protecting all watermarkable functionalities is an open question raised by Aaronson et al. (CRYPTO' 21)
* We make all the above schemes k bounded collusion-resistant for any polynomial k, giving the first bounded collusion-resistant copy-protection for various functionalities in the plain model.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Franchised Quantum Money
📺
Abstract

The construction of public key quantum money based on standard cryptographic assumptions is a longstanding open question. Here we introduce franchised quantum money, an alternative form of quantum money that is easier to construct. Franchised quantum money retains the features of a useful quantum money scheme, namely unforgeability and local verification: anyone can verify banknotes without communicating with the bank. In franchised quantum money, every user gets a unique secret verification key, and the scheme is secure against counterfeiting and sabotage, a new security notion that appears in the franchised model. Finally, we construct franchised quantum money and prove security assuming one-way functions.

2021

EUROCRYPT

Classical vs Quantum Random Oracles
📺
Abstract

In this paper, we study relationship between security of cryptographic schemes in the random oracle model (ROM) and quantum random oracle model (QROM). First, we introduce a notion of a proof of quantum access to a random oracle (PoQRO), which is a protocol to prove the capability to quantumly access a random oracle to a classical verifier. We observe that a proof of quantumness recently proposed by Brakerski et al. (TQC '20) can be seen as a PoQRO. We also give a construction of a publicly verifiable PoQRO relative to a classical oracle. Based on them, we construct digital signature and public key encryption schemes that are secure in the ROM but insecure in the QROM. In particular, we obtain the first examples of natural cryptographic schemes that separate the ROM and QROM under a standard cryptographic assumption.
On the other hand, we give lifting theorems from security in the ROM to that in the QROM for certain types of cryptographic schemes and security notions.
For example, our lifting theorems are applicable to Fiat-Shamir non-interactive arguments, Fiat-Shamir signatures, and Full-Domain-Hash signatures etc. We also discuss applications of our lifting theorems to quantum query complexity.

2021

CRYPTO

New Approaches for Quantum Copy-Protection
📺
Abstract

Quantum copy protection uses the unclonability of quantum states to construct quantum software that provably cannot be pirated. Copy protection would be immensely useful, but unfortunately little is known about how to achieve it in general. In this work, we make progress on this goal, by giving the following results:
* We show how to copy protect any program that cannot be learned from its input-output behavior, relative to a classical oracle. This improves on Aaronson (CCC 2009), which achieves the same relative to a quantum oracle. By instantiating the oracle with post-quantum candidate obfuscation schemes, we obtain a heuristic construction of copy protection.
* We show, roughly, that any program which can be watermarked can be copy detected, a weaker version of copy protection that does not prevent copying, but guarantees that any copying can be detected. Our scheme relies on the security of the assumed watermarking, plus the assumed existence of public key quantum money. Our construction is general, applicable to many recent watermarking schemes.

2021

CRYPTO

Hidden Cosets and Applications to Unclonable Cryptography
📺
Abstract

In 2012, Aaronson and Christiano introduced the idea of hidden subspace states to build public-key quantum money [STOC '12]. Since then, this idea has been applied to realize several other cryptographic primitives which enjoy some form of unclonability.
In this work, we propose a generalization of hidden subspace states to hidden coset states. We study different unclonable properties of coset states and several applications:
* We show that, assuming indistinguishability obfuscation (iO), hidden coset states possess a certain direct product hardness property, which immediately implies a tokenized signature scheme in the plain model. Previously, a tokenized signature scheme was known only relative to an oracle, from a work of Ben-David and Sattath [QCrypt '17].
* Combining a tokenized signature scheme with extractable witness encryption, we give a construction of an unclonable decryption scheme in the plain model. The latter primitive was recently proposed by Georgiou and Zhandry [ePrint '20], who gave a construction relative to a classical oracle.
* We conjecture that coset states satisfy a certain natural monogamy-of-entanglement property. Assuming this conjecture is true, we remove the requirement for extractable witness encryption in our unclonable decryption construction. As potential evidence in support of the conjecture, we prove a weaker version of this monogamy property, which we believe will still be of independent interest.
* Finally, we give the first construction of a copy-protection scheme for pseudorandom functions (PRFs) in the plain model. Our scheme is secure either assuming iO and extractable witness encryption, or iO, LWE and the conjectured monogamy property mentioned above. This is the first example of a copy-protection scheme with provable security in the plain model for a class of functions that is not evasive.

2021

CRYPTO

White Box Traitor Tracing
📺
Abstract

Traitor tracing aims to identify the source of leaked decryption keys. Since the ``traitor'' can try to hide their key within obfuscated code in order to evade tracing, the tracing algorithm should work for general, potentially obfuscated, decoder \emph{programs}. In the setting of such general decoder programs, prior work uses \emph{black box} tracing: the tracing algorithm ignores the implementation of the decoder, and instead traces just by making queries to the decoder and observing the outputs.
We observe that, in some settings, such black box tracing leads to consistency and user privacy issues. On the other hand, these issues do not appear inherent to \emph{white box} tracing, where the tracing algorithm actually inspects the decoder implementation. We therefore develop new white box traitor tracing schemes providing consistency and/or privacy. Our schemes can be instantiated under various assumptions ranging from public key encryption to indistinguishability obfuscation, with different trade-offs. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first work to consider white box tracing in the general decoder setting.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Redeeming Reset Indifferentiability and Applications to Post-Quantum Security
📺
Abstract

Indifferentiability is used to analyze the security of constructions of idealized objects, such as random oracles or ideal ciphers. Reset indifferentiability is a strengthening of plain indifferentiability which is applicable in far more scenarios, but has largely been abandoned due to significant impossibility results and a lack of positive results. Our main results are:
- Under \emph{weak} reset indifferentiability, ideal ciphers imply (fixed size) random oracles, and domain shrinkage is possible. We thus show reset indifferentiability is more useful than previously thought.
- We lift our analysis to the quantum setting, showing that ideal ciphers imply random oracles under quantum indifferentiability.
- Despite Shor's algorithm, we observe that generic groups are still meaningful quantumly, showing that they are quantumly (reset) indifferentiable from ideal ciphers; combined with the above, cryptographic groups yield post-quantum \emph{symmetric} key cryptography. In particular, we obtain a plausible post-quantum random oracle that is a subset-product followed by two modular reductions.

2021

TCC

Disappearing Cryptography in the Bounded Storage Model
📺
Abstract

In this work, we study disappearing cryptography in the bounded storage model. Here, a component of the transmission, say a ciphertext, a digital signature, or even a program, is streamed bit by bit. The stream is too large for anyone to store in its entirety, meaning the transmission effectively disappears once the stream stops.
We first propose the notion of online obfuscation, capturing the goal of disappearing programs in the bounded storage model. We give a negative result for VBB security in this model, but propose candidate constructions for a weaker security goal, namely VGB security. We then demonstrate the utility of VGB online obfuscation, showing that it can be used to generate disappearing ciphertexts and signatures. All of our applications are not possible in the standard model of cryptography, regardless of computational assumptions used.

2021

JOFC

Decomposable Obfuscation: A Framework for Building Applications of Obfuscation from Polynomial Hardness
Abstract

There is some evidence that indistinguishability obfuscation (iO) requires either exponentially many assumptions or (sub)exponentially hard assumptions, and indeed, all known ways of building obfuscation suffer one of these two limitations. As such, any application built from iO suffers from these limitations as well. However, for most applications, such limitations do not appear to be inherent to the application, just the approach using iO. Indeed, several recent works have shown how to base applications of iO instead on functional encryption (FE), which can in turn be based on the polynomial hardness of just a few assumptions. However, these constructions are quite complicated and recycle a lot of similar techniques. In this work, we unify the results of previous works in the form of a weakened notion of obfuscation, called decomposable obfuscation . We show (1) how to build decomposable obfuscation from functional encryption and (2) how to build a variety of applications from decomposable obfuscation, including all of the applications already known from FE. The construction in (1) hides most of the difficult techniques in the prior work, whereas the constructions in (2) are much closer to the comparatively simple constructions from iO. As such, decomposable obfuscation represents a convenient new platform for obtaining more applications from polynomial hardness.

2021

JOFC

Quantum Lightning Never Strikes the Same State Twice. Or: Quantum Money from Cryptographic Assumptions
Abstract

Public key quantum money can be seen as a version of the quantum no-cloning theorem that holds even when the quantum states can be verified by the adversary. In this work, we investigate quantum lightning , a formalization of “collision-free quantum money” defined by Lutomirski et al. [ICS’10], where no-cloning holds even when the adversary herself generates the quantum state to be cloned . We then study quantum money and quantum lightning, showing the following results: We demonstrate the usefulness of quantum lightning beyond quantum money by showing several potential applications, such as generating random strings with a proof of entropy, to completely decentralized cryptocurrency without a blockchain where transactions are instantaneous and local. We give win–win results for quantum money/lightning, showing that either signatures/hash functions/commitment schemes meet very strong recently proposed notions of security, or they yield quantum money or lightning. Given the difficulty in constructing public key quantum money, this suggests that natural schemes do attain strong security guarantees. We show that instantiating the quantum money scheme of Aaronson and Christiano [STOC’12] with indistinguishability obfuscation that is secure against quantum computers yields a secure quantum money scheme. This construction can be seen as an instance of our win–win result for signatures, giving the first separation between two security notions for signatures from the literature. Finally, we give a plausible construction for quantum lightning, which we prove secure under an assumption related to the multicollision resistance of degree-2 hash functions. Our construction is inspired by our win–win result for hash functions and yields the first plausible standard model instantiation of a non-collapsing collision-resistant hash function. This improves a result of Unruh [Eurocrypt’16] which is relative to a quantum oracle. Thus, we provide the first constructions of public key quantum money from several cryptographic assumptions. Along the way, we develop several new techniques including a new precise variant of the no-cloning theorem.

2020

CRYPTO

Indifferentiability for Public Key Cryptosystems
📺
Abstract

We initiate the study of indifferentiability for public key encryption and other public key primitives. Our main results are definitions and constructions of public key cryptosystems that are indifferentiable from ideal cryptosystems, in the random oracle model. Cryptosystems include: 1) Public key encryption; 2) Digital signatures; 3) Non-interactive key agreement. Our schemes are based on relatively standard public key assumptions. By being indifferentiable from an ideal object, our schemes automatically satisfy a wide range of security properties, including any property representable as a single-stage game, and can be composed to operate in higher-level protocols.

2020

CRYPTO

New Techniques for Traitor Tracing: Size N^{1/3} and More from Pairings
📺
Abstract

The best existing traitor tracing scheme from pairings achieves $O(\sqrt{N})$-sized parameters, which has stood since 2006. This intuitively seems to be consistent with the fact that pairings allow for degree-2 computations, yielding a quadratic compression.
In this work, we show that this intuition is false by building a traitor tracing scheme from pairings with $O(\sqrt[3]{N})$-sized parameters. We obtain our scheme by developing a number of new traitor tracing techniques offering various trade-offs that were not possible before, giving the first significant parameter improvements in pairings-based traitor tracing in over a decade.

2020

TCC

Schr{\"o}dinger's Pirate: How To Trace a Quantum Decoder
📺
Abstract

We explore the problem of traitor tracing where the pirate decoder can contain a quantum state. Our main results include:
- We show how to overcome numerous definitional challenges to give a meaningful notion of tracing for quantum decoders
- We give negative results, demonstrating barriers to adapting classical tracing algorithms to the quantum decoder setting.
- On the other hand, we show how to trace quantum decoders in the setting of (public key) private linear broadcast encryption, capturing a common approach to traitor tracing.

2020

TCC

Towards Non-Interactive Witness Hiding
📺
Abstract

Witness hiding proofs require that the verifier cannot find a witness after seeing a proof. The exact round complexity needed for witness hiding proofs has so far remained an open question. In this work, we provide compelling evidence that witness hiding proofs are achievable non-interactively for wide classes of languages. We use non-interactive witness indistinguishable proofs as the basis for all of our protocols. We give four schemes in different settings under different assumptions:
– A universal non-interactive proof that is witness hiding as long as any proof system, possibly an inefficient and/or non-uniform scheme, is witness hiding, has a known bound on verifier runtime, and has short proofs of soundness.
– A non-uniform non-interactive protocol justified under a worst-case complexity assumption that is witness hiding and efficient, but may not have short proofs of soundness.
– A new security analysis of the two-message argument of Pass [Crypto 2003], showing witness hiding for any non-uniformly hard distribution. We propose a heuristic approach to removing the first message, yielding a non-interactive argument.
– A witness hiding non-interactive proof system for languages with unique witnesses, assuming the non-existence of a weak form of witness encryption for any language in NP ? coNP.

2019

EUROCRYPT

On ELFs, Deterministic Encryption, and Correlated-Input Security
📺
Abstract

We construct deterministic public key encryption secure for any constant number of arbitrarily correlated computationally unpredictable messages. Prior works required either random oracles or non-standard knowledge assumptions. In contrast, our constructions are based on the exponential hardness of DDH, which is plausible in elliptic curve groups. Our central tool is a new trapdoored extremely lossy function, which modifies extremely lossy functions by adding a trapdoor.

2019

EUROCRYPT

On Finding Quantum Multi-collisions
📺
Abstract

A k-collision for a compressing hash function H is a set of k distinct inputs that all map to the same output. In this work, we show that for any constant k,
$$\varTheta \left( N^{\frac{1}{2}(1-\frac{1}{2^k-1})}\right) $$
quantum queries are both necessary and sufficient to achieve a k-collision with constant probability. This improves on both the best prior upper bound (Hosoyamada et al., ASIACRYPT 2017) and provides the first non-trivial lower bound, completely resolving the problem.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Simple Schemes in the Bounded Storage Model
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Abstract

The bounded storage model promises unconditional security proofs against computationally unbounded adversaries, so long as the adversary’s space is bounded. In this work, we develop simple new constructions of two-party key agreement, bit commitment, and oblivious transfer in this model. In addition to simplicity, our constructions have several advantages over prior work, including an improved number of rounds and enhanced correctness. Our schemes are based on Raz’s lower bound for learning parities.

2019

CRYPTO

Revisiting Post-quantum Fiat-Shamir
📺
Abstract

The Fiat-Shamir transformation is a useful approach to building non-interactive arguments (of knowledge) in the random oracle model. Unfortunately, existing proof techniques are incapable of proving the security of Fiat-Shamir in the quantum setting. The problem stems from (1) the difficulty of quantum rewinding, and (2) the inability of current techniques to adaptively program random oracles in the quantum setting. In this work, we show how to overcome the limitations above in many settings. In particular, we give mild conditions under which Fiat-Shamir is secure in the quantum setting. As an application, we show that existing lattice signatures based on Fiat-Shamir are secure without any modifications.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Quantum Lightning Never Strikes the Same State Twice
📺 ★
Abstract

Public key quantum money can be seen as a version of the quantum no-cloning theorem that holds even when the quantum states can be verified by the adversary. In this work, we investigate quantum lightning where no-cloning holds even when the adversary herself generates the quantum state to be cloned. We then study quantum money and quantum lightning, showing the following results:We demonstrate the usefulness of quantum lightning beyond quantum money by showing several potential applications, such as generating random strings with a proof of entropy, to completely decentralized cryptocurrency without a block-chain, where transactions is instant and local.We give Either/Or results for quantum money/lightning, showing that either signatures/hash functions/commitment schemes meet very strong recently proposed notions of security, or they yield quantum money or lightning. Given the difficulty in constructing public key quantum money, this suggests that natural schemes do attain strong security guarantees.We show that instantiating the quantum money scheme of Aaronson and Christiano [STOC’12] with indistinguishability obfuscation that is secure against quantum computers yields a secure quantum money scheme. This construction can be seen as an instance of our Either/Or result for signatures, giving the first separation between two security notions for signatures from the literature.Finally, we give a plausible construction for quantum lightning, which we prove secure under an assumption related to the multi-collision resistance of degree-2 hash functions. Our construction is inspired by our Either/Or result for hash functions, and yields the first plausible standard model instantiation of a non-collapsing collision resistant hash function. This improves on a result of Unruh [Eurocrypt’16] which is relative to a quantum oracle.

2019

EUROCRYPT

New Techniques for Obfuscating Conjunctions
📺
Abstract

A conjunction is a function $$f(x_1,\dots ,x_n) = \bigwedge _{i \in S} l_i$$ where $$S \subseteq [n]$$ and each $$l_i$$ is $$x_i$$ or $$\lnot x_i$$. Bishop et al. (CRYPTO 2018) recently proposed obfuscating conjunctions by embedding them in the error positions of a noisy Reed-Solomon codeword and placing the codeword in a group exponent. They prove distributional virtual black box (VBB) security in the generic group model for random conjunctions where $$|S| \ge 0.226n$$. While conjunction obfuscation is known from LWE [31, 47], these constructions rely on substantial technical machinery.In this work, we conduct an extensive study of simple conjunction obfuscation techniques.
We abstract the Bishop et al. scheme to obtain an equivalent yet more efficient “dual” scheme that can handle conjunctions over exponential size alphabets. This scheme admits a straightforward proof of generic group security, which we combine with a novel combinatorial argument to obtain distributional VBB security for |S| of any size.If we replace the Reed-Solomon code with a random binary linear code, we can prove security from standard LPN and avoid encoding in a group. This addresses an open problem posed by Bishop et al. to prove security of this simple approach in the standard model.We give a new construction that achieves information theoretic distributional VBB security and weak functionality preservation for $$|S| \ge n - n^\delta $$ and $$\delta < 1$$. Assuming discrete log and $$\delta < 1/2$$, we satisfy a stronger notion of functionality preservation for computationally bounded adversaries while still achieving information theoretic security.

2019

CRYPTO

How to Record Quantum Queries, and Applications to Quantum Indifferentiability
📺
Abstract

The quantum random oracle model (QROM) has become the standard model in which to prove the post-quantum security of random-oracle-based constructions. Unfortunately, none of the known proof techniques allow the reduction to record information about the adversary’s queries, a crucial feature of many classical ROM proofs, including all proofs of indifferentiability for hash function domain extension.In this work, we give a new QROM proof technique that overcomes this “recording barrier”. We do so by giving a new “compressed oracle” which allows for efficient on-the-fly simulation of random oracles, roughly analogous to the usual classical simulation. We then use this new technique to give the first proof of quantum indifferentiability for the Merkle-Damgård domain extender for hash functions. We also give a proof of security for the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation; previous proofs required modifying the scheme to include an additional hash term. Given the threat posed by quantum computers and the push toward quantum-resistant cryptosystems, our work represents an important tool for efficient post-quantum cryptosystems.

2019

CRYPTO

The Distinction Between Fixed and Random Generators in Group-Based Assumptions
📺
Abstract

There is surprisingly little consensus on the precise role of the generator g in group-based assumptions such as DDH. Some works consider g to be a fixed part of the group description, while others take it to be random. We study this subtle distinction from a number of angles.
In the generic group model, we demonstrate the plausibility of groups in which random-generator DDH (resp. CDH) is hard but fixed-generator DDH (resp. CDH) is easy. We observe that such groups have interesting cryptographic applications.We find that seemingly tight generic lower bounds for the Discrete-Log and CDH problems with preprocessing (Corrigan-Gibbs and Kogan, Eurocrypt 2018) are not tight in the sub-constant success probability regime if the generator is random. We resolve this by proving tight lower bounds for the random generator variants; our results formalize the intuition that using a random generator will reduce the effectiveness of preprocessing attacks.We observe that DDH-like assumptions in which exponents are drawn from low-entropy distributions are particularly sensitive to the fixed- vs. random-generator distinction. Most notably, we discover that the Strong Power DDH assumption of Komargodski and Yogev (Komargodski and Yogev, Eurocrypt 2018) used for non-malleable point obfuscation is in fact false precisely because it requires a fixed generator. In response, we formulate an alternative fixed-generator assumption that suffices for a new construction of non-malleable point obfuscation, and we prove the assumption holds in the generic group model. We also give a generic group proof for the security of fixed-generator, low-entropy DDH (Canetti, Crypto 1997).

2019

JOFC

The Magic of ELFs
Abstract

We introduce the notion of an Extremely Lossy Function (ELF). An ELF is a family of functions with an image size that is tunable anywhere from injective to having a polynomial-sized image. Moreover, for any efficient adversary, for a sufficiently large polynomial r (necessarily chosen to be larger than the running time of the adversary), the adversary cannot distinguish the injective case from the case of image size r . We develop a handful of techniques for using ELFs, and show that such extreme lossiness is useful for instantiating random oracles in several settings. In particular, we show how to use ELFs to build secure point function obfuscation with auxiliary input, as well as polynomially many hardcore bits for any one-way function. Such applications were previously known from strong knowledge assumptions—for example, polynomially many hardcore bits were only known from differing inputs obfuscation, a notion whose plausibility has been seriously challenged. We also use ELFs to build a simple hash function with output intractability , a new notion we define that may be useful for generating common reference strings. Next, we give a construction of ELFs relying on the exponential hardness of the decisional Diffie–Hellman problem, which is plausible in elliptic curve groups. Combining with the applications above, our work gives several practical constructions relying on qualitatively different—and arguably better—assumptions than prior works.

2018

TCC

The MMap Strikes Back: Obfuscation and New Multilinear Maps Immune to CLT13 Zeroizing Attacks
Abstract

All known multilinear map candidates have suffered from a class of attacks known as “zeroizing” attacks, which render them unusable for many applications. We provide a new construction of polynomial-degree multilinear maps and show that our scheme is provably immune to zeroizing attacks under a strengthening of the Branching Program Un-Annihilatability Assumption (Garg et al., TCC 2016-B).Concretely, we build our scheme on top of the CLT13 multilinear maps (Coron et al., CRYPTO 2013). In order to justify the security of our new scheme, we devise a weak multilinear map model for CLT13 that captures zeroizing attacks and generalizations, reflecting all known classical polynomial-time attacks on CLT13. In our model, we show that our new multilinear map scheme achieves ideal security, meaning no known attacks apply to our scheme. Using our scheme, we give a new multiparty key agreement protocol that is several orders of magnitude more efficient that what was previously possible.We also demonstrate the general applicability of our model by showing that several existing obfuscation and order-revealing encryption schemes, when instantiated with CLT13 maps, are secure against known attacks. These are schemes that are actually being implemented for experimentation, but until our work had no rigorous justification for security.

2018

TCC

Return of GGH15: Provable Security Against Zeroizing Attacks
Abstract

The GGH15 multilinear maps have served as the foundation for a number of cutting-edge cryptographic proposals. Unfortunately, many schemes built on GGH15 have been explicitly broken by so-called “zeroizing attacks,” which exploit leakage from honest zero-test queries. The precise settings in which zeroizing attacks are possible have remained unclear. Most notably, none of the current indistinguishability obfuscation (iO) candidates from GGH15 have any formal security guarantees against zeroizing attacks.In this work, we demonstrate that all known zeroizing attacks on GGH15 implicitly construct algebraic relations between the results of zero-testing and the encoded plaintext elements. We then propose a “GGH15 zeroizing model” as a new general framework which greatly generalizes known attacks.Our second contribution is to describe a new GGH15 variant, which we formally analyze in our GGH15 zeroizing model. We then construct a new iO candidate using our multilinear map, which we prove secure in the GGH15 zeroizing model. This implies resistance to all known zeroizing strategies. The proof relies on the Branching Program Un-Annihilatability (BPUA) Assumption of Garg et al. [TCC 16-B] (which is implied by PRFs in $$\mathsf {NC}^1$$ secure against $$\mathsf {P}/\mathsf {poly}$$) and the complexity-theoretic p-Bounded Speedup Hypothesis of Miles et al. [ePrint 14] (a strengthening of the Exponential Time Hypothesis).

2018

TCC

Impossibility of Order-Revealing Encryption in Idealized Models
Abstract

An Order-Revealing Encryption (ORE) scheme gives a public procedure by which two ciphertexts can be compared to reveal the order of their underlying plaintexts. The ideal security notion for ORE is that only the order is revealed—anything else, such as the distance between plaintexts, is hidden. The only known constructions of ORE achieving such ideal security are based on cryptographic multilinear maps and are currently too impractical for real-world applications.In this work, we give evidence that building ORE from weaker tools may be hard. Indeed, we show black-box separations between ORE and most symmetric-key primitives, as well as public key encryption and anything else implied by generic groups in a black-box way. Thus, any construction of ORE must either (1) achieve weaker notions of security, (2) be based on more complicated cryptographic tools, or (3) require non-black-box techniques. This suggests that any ORE achieving ideal security will likely be somewhat inefficient.Central to our proof is a proof of impossibility for something we call information theoretic ORE, which has connections to tournament graphs and a theorem by Erdös. This impossibility proof will be useful for proving other black box separations for ORE.

2018

ASIACRYPT

Parameter-Hiding Order Revealing Encryption
Abstract

Order-revealing encryption (ORE) is a primitive for outsourcing encrypted databases which allows for efficiently performing range queries over encrypted data. Unfortunately, a series of works, starting with Naveed et al. (CCS 2015), have shown that when the adversary has a good estimate of the distribution of the data, ORE provides little protection. In this work, we consider the case that the database entries are drawn identically and independently from a distribution of known shape, but for which the mean and variance are not (and thus the attacks of Naveed et al. do not apply). We define a new notion of security for ORE, called parameter-hiding ORE, which maintains the secrecy of these parameters. We give a construction of ORE satisfying our new definition from bilinear maps.

2016

CRYPTO

2015

EUROCRYPT

2014

CRYPTO

#### Program Committees

- PKC 2023
- TCC 2023
- Eurocrypt 2022
- PKC 2022
- TCC 2022
- TCC 2021
- Asiacrypt 2020
- Asiacrypt 2019
- Crypto 2018
- Eurocrypt 2017
- TCC 2017

#### Coauthors

- Scott Aaronson (1)
- Damiano Abram (1)
- Prabhanjan Ananth (1)
- Saikrishna Badrinarayanan (1)
- James Bartusek (3)
- Dan Boneh (7)
- Mark Bun (1)
- David Cash (1)
- Yilei Chen (1)
- Andrea Coladangelo (1)
- Özgür Dagdelen (1)
- Marc Fischlin (1)
- Sanjam Garg (3)
- Sumegha Garg (1)
- Craig Gentry (1)
- Jiaxin Guan (6)
- Shai Halevi (1)
- Dennis Hofheinz (1)
- Yuval Ishai (1)
- Tibor Jager (1)
- Paul Lou (1)
- Aayush Jain (1)
- Fatih Kaleoglu (1)
- Dakshita Khurana (1)
- Ilan Komargodski (1)
- Venkata Koppula (1)
- Lucas Kowalczyk (1)
- Benjamin Kuykendall (1)
- Anja Lehmann (1)
- Tancrède Lepoint (1)
- Kevin Lewi (1)
- Xingjian Li (1)
- Feng-Hao Liu (1)
- Jiahui Liu (4)
- Qipeng Liu (9)
- George Lu (1)
- Fermi Ma (4)
- Tal Malkin (1)
- Eric Miles (3)
- Hart Montgomery (2)
- Pratyay Mukherjee (1)
- Ryo Nishimaki (1)
- Adam O'Neill (1)
- Omkant Pandey (1)
- Luowen Qian (1)
- Mariana Raykova (1)
- Bhaskar Roberts (1)
- Amit Sahai (6)
- Christian Schaffner (1)
- Akshayaram Srinivasan (2)
- Jonathan Ullman (1)
- Brent Waters (5)
- Daniel Wichs (3)
- Takashi Yamakawa (1)
- Henry Yuen (1)
- Ruizhe Zhang (1)
- Cong Zhang (4)
- Joe Zimmerman (1)