## CryptoDB

### Muthuramakrishnan Venkitasubramaniam

#### ORCID: 0000-0001-9765-7911

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

EUROCRYPT

Can Alice and Bob Guarantee Output to Carol?
Abstract

In the setting of solitary output computations, only a single designated party learns the output of some function applied to the private inputs of all participating parties with the guarantee that nothing beyond the output is revealed. The setting of solitary output functionalities is a special case of secure multiparty computation, which allows a set of mutually distrusting parties to compute some function of their private inputs. The computation should guarantee some security properties, such as correctness, privacy, fairness, and output delivery. Full security captures all these properties together.
Solitary output computation is a common setting that has become increasingly important, as it is relevant to many real-world scenarios, such as federated learning and set disjointness. In the set-disjointness problem, a set of parties with private datasets wish to convey to another party whether they have a common input. In this work, we investigate the limits of achieving set-disjointness which already has numerous applications and whose feasibility (under non-trivial conditions) was left open in the work of Halevi et al. (TCC 2019).
Towards resolving this, we completely characterize the set of Boolean functions that can be computed in the three-party setting in the face of a malicious adversary that corrupts up to two of the parties. As a corollary, we characterize the family of set-disjointness functions that can be computed in this setting, providing somewhat surprising results regarding this family and resolving the open question posed by Halevi et al.

2024

JOFC

The Price of Active Security in Cryptographic Protocols
Abstract

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>We construct the first actively-secure Multi-Party Computation (MPC) protocols with an <jats:italic>arbitrary</jats:italic> number of parties in the dishonest majority setting, for an <jats:italic>arbitrary</jats:italic> field <jats:inline-formula><jats:alternatives><jats:tex-math>$${\mathbb {F}}$$</jats:tex-math><mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mml:mi>F</mml:mi>
</mml:math></jats:alternatives></jats:inline-formula> with <jats:italic>constant communication overhead</jats:italic> over the “passive-GMW” protocol (Goldreich, Micali and Wigderson, STOC ‘87). Our protocols rely on passive implementations of Oblivious Transfer (OT) in the Boolean setting and Oblivious Linear function Evaluation (OLE) in the arithmetic setting. Previously, such protocols were only known over sufficiently large fields (Genkin et al. STOC ‘14) or a constant number of parties (Ishai et al. CRYPTO ‘08). Conceptually, our protocols are obtained via a new compiler from a passively-secure protocol for a distributed multiplication functionality <jats:inline-formula><jats:alternatives><jats:tex-math>$${{{\mathcal {F}}}}_{\scriptscriptstyle \textrm{MULT}}$$</jats:tex-math><mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mml:msub>
<mml:mi>F</mml:mi>
<mml:mstyle>
<mml:mtext>MULT</mml:mtext>
</mml:mstyle>
</mml:msub>
</mml:math></jats:alternatives></jats:inline-formula>, to an actively-secure protocol for general functionalities. Roughly, <jats:inline-formula><jats:alternatives><jats:tex-math>$${{{\mathcal {F}}}}_{\scriptscriptstyle \textrm{MULT}}$$</jats:tex-math><mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mml:msub>
<mml:mi>F</mml:mi>
<mml:mstyle>
<mml:mtext>MULT</mml:mtext>
</mml:mstyle>
</mml:msub>
</mml:math></jats:alternatives></jats:inline-formula> is parameterized by a linear-secret sharing scheme <jats:inline-formula><jats:alternatives><jats:tex-math>$${{{\mathcal {S}}}}$$</jats:tex-math><mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mml:mi>S</mml:mi>
</mml:math></jats:alternatives></jats:inline-formula>, where it takes <jats:inline-formula><jats:alternatives><jats:tex-math>$${{{\mathcal {S}}}}$$</jats:tex-math><mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mml:mi>S</mml:mi>
</mml:math></jats:alternatives></jats:inline-formula>-shares of two secrets and returns <jats:inline-formula><jats:alternatives><jats:tex-math>$${{{\mathcal {S}}}}$$</jats:tex-math><mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mml:mi>S</mml:mi>
</mml:math></jats:alternatives></jats:inline-formula>-shares of their product. We show that our compilation is concretely efficient for sufficiently large fields, resulting in an overhead of 2 when securely computing natural circuits. Our compiler has two additional benefits: (1) It can rely on <jats:italic>any</jats:italic> passive implementation of <jats:inline-formula><jats:alternatives><jats:tex-math>$${{{\mathcal {F}}}}_{\scriptscriptstyle \textrm{MULT}}$$</jats:tex-math><mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mml:msub>
<mml:mi>F</mml:mi>
<mml:mstyle>
<mml:mtext>MULT</mml:mtext>
</mml:mstyle>
</mml:msub>
</mml:math></jats:alternatives></jats:inline-formula>, which, besides the standard implementation based on OT (for Boolean) and OLE (for arithmetic), allows us to rely on implementations based on threshold cryptosystems (Cramer et al. Eurocrypt ‘01), and (2) it can rely on weaker-than-passive (i.e., imperfect/leaky) implementations, which in some parameter regimes yield actively-secure protocols with overhead less than 2. Instantiating this compiler with an “honest-majority” implementation of <jats:inline-formula><jats:alternatives><jats:tex-math>$${{{\mathcal {F}}}}_{\scriptscriptstyle \textrm{MULT}}$$</jats:tex-math><mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mml:msub>
<mml:mi>F</mml:mi>
<mml:mstyle>
<mml:mtext>MULT</mml:mtext>
</mml:mstyle>
</mml:msub>
</mml:math></jats:alternatives></jats:inline-formula>, we obtain the first honest-majority protocol (with up to one-third corruptions) for Boolean circuits with constant communication overhead over the best passive protocol (Damgård and Nielsen, CRYPTO ‘07).
</jats:p>

2024

ASIACRYPT

LogRobin++: Optimizing Proofs of Disjunctive Statements in VOLE-Based ZK
Abstract

In the Zero-Knowledge Proof (ZKP) of a disjunctive statement, P and V agree on B fan-in 2 circuits C_{0}, ..., C_{B−1} over a field F; each circuit has n_{in} inputs, n_{x} multiplications, and one output. P’s goal is to demonstrate the knowledge of a witness (id ∈ [B], w ∈ F^{n_{in}}), s.t. C_{id}(w) = 0 where neither w nor id is revealed. Disjunctive statements are effective, for example, in implementing ZKP based on sequential execution of CPU steps.
This paper studies ZKP (of knowledge) protocols over disjunctive statements based on Vector OLE. Denoting by λ the statistical security parameter and let ρ ≜ max{log|F|,λ}, the previous state-of-the-art protocol Robin (Yang et al. CCS’23) required (n_{in}+3n_{x})log|F|+O(ρB) bits of communication with O(1) rounds, and Mac′n′Cheese (Baum et al. CRYPTO’21) required (n_{in}+n_{x})log|F|+2n_{x}ρ+O(ρlogB) bits of communication with O(logB) rounds, both in the VOLE-hybrid model.
Our novel protocol LogRobin++ achieves the same functionality at the cost of (n_{in}+n_{x})log|F|+O(ρlogB) bits of communication with O(1) rounds in the VOLE-hybrid model. Crucially, LogRobin++ takes advantage of two new techniques – (1) an O(logB)-overhead approach to prove in ZK that an IT-MAC commitment vector contains a zero; and (2) the realization of VOLE-based ZK over a disjunctive statement, where P commits only to w and multiplication outputs of C_{id}(w) (as opposed to prior work where P commits to w and all three wires that are associated with each multiplication gate).
We implemented LogRobin++ over Boolean (i.e., F_{2}) and arithmetic (i.e., F_{2^{61}−1}) fields. In our experiments, including the cost of generating VOLE correlations, LogRobin++ achieved up to 170× optimization over Robin in communication, resulting in up to 7× (resp. 3×) wall-clock time improvements in a WAN-like (resp. LAN-like) setting.

2023

PKC

Private Polynomial Commitments and Applications to MPC
Abstract

Polynomial commitment schemes allow a prover to commit to a polynomial and later reveal the evaluation of the polynomial on an arbitrary point along with proof of validity. This object is central in the design of many cryptographic schemes such as zero-knowledge proofs and verifiable secret sharing. In the standard definition, the polynomial is known to the prover whereas the evaluation points are not private. In this paper, we put forward the notion of \emph{private polynomial commitments} that capture additional privacy guarantees, where the evaluation points are hidden from the verifier while the polynomial is hidden from both.
We provide concretely efficient constructions that allow simultaneously batch the verification of many evaluations with a small additive overhead. As an application, we design a new concretely efficient multi-party private set-intersection with malicious security and improved asymptotic communication and space complexities.
We demonstrate the concrete efficiency of our construction via an implementation. Our scheme can prove $2^{10}$ evaluations of a private polynomial of degree $2^{10}$ in 157s. The proof size is only 169KB and the verification time is 11.8s. Moreover, we also implemented the multi-party private set intersection protocol and scale it to 1000 parties (which has not been shown before). The total running time for $2^{14}$ elements per party is 2,410 seconds. While existing protocols offer better computational complexity, our scheme offers significantly smaller communication and better scalability (in the number of parties) owing to better memory usage.

2023

CRYPTO

Best of Both Worlds: Revisiting the Spymasters Double Agent Problem
Abstract

This work introduces the notion of secure multiparty computation: MPC with fall-back security. Fall-back security for an $n$-party protocol is defined with respect to an adversary structure $\cZ$ wherein security is guaranteed in the presence of both a computationally unbounded adversary with adversary structure $\cZ$, and a computationally bounded adversary corrupting an arbitrarily large subset of the parties. This notion was considered in the work of Chaum (Crypto 89) via the Spymaster's double agent problem where he showed a semi-honest secure protocol for the honest majority adversary structure.
Our first main result is a compiler that can transform any $n$-party protocol that is semi-honestly secure with statistical security tolerating an adversary structure $\cZ$ to one that (additionally) provides semi-honest fall-back security w.r.t $\cZ$. The resulting protocol has optimal round complexity, up to a constant factor, and is optimal in assumptions and the adversary structure. Our second result fully characterizes when malicious fall-back security is feasible. More precisely, we show that malicious fallback secure protocol w.r.t $\cZ$ exists if and only if $\cZ$ admits unconditional MPC against a semi-honest adversary (namely, iff $\cZ \in \cQ^2$).

2023

JOFC

Actively Secure Garbled Circuits with Constant Communication Overhead in the Plain Model
Abstract

We consider the problem of constant-round secure two-party computation in the presence of active (malicious) adversaries. We present the first protocol that has only a constant multiplicative communication overhead compared to Yao’s protocol for passive adversaries, and can be implemented in the plain model by only making a black-box use of (parallel) oblivious transfer and a pseudo-random generator. This improves over the polylogarithmic overhead of the previous best protocol. A similar result could previously be obtained only in an amortized setting, using preprocessing, or by assuming bit-oblivious-transfer as an ideal primitive that has a constant cost. We present two variants of this result, one which is aimed at minimizing the number of oblivious transfers and another which is aimed at optimizing concrete efficiency. Our protocols are based on a novel combination of previous techniques together with a new efficient protocol to certify that pairs of strings transmitted via oblivious transfer satisfy a global relation. Settling for “security with correlated abort”, the concrete communication complexity of the second variant of our protocol can beat the best previous protocols with the same kind of security even for realistic values of the circuit size and the security parameter. This variant is particularly attractive in the offline–online setting, where the online cost is dominated by a single evaluation of an authenticated garbled circuit, and can also be made non-interactive using the Fiat–Shamir heuristic.

2023

TCC

Your Reputation's Safe with Me: Framing-Free Distributed Zero-Knowledge Proofs
Abstract

{\em Distributed Zero-Knowledge (dZK) proofs}, recently introduced by Boneh et al. (CYPTO`19), allow a prover $\prover$ to prove NP statements on an input $x$ which is {\em distributed} between $k$ verifiers $\verifier_1,\ldots,\verifier_k$, where each $\verifier_i$ holds only a piece of $x$. As in standard ZK proofs, dZK proofs guarantee {\em Completeness} when all parties are honest; {\em Soundness} against a malicious prover colluding with $t$ verifiers; and {\em Zero Knowledge} against a subset of $t$ malicious verifiers, in the sense that they learn nothing about the NP witness and the input pieces of the honest verifiers. Unfortunately, dZK proofs provide no correctness guarantee for an honest prover against a subset of maliciously corrupted verifiers. In particular, such verifiers might be able to ``frame'' the prover, causing honest verifiers to reject a true claim. This is a significant limitation, since such scenarios arise naturally in dZK applications, e.g., for proving honest behavior, and such attacks are indeed possible in existing dZKs (Boneh et al., CRYPTO`19).
We put forth and study the notion of {\em strong completeness} for dZKs, guaranteeing that true claims are accepted even when $t$ verifiers are maliciously corrupted. We then design strongly-complete dZK proofs using the ``MPC-in-the-head'' paradigm of Ishai et al. (STOC`07), providing a novel analysis that exploits the unique properties of the distributed setting.
To demonstrate the usefulness of strong completeness, we present several applications in which it is instrumental in obtaining security. First, we construct a certifiable version of Verifiable Secret Sharing (VSS), which is a VSS in which the dealer additionally proves that the shared secret satisfies a given NP relation. Our construction withstands a constant fraction of corruptions, whereas a previous construction of Ishai et al. (TCC`14) required $k=\poly\left(t\right)$. We also design a {\em reusable} version of certifiable VSS that we introduce, in which the dealer can prove an {\em unlimited} number of predicates on the {\em same} shared secret.
Finally, we extend a compiler of Boneh et al. (CRYPTO`19), who used dZKs to transform a class of ``natural'' semi-honest protocols in the honest-majority setting into maliciously secure ones with abort. Our compiler uses {\em strongly-complete} dZKs to obtain {\em identifiable} abort.

2023

TCC

Beyond MPC-in-the-Head: Black-Box Constructions of Short Zero-Knowledge Proofs
Abstract

In their seminal work, Ishai, Kushilevitz, Ostrovsky, and Sahai (STOC`07) presented the MPC-in-the-Head paradigm, which shows how to design Zero-Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs) from secure Multi-Party Computation (MPC) protocols. This paradigm has since then revolutionized and modularized the design of efficient ZKP systems, with far-reaching applications beyond ZKPs.
However, to the best of our knowledge, all previous instantiations relied on {\em fully-secure} MPC protocols and have not been able to leverage the fact that the paradigm only imposes relatively weak privacy and correctness requirements on the underlying MPC.
In this work, we extend the MPC-in-the-Head paradigm to {\em game-based} cryptographic primitives supporting homomorphic computations (e.g., fully-homomorphic encryption, functional encryption, randomized encodings, homomorphic secret sharing, and more). Specifically, we present a simple yet generic compiler from these primitives to ZKPs which use the underlying primitive as a black box. We also generalize our paradigm to capture commit-and-prove protocols, and use it to devise tight black-box compilers from Interactive (Oracle) Proofs to ZKPs, assuming One-Way Functions (OWFs).
We use our paradigm to obtain several new ZKP constructions:
1. The first constant-round ZKPs for $\NP$ relations computable in (non-uniform) $\NC^1$, with communication approaching witness length (specifically, $n\cdot\poly\left(\secp\right)$, where $n$ is the witness length, and $\secp$ is a security parameter) assuming DCR.
2. Constant-round ZKPs for \NP\ relations computable in bounded polynomial space, with $O\left(n\right)+o\left(m\right)\cdot\poly\left(\secp\right)$ communication assuming OWFs, where $m$ is the instance length.
This gives a black-box alternative to a recent non-black-box construction of Nassar and Ron (CRYPTO`22).
3. ZKPs for \NP\ relations computable by a logspace-uniform family of depth-$d\left(m\right)$ circuits, with $n\cdot\poly\left(\secp,d\left(m\right)\right)$ communication assuming OWFs. This gives a black-box alternative to a result of Goldwasser, Kalai and Rothblum (JACM).

2022

EUROCRYPT

Adaptively Secure Computation for RAM Programs
📺
Abstract

We obtain the first two-round two-party computation protocol, in the plain model, that is secure against passive adversaries who can adaptively corrupt all parties where the communication complexity is proportional to the square of the RAM complexity of the function up to polylogarithmic factors assuming the existence of non-committing encryption.

2022

EUROCRYPT

Asymptotically Quasi-Optimal Cryptography
📺
Abstract

The question of minimizing the {\em computational overhead} of cryptography was put forward by the work of Ishai, Kushilevitz, Ostrovsky and Sahai (STOC 2008). The main conclusion was that, under plausible assumptions, most cryptographic primitives can be realized with {\em constant} computational overhead. However, this ignores an additive term that may depend polynomially on the (concrete) computational security parameter $\lambda$. In this work, we study the question of obtaining optimal efficiency, up to polylogarithmic factors, for {\em all} choices of $n$ and $\lambda$, where $n$ is the size of the given task. In particular, when $n=\lambda$, we would like the computational cost to be only $\tilde O(\lambda)$. We refer to this goal as {\em asymptotically quasi-optimal} (AQO) cryptography.
We start by realizing the first AQO semi-honest batch oblivious linear evaluation (BOLE) protocol. Our protocol applies to OLE over small fields and relies on the near-exponential security of the ring learning with errors (RLWE) assumption.
Building on the above and on known constructions of AQO PCPs, we design the first AQO zero-knowledge (ZK) argument system for Boolean circuit satisfiability. Our construction combines a new AQO ZK-PCP construction that respects the AQO property of the underlying PCP along with a technique for converting statistical secrecy into soundness via OLE reversal. Finally, combining the above results, we get AQO secure computation protocols for Boolean circuits with security against malicious parties under RLWE.

2022

TCC

On Black-Box Constructions of Time and Space Efficient Sublinear Arguments from Symmetric-Key Primitives
Abstract

Zero-knowledge proofs allow a prover to convince a verifier of a statement without revealing anything besides its validity. A major bottleneck in scaling sub-linear zero-knowledge proofs is the high space requirement of the prover, even for NP relations that can be verified in a small space.
In this work, we ask whether there exist complexity-preserving (i.e. overhead w.r.t time and space are minimal) succinct zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge with minimal assumptions while making only black-box access to the underlying primitives. We essentially resolve this question up to polylogarithmic factors. Namely, for every NP relation that can be verified in time T and space S, we construct a public-coin zero-knowledge argument system that is black-box based on collision-resistant hash-functions (CRH) where the prover runs in time $\O(T)$ and space $\O(S)$, the verifier runs in time $\O(T/S+S)$ and space $\O(\kappa)$ and the communication is $\O(T/S)$, where $\kappa$ is the statistical security parameter. Using the Fiat-Shamir heuristic, our construction yields the first complexity-preserving ZK-SNARK based on CRH (via a black-box construction). Furthermore, we give evidence that reducing the proof length below $\O(T/S)$ will be hard using existing techniques by arguing the space-complexity of constant-distance error correcting codes.

2022

JOFC

ZK-PCPs from Leakage-Resilient Secret Sharing
Abstract

Zero-Knowledge PCPs (ZK-PCPs; Kilian, Petrank, and Tardos, STOC ‘97) are PCPs with the additional zero-knowledge guarantee that the view of any (possibly malicious) verifier making a bounded number of queries to the proof can be efficiently simulated up to a small statistical distance. Similarly, ZK-PCPs of Proximity (ZK-PCPPs; Ishai and Weiss, TCC ‘14) are PCPPs in which the view of an adversarial verifier can be efficiently simulated with few queries to the input. Previous ZK-PCP constructions obtained an exponential gap between the query complexity q of the honest verifier, and the bound $$q^*$$ q ∗ on the queries of a malicious verifier (i.e., $$q={\mathsf {poly}}\log \left( q^*\right) $$ q = poly log q ∗ ), but required either exponential-time simulation, or adaptive honest verification. This should be contrasted with standard PCPs, that can be verified non-adaptively (i.e., with a single round of queries to the proof). The problem of constructing such ZK-PCPs, even when $$q^*=q$$ q ∗ = q , has remained open since they were first introduced more than 2 decades ago. This question is also open for ZK-PCPPs, for which no construction with non-adaptive honest verification is known (not even with exponential-time simulation). We resolve this question by constructing the first ZK-PCPs and ZK-PCPPs which simultaneously achieve efficient zero-knowledge simulation and non-adaptive honest verification. Our schemes have a square-root query gap, namely $$q^*/q=O\left( \sqrt{n}\right) $$ q ∗ / q = O n , where n is the input length. Our constructions combine the “MPC-in-the-head” technique (Ishai et al., STOC ‘07) with leakage-resilient secret sharing. Specifically, we use the MPC-in-the-head technique to construct a ZK-PCP variant over a large alphabet, then employ leakage-resilient secret sharing to design a new alphabet reduction for ZK-PCPs which preserves zero-knowledge.

2021

JOFC

Round-Optimal Secure Multi-party Computation
Abstract

Secure multi-party computation (MPC) is a central cryptographic task that allows a set of mutually distrustful parties to jointly compute some function of their private inputs where security should hold in the presence of an active (i.e. malicious) adversary that can corrupt any number of parties. Despite extensive research, the precise round complexity of this “standard-bearer” cryptographic primitive, under polynomial-time hardness assumptions, is unknown. Recently, Garg, Mukherjee, Pandey and Polychroniadou, in Eurocrypt 2016 demonstrated that the round complexity of any MPC protocol relying on black-box proofs of security in the plain model must be at least four. Following this work, independently Ananth, Choudhuri and Jain, CRYPTO 2017 and Brakerski, Halevi, and Polychroniadou, TCC 2017 made progress towards solving this question and constructed four-round protocols based on the DDH and LWE assumptions, respectively, albeit with super-polynomial hardness. More recently, Ciampi, Ostrovsky, Siniscalchi and Visconti in TCC 2017 closed the gap for two-party protocols by constructing a four-round protocol from polynomial-time assumptions, concretely, trapdoor permutations. In another work, Ciampi, Ostrovsky, Siniscalchi and Visconti TCC 2017 showed how to design a four-round multi-party protocol for the specific case of multi-party coin-tossing based on one-way functions. In this work, we resolve this question by designing a four-round actively secure multi-party (two or more parties) protocol for general functionalities under standard polynomial-time hardness assumptions with a black-box proof of security, specifically, under the assumptions LWE, DDH, QR and DCR.

2020

JOFC

On the Power of Secure Two-Party Computation
Abstract

Ishai, Kushilevitz, Ostrovsky and Sahai (STOC 2007 ; SIAM J Comput 39(3):1121–1152, 2009 ) introduced the powerful “MPC-in-the-head” technique that provided a general transformation of information-theoretic MPC protocols secure against passive adversaries to a ZK proof in a “black-box” way. In this work, we extend this technique and provide a generic transformation of any semi-honest secure two-party computation (2PC) protocol (with mild adaptive security guarantees) in the so-called oblivious-transfer hybrid model to an adaptive ZK proof for any $$\textsf {NP}$$ NP language, in a “black-box” way assuming only one-way functions. Our basic construction based on Goldreich–Micali–Wigderson’s 2PC protocol yields an adaptive ZK proof with communication complexity proportional to quadratic in the size of the circuit implementing the $$\textsf {NP}$$ NP relation. Previously such proofs relied on an expensive Karp reduction of the $$\textsf {NP}$$ NP language to Graph Hamiltonicity [Lindell and Zarosim (TCC 2009 ; J Cryptol 24(4):761–799, 2011 )]. As an application of our techniques, we show how to obtain a ZK proof with an “input-delayed” property for any $$\textsf {NP}$$ NP language without relying on expensive Karp reductions that is black box in the underlying one-way function. Namely, the input-delayed property allows the honest prover’s algorithm to receive the actual statement to be proved only in the final round. We further generalize this to obtain a “commit-and-prove” protocol with the same property where the prover commits to a witness w in the second message and proves a statement x regarding the witness w in zero-knowledge where the statement is determined only in the last round. This improves a previous construction of Lapidot and Shamir (Crypto 1990 ) that was designed specifically for the Graph Hamiltonicity problem and relied on the underlying primitives in a non-black-box way. Additionally, we provide a general transformation to construct a randomized encoding of a function f from any 2PC protocol that securely computes a related functionality (in a black-box way) from one-way functions. We show that if the 2PC protocol has mild adaptive security guarantees (which are satisfied by both the Yao’s and GMW’s protocol), then the resulting randomized encoding can be decomposed to an offline/online encoding.

2020

EUROCRYPT

Which Languages Have 4-Round Fully Black-Box Zero-Knowledge Arguments from One-Way Functions?
📺
Abstract

We prove that if a language $\cL$ has a 4-round fully black-box zero-knowledge argument with negligible soundness based on one-way functions, then $\overline{\cL} \in \MA$. Since $\coNP \subseteq \MA$ implies that the polynomial hierarchy collapses, our result implies that $\NP$-complete languages are unlikely to have 4-round fully black-box zero-knowledge arguments based on one-way functions. In TCC 2018, Hazay and Venkitasubramaniam, and Khurana, Ostrovsky, and Srinivasan demonstrated 4-round fully black-box zero-knowledge arguments for all languages in $\NP$ based on injective one-way functions.
Their results also imply a 5-round protocol based on one-way functions. In essence, our result resolves the round complexity of fully black-box zero-knowledge arguments based on one-way functions.

2020

EUROCRYPT

The Price of Active Security in Cryptographic Protocols
📺
Abstract

We construct the first actively-secure Multi-Party Computation (MPC) protocols with an \emph{arbitrary} number of parties in the dishonest majority setting, for an \emph{arbitrary} field $\FF$ with \emph{constant communication overhead} over the ``passive-GMW'' protocol (Goldreich, Micali and Wigderson, STOC `87). Our protocols rely on passive implementations of Oblivious Transfer (OT) in the boolean setting and Oblivious Linear function Evaluation (OLE) in the arithmetic setting. Previously, such protocols were only known over sufficiently large fields (Genkin et al. STOC `14) or a constant number of parties (Ishai et al. CRYPTO `08).
Conceptually, our protocols are obtained via a new compiler from a passively-secure protocol for a distributed multiplication functionality $\cF_\mult$, to an actively-secure protocol for general functionalities. Roughly, $\cF_\mult$ is parameterized by a linear-secret sharing scheme $\cS$, where it takes $\cS$-shares of two secrets and returns $\cS$-shares of their product.
We show that our compilation is concretely efficient for sufficiently large fields, resulting in an overhead of 2 when securely computing natural circuits. Our compiler has two additional benefits: (1) it can rely on \emph{any} passive implementation of $\cF_\mult$, which, besides the standard implementation based on OT (for boolean) and OLE (for arithmetic) allows us to rely on implementations based on threshold cryptosystems (Cramer et al. Eurocrypt `01); and (2) it can rely on weaker-than-passive (i.e., imperfect/leaky) implementations, which in some parameter regimes yield actively-secure protocols with overhead less than 2.
Instantiating this compiler with an ``honest-majority'' implementations of $\cF_\mult$, we obtain the first honest-majority protocol with optimal corruption threshold for boolean circuits with constant communication overhead over the best passive protocol (Damg{\aa}rd and Nielsen, CRYPTO `07).

2020

PKC

Going Beyond Dual Execution: MPC for Functions with Efficient Verification
📺
Abstract

The dual execution paradigm of Mohassel and Franklin (PKC’06) and Huang, Katz and Evans (IEEE ’12) shows how to achieve the notion of 1-bit leakage security at roughly twice the cost of semi-honest security for the special case of two-party secure computation . To date, there are no multi-party computation (MPC) protocols that offer such a strong trade-off between security and semi-honest performance. Our main result is to address this shortcoming by designing 1-bit leakage protocols for the multi-party setting, albeit for a special class of functions. We say that function f ( x , y ) is efficiently verifiable by g if the running time of g is always smaller than f and $$g(x,y,z)=1$$ if and only if $$f(x,y)=z$$ . In the two-party setting, we first improve dual execution by observing that the “second execution” can be an evaluation of g instead of f , and that by definition, the evaluation of g is asymptotically more efficient. Our main MPC result is to construct a 1-bit leakage protocol for such functions from any passive protocol for f that is secure up to additive errors and any active protocol for g . An important result by Genkin et al. (STOC ’14) shows how the classic protocols by Goldreich et al. (STOC ’87) and Ben-Or et al. (STOC ’88) naturally support this property, which allows to instantiate our compiler with two-party and multi-party protocols. A key technical result we prove is that the passive protocol for distributed garbling due to Beaver et al. (STOC ’90) is in fact secure up to additive errors against malicious adversaries, thereby, yielding another powerful instantiation of our paradigm in the constant-round multi-party setting. As another concrete example of instantiating our approach, we present a novel protocol for computing perfect matching that is secure in the 1-bit leakage model and whose communication complexity is less than the honest-but-curious implementations of textbook algorithms for perfect matching.

2019

JOFC

On Black-Box Complexity of Universally Composable Security in the CRS Model
Abstract

In this work, we study the intrinsic complexity of black-box Universally Composable (UC) secure computation based on general assumptions. We present a thorough study in various corruption modelings while focusing on achieving security in the common reference string (CRS) model. Our results involve the following:Static UC secure computation. Designing the first static UC oblivious transfer protocol based on public-key encryption and stand-alone semi-honest oblivious transfer. As a corollary, we obtain the first black-box constructions of UC secure computation assuming only two-round semi-honest oblivious transfer.One-sided UC secure computation. Designing adaptive UC two-party computation with single corruptions assuming public-key encryption with oblivious ciphertext generation.Adaptive UC secure computation. Designing adaptively secure UC commitment scheme assuming only public-key encryption with oblivious ciphertext generation. As a corollary, we obtain the first black-box constructions of adaptive UC secure computation assuming only (trapdoor) simulatable public-key encryption (as well as a variety of concrete assumptions).We remark that such a result was not known even under non-black-box constructions.

2019

JOFC

What Security Can We Achieve Within 4 Rounds?
Abstract

Katz and Ostrovsky (Crypto 2004) proved that five rounds are necessary for stand-alone general black-box constructions of secure two-party protocols and at least four rounds are necessary if only one party needs to receive the output. Recently, Ostrovsky, Richelson and Scafuro (Crypto 2015) proved optimality of this result by showing how to realize stand-alone, secure two-party computation under general assumptions (with black-box proof of security) in four rounds where only one party receives the output, and an extension to five rounds where both parties receive the output. In this paper, we study the question of what security is achievable for stand-alone two-party protocols within four rounds and show the following results: 1. A 4-round two-party protocol for coin-tossing that achieves 1 / p - security (i.e., simulation fails with probability at most $$1/p+{\mathsf {negl}}$$ 1 / p + negl ), in the presence of malicious corruptions. 2. A 4-round two-party protocol for general functionalities where both parties receive the output, that achieves 1 / p -security and privacy in the presence of malicious adversaries corrupting one of the parties, and full security in the presence of non-aborting malicious adversaries corrupting the other party. 3. A 3-round oblivious-transfer protocol that achieves 1 / p -security against arbitrary malicious senders, while simultaneously guaranteeing a meaningful notion of privacy against malicious corruptions of either party. 4. Finally, we show that the simulation-based security guarantees for our 3-round protocols are optimal by proving that 1 / p -simulation security is impossible to achieve against both parties in three rounds or less when requiring some minimal guarantees on the privacy of their inputs.

2018

CRYPTO

Round-Optimal Secure Multi-Party Computation
📺
Abstract

Secure multi-party computation (MPC) is a central cryptographic task that allows a set of mutually distrustful parties to jointly compute some function of their private inputs where security should hold in the presence of a malicious adversary that can corrupt any number of parties. Despite extensive research, the precise round complexity of this “standard-bearer” cryptographic primitive is unknown. Recently, Garg, Mukherjee, Pandey and Polychroniadou, in EUROCRYPT 2016 demonstrated that the round complexity of any MPC protocol relying on black-box proofs of security in the plain model must be at least four. Following this work, independently Ananth, Choudhuri and Jain, CRYPTO 2017 and Brakerski, Halevi, and Polychroniadou, TCC 2017 made progress towards solving this question and constructed four-round protocols based on non-polynomial time assumptions. More recently, Ciampi, Ostrovsky, Siniscalchi and Visconti in TCC 2017 closed the gap for two-party protocols by constructing a four-round protocol from polynomial-time assumptions. In another work, Ciampi, Ostrovsky, Siniscalchi and Visconti TCC 2017 showed how to design a four-round multi-party protocol for the specific case of multi-party coin-tossing.In this work, we resolve this question by designing a four-round actively secure multi-party (two or more parties) protocol for general functionalities under standard polynomial-time hardness assumptions with a black-box proof of security.

2018

TCC

Round-Optimal Fully Black-Box Zero-Knowledge Arguments from One-Way Permutations
Abstract

In this paper, we revisit the round complexity of designing zero-knowledge (ZK) arguments via a black-box construction from minimal assumptions. Our main result implements a 4-round ZK argument for any language in
$$\textsf {NP}$$
NP, based on injective one-way functions, that makes black-box use of the underlying function. As a corollary, we also obtain the first 4-round perfect zero-knowledge argument for
$$\textsf {NP}$$
NP based on claw-free permutations via a black-box construction and 4-round input-delayed commit-and-prove zero-knowledge argument based on injective one-way functions.

2018

TCC

Two-Round Adaptively Secure Multiparty Computation from Standard Assumptions
Abstract

We present the first two-round multiparty computation (MPC) protocols secure against malicious adaptive corruption in the common reference string (CRS) model, based on DDH, LWE, or QR. Prior two-round adaptively secure protocols were known only in the two-party setting against semi-honest adversaries, or in the general multiparty setting assuming the existence of indistinguishability obfuscation (iO).Our protocols are constructed in two steps. First, we construct two-round oblivious transfer (OT) protocols secure against malicious adaptive corruption in the CRS model based on DDH, LWE, or QR. We achieve this by generically transforming any two-round OT that is only secure against static corruption but has certain oblivious sampleability properties, into a two-round adaptively secure OT. Prior constructions were only secure against semi-honest adversaries or based on iO.Second, building upon recent constructions of two-round MPC from two-round OT in the weaker static corruption setting [Garg and Srinivasan, Benhamouda and Lin, Eurocrypt’18] and using equivocal garbled circuits from [Canetti, Poburinnaya and Venkitasubramaniam, STOC’17], we show how to construct two-round adaptively secure MPC from two-round adaptively secure OT and constant-round adaptively secure MPC, with respect to both malicious and semi-honest adversaries. As a corollary, we also obtain the first 2-round MPC secure against semi-honest adaptive corruption in the plain model based on augmented non-committing encryption (NCE), which can be based on a variety of assumptions, CDH, RSA, DDH, LWE, or factoring Blum integers. Finally, we mention that our OT and MPC protocols in the CRS model are, in fact, adaptively secure in the Universal Composability framework.

2013

ASIACRYPT

2012

ASIACRYPT

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2023
- Crypto 2021
- TCC 2021
- Eurocrypt 2020
- TCC 2019
- Eurocrypt 2018
- Crypto 2014
- PKC 2011

#### Coauthors

- Anasuya Acharya (1)
- Bar Alon (1)
- Scott Ames (1)
- Laasya Bangalore (2)
- Fabrice Benhamouda (1)
- Rishabh Bhadauria (2)
- Ran Canetti (1)
- Kai-Min Chung (1)
- Dana Dachman-Soled (1)
- Leo de Castro (1)
- Rosario Gennaro (1)
- Shai Halevi (2)
- Carmit Hazay (26)
- David Heath (1)
- Yuval Ishai (3)
- Susumu Kiyoshima (1)
- Vladimir Kolesnikov (1)
- Huijia Lin (5)
- Tal Malkin (1)
- Eran Omri (1)
- Rafail Ostrovsky (3)
- Omkant Pandey (1)
- Rafael Pass (11)
- Oxana Poburinnaya (3)
- Antigoni Polychroniadou (5)
- Mariana Raykova (1)
- Amit Sahai (1)
- Alessandra Scafuro (1)
- Abhi Shelat (2)
- Wei-Lung Dustin Tseng (5)
- Vinod Vaikuntanathan (1)
- Muthuramakrishnan Venkitasubramaniam (45)
- Ivan Visconti (1)
- Mor Weiss (5)
- Wenxuan Wu (1)
- Yibin Yang (1)
- Yupeng Zhang (1)