International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Mark Zhandry

Affiliation: Princeton University, USA

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2019
EUROCRYPT
On ELFs, Deterministic Encryption, and Correlated-Input Security 📺
Mark Zhandry
We construct deterministic public key encryption secure for any constant number of arbitrarily correlated computationally unpredictable messages. Prior works required either random oracles or non-standard knowledge assumptions. In contrast, our constructions are based on the exponential hardness of DDH, which is plausible in elliptic curve groups. Our central tool is a new trapdoored extremely lossy function, which modifies extremely lossy functions by adding a trapdoor.
2019
EUROCRYPT
On Finding Quantum Multi-collisions 📺
Qipeng Liu Mark Zhandry
A k-collision for a compressing hash function H is a set of k distinct inputs that all map to the same output. In this work, we show that for any constant k, $$\varTheta \left( N^{\frac{1}{2}(1-\frac{1}{2^k-1})}\right) $$ quantum queries are both necessary and sufficient to achieve a k-collision with constant probability. This improves on both the best prior upper bound (Hosoyamada et al., ASIACRYPT 2017) and provides the first non-trivial lower bound, completely resolving the problem.
2019
EUROCRYPT
Simple Schemes in the Bounded Storage Model 📺
Jiaxin Guan Mark Zhandry
The bounded storage model promises unconditional security proofs against computationally unbounded adversaries, so long as the adversary’s space is bounded. In this work, we develop simple new constructions of two-party key agreement, bit commitment, and oblivious transfer in this model. In addition to simplicity, our constructions have several advantages over prior work, including an improved number of rounds and enhanced correctness. Our schemes are based on Raz’s lower bound for learning parities.
2019
EUROCRYPT
Quantum Lightning Never Strikes the Same State Twice 📺
Mark Zhandry
Public key quantum money can be seen as a version of the quantum no-cloning theorem that holds even when the quantum states can be verified by the adversary. In this work, we investigate quantum lightning where no-cloning holds even when the adversary herself generates the quantum state to be cloned. We then study quantum money and quantum lightning, showing the following results:We demonstrate the usefulness of quantum lightning beyond quantum money by showing several potential applications, such as generating random strings with a proof of entropy, to completely decentralized cryptocurrency without a block-chain, where transactions is instant and local.We give Either/Or results for quantum money/lightning, showing that either signatures/hash functions/commitment schemes meet very strong recently proposed notions of security, or they yield quantum money or lightning. Given the difficulty in constructing public key quantum money, this suggests that natural schemes do attain strong security guarantees.We show that instantiating the quantum money scheme of Aaronson and Christiano [STOC’12] with indistinguishability obfuscation that is secure against quantum computers yields a secure quantum money scheme. This construction can be seen as an instance of our Either/Or result for signatures, giving the first separation between two security notions for signatures from the literature.Finally, we give a plausible construction for quantum lightning, which we prove secure under an assumption related to the multi-collision resistance of degree-2 hash functions. Our construction is inspired by our Either/Or result for hash functions, and yields the first plausible standard model instantiation of a non-collapsing collision resistant hash function. This improves on a result of Unruh [Eurocrypt’16] which is relative to a quantum oracle.
2019
EUROCRYPT
New Techniques for Obfuscating Conjunctions 📺
A conjunction is a function $$f(x_1,\dots ,x_n) = \bigwedge _{i \in S} l_i$$ where $$S \subseteq [n]$$ and each $$l_i$$ is $$x_i$$ or $$\lnot x_i$$. Bishop et al. (CRYPTO 2018) recently proposed obfuscating conjunctions by embedding them in the error positions of a noisy Reed-Solomon codeword and placing the codeword in a group exponent. They prove distributional virtual black box (VBB) security in the generic group model for random conjunctions where $$|S| \ge 0.226n$$. While conjunction obfuscation is known from LWE [31, 47], these constructions rely on substantial technical machinery.In this work, we conduct an extensive study of simple conjunction obfuscation techniques. We abstract the Bishop et al. scheme to obtain an equivalent yet more efficient “dual” scheme that can handle conjunctions over exponential size alphabets. This scheme admits a straightforward proof of generic group security, which we combine with a novel combinatorial argument to obtain distributional VBB security for |S| of any size.If we replace the Reed-Solomon code with a random binary linear code, we can prove security from standard LPN and avoid encoding in a group. This addresses an open problem posed by Bishop et al. to prove security of this simple approach in the standard model.We give a new construction that achieves information theoretic distributional VBB security and weak functionality preservation for $$|S| \ge n - n^\delta $$ and $$\delta < 1$$. Assuming discrete log and $$\delta < 1/2$$, we satisfy a stronger notion of functionality preservation for computationally bounded adversaries while still achieving information theoretic security.
2019
CRYPTO
Revisiting Post-quantum Fiat-Shamir 📺
Qipeng Liu Mark Zhandry
The Fiat-Shamir transformation is a useful approach to building non-interactive arguments (of knowledge) in the random oracle model. Unfortunately, existing proof techniques are incapable of proving the security of Fiat-Shamir in the quantum setting. The problem stems from (1) the difficulty of quantum rewinding, and (2) the inability of current techniques to adaptively program random oracles in the quantum setting. In this work, we show how to overcome the limitations above in many settings. In particular, we give mild conditions under which Fiat-Shamir is secure in the quantum setting. As an application, we show that existing lattice signatures based on Fiat-Shamir are secure without any modifications.
2019
CRYPTO
How to Record Quantum Queries, and Applications to Quantum Indifferentiability 📺
Mark Zhandry
The quantum random oracle model (QROM) has become the standard model in which to prove the post-quantum security of random-oracle-based constructions. Unfortunately, none of the known proof techniques allow the reduction to record information about the adversary’s queries, a crucial feature of many classical ROM proofs, including all proofs of indifferentiability for hash function domain extension.In this work, we give a new QROM proof technique that overcomes this “recording barrier”. We do so by giving a new “compressed oracle” which allows for efficient on-the-fly simulation of random oracles, roughly analogous to the usual classical simulation. We then use this new technique to give the first proof of quantum indifferentiability for the Merkle-Damgård domain extender for hash functions. We also give a proof of security for the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation; previous proofs required modifying the scheme to include an additional hash term. Given the threat posed by quantum computers and the push toward quantum-resistant cryptosystems, our work represents an important tool for efficient post-quantum cryptosystems.
2019
CRYPTO
The Distinction Between Fixed and Random Generators in Group-Based Assumptions 📺
James Bartusek Fermi Ma Mark Zhandry
There is surprisingly little consensus on the precise role of the generator g in group-based assumptions such as DDH. Some works consider g to be a fixed part of the group description, while others take it to be random. We study this subtle distinction from a number of angles. In the generic group model, we demonstrate the plausibility of groups in which random-generator DDH (resp. CDH) is hard but fixed-generator DDH (resp. CDH) is easy. We observe that such groups have interesting cryptographic applications.We find that seemingly tight generic lower bounds for the Discrete-Log and CDH problems with preprocessing (Corrigan-Gibbs and Kogan, Eurocrypt 2018) are not tight in the sub-constant success probability regime if the generator is random. We resolve this by proving tight lower bounds for the random generator variants; our results formalize the intuition that using a random generator will reduce the effectiveness of preprocessing attacks.We observe that DDH-like assumptions in which exponents are drawn from low-entropy distributions are particularly sensitive to the fixed- vs. random-generator distinction. Most notably, we discover that the Strong Power DDH assumption of Komargodski and Yogev (Komargodski and Yogev, Eurocrypt 2018) used for non-malleable point obfuscation is in fact false precisely because it requires a fixed generator. In response, we formulate an alternative fixed-generator assumption that suffices for a new construction of non-malleable point obfuscation, and we prove the assumption holds in the generic group model. We also give a generic group proof for the security of fixed-generator, low-entropy DDH (Canetti, Crypto 1997).
2018
TCC
The MMap Strikes Back: Obfuscation and New Multilinear Maps Immune to CLT13 Zeroizing Attacks
Fermi Ma Mark Zhandry
All known multilinear map candidates have suffered from a class of attacks known as “zeroizing” attacks, which render them unusable for many applications. We provide a new construction of polynomial-degree multilinear maps and show that our scheme is provably immune to zeroizing attacks under a strengthening of the Branching Program Un-Annihilatability Assumption (Garg et al., TCC 2016-B).Concretely, we build our scheme on top of the CLT13 multilinear maps (Coron et al., CRYPTO 2013). In order to justify the security of our new scheme, we devise a weak multilinear map model for CLT13 that captures zeroizing attacks and generalizations, reflecting all known classical polynomial-time attacks on CLT13. In our model, we show that our new multilinear map scheme achieves ideal security, meaning no known attacks apply to our scheme. Using our scheme, we give a new multiparty key agreement protocol that is several orders of magnitude more efficient that what was previously possible.We also demonstrate the general applicability of our model by showing that several existing obfuscation and order-revealing encryption schemes, when instantiated with CLT13 maps, are secure against known attacks. These are schemes that are actually being implemented for experimentation, but until our work had no rigorous justification for security.
2018
TCC
Return of GGH15: Provable Security Against Zeroizing Attacks
The GGH15 multilinear maps have served as the foundation for a number of cutting-edge cryptographic proposals. Unfortunately, many schemes built on GGH15 have been explicitly broken by so-called “zeroizing attacks,” which exploit leakage from honest zero-test queries. The precise settings in which zeroizing attacks are possible have remained unclear. Most notably, none of the current indistinguishability obfuscation (iO) candidates from GGH15 have any formal security guarantees against zeroizing attacks.In this work, we demonstrate that all known zeroizing attacks on GGH15 implicitly construct algebraic relations between the results of zero-testing and the encoded plaintext elements. We then propose a “GGH15 zeroizing model” as a new general framework which greatly generalizes known attacks.Our second contribution is to describe a new GGH15 variant, which we formally analyze in our GGH15 zeroizing model. We then construct a new iO candidate using our multilinear map, which we prove secure in the GGH15 zeroizing model. This implies resistance to all known zeroizing strategies. The proof relies on the Branching Program Un-Annihilatability (BPUA) Assumption of Garg et al. [TCC 16-B] (which is implied by PRFs in $$\mathsf {NC}^1$$ secure against $$\mathsf {P}/\mathsf {poly}$$) and the complexity-theoretic p-Bounded Speedup Hypothesis of Miles et al. [ePrint 14] (a strengthening of the Exponential Time Hypothesis).
2018
TCC
Impossibility of Order-Revealing Encryption in Idealized Models
Mark Zhandry Cong Zhang
An Order-Revealing Encryption (ORE) scheme gives a public procedure by which two ciphertexts can be compared to reveal the order of their underlying plaintexts. The ideal security notion for ORE is that only the order is revealed—anything else, such as the distance between plaintexts, is hidden. The only known constructions of ORE achieving such ideal security are based on cryptographic multilinear maps and are currently too impractical for real-world applications.In this work, we give evidence that building ORE from weaker tools may be hard. Indeed, we show black-box separations between ORE and most symmetric-key primitives, as well as public key encryption and anything else implied by generic groups in a black-box way. Thus, any construction of ORE must either (1) achieve weaker notions of security, (2) be based on more complicated cryptographic tools, or (3) require non-black-box techniques. This suggests that any ORE achieving ideal security will likely be somewhat inefficient.Central to our proof is a proof of impossibility for something we call information theoretic ORE, which has connections to tournament graphs and a theorem by Erdös. This impossibility proof will be useful for proving other black box separations for ORE.
2018
ASIACRYPT
Parameter-Hiding Order Revealing Encryption
Order-revealing encryption (ORE) is a primitive for outsourcing encrypted databases which allows for efficiently performing range queries over encrypted data. Unfortunately, a series of works, starting with Naveed et al. (CCS 2015), have shown that when the adversary has a good estimate of the distribution of the data, ORE provides little protection. In this work, we consider the case that the database entries are drawn identically and independently from a distribution of known shape, but for which the mean and variance are not (and thus the attacks of Naveed et al. do not apply). We define a new notion of security for ORE, called parameter-hiding ORE, which maintains the secrecy of these parameters. We give a construction of ORE satisfying our new definition from bilinear maps.
2017
EUROCRYPT
2017
CRYPTO
2017
TCC
2016
EUROCRYPT
2016
EUROCRYPT
2016
CRYPTO
The Magic of ELFs 📺
Mark Zhandry
2016
CRYPTO
2016
TCC
2016
TCC
2016
TCC
2016
TCC
2016
ASIACRYPT
2016
TCC
2016
TCC
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EUROCRYPT
2014
CRYPTO
2014
CRYPTO
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2013
CRYPTO
2013
EUROCRYPT
2012
CRYPTO
2011
ASIACRYPT

Program Committees

Asiacrypt 2019
Crypto 2018
Eurocrypt 2017
TCC 2017