International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Giovanni Di Crescenzo

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2015
EPRINT
2006
TCC
2006
EPRINT
Concurrently Non-Malleable Zero Knowledge in the Authenticated Public-Key Model
Yi Deng Giovanni Di Crescenzo Dongdai Lin
We consider a type of zero-knowledge protocols that are of interest for their practical applications within networks like the Internet: efficient zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge that remain secure against concurrent man-in-the-middle attacks. As negative results in the area of concurrent non-malleable zero-knowledge imply that protocols in the standard setting (i.e., under no setup assumptions) can only be given for trivial languages, researchers have studied such protocols in models with setup assumptions, such as the common reference string (CRS) model. This model assumes that a reference string is honestly created at the beginning of all interactions and later available to all parties (an assumption that is satisfied, for instance, in the presence of a trusted party). A growing area of research in Cryptography is that of reducing the setup assumptions under which certain cryptographic protocols can be realized. In an effort to reduce the setup assumptions required for efficient zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge that remain secure against concurrent man-in-the-middle attacks, we consider a model, which we call the Authenticated Public-Key (APK) model. The APK model seems to significantly reduce the setup assumptions made by the CRS model (as no trusted party or honest execution of a centralized algorithm are required), and can be seen as a slightly stronger variation of the Bare Public-Key (BPK) model from \cite{CGGM,MR}, and a weaker variation of the registered public-key model used in \cite{BCNP}. We then define and study man-in-the-middle attacks in the APK model. Our main result is a constant-round concurrent non-malleable zero-knowledge argument of knowledge for any polynomial-time relation (associated to a language in $\mathcal{NP}$), under the (minimal) assumption of the existence of a one-way function family. We also show time-efficient instantiations of our protocol, in which the transformation from a 3-round honest-verifier zero-knowledge argument of knowledge to a 4-round concurrently non-malleable zero-knowledge argument of knowledge for the same relation incurs only $\mathcal{O}(1)$ (precisely, a {\em small} constant) additional modular exponentiations, based on known number-theoretic assumptions. Furthermore, the APK model is motivated by the consideration of some man-in-the-middle attacks in models with setup assumptions that had not been considered previously and might be of independent interest. We also note a negative result with respect to further reducing the setup assumptions of our protocol to those in the (unauthenticated) BPK model, by showing that concurrently non-malleable zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge in the BPK model are only possible for trivial languages.
2004
ASIACRYPT
2004
CRYPTO
2004
EUROCRYPT
2003
EPRINT
Public Key Encryption with keyword Search
We study the problem of searching on data that is encrypted using a public key system. Consider user Bob who sends email to user Alice encrypted under Alice's public key. An email gateway wants to test whether the email contains the keyword `urgent' so that it could route the email accordingly. Alice, on the other hand does not wish to give the gateway the ability to decrypt all her messages. We define and construct a mechanism that enables Alice to provide a key to the gateway that enables the gateway to test whether the word `urgent' is a keyword in the email without learning anything else about the email. We refer to this mechanism as <I>Public Key Encryption with keyword Search</I>. As another example, consider a mail server that stores various messages publicly encrypted for Alice by others. Using our mechanism Alice can send the mail server a key that will enable the server to identify all messages containing some specific keyword, but learn nothing else. We define the concept of public key encryption with keyword search and give several constructions.
2001
CRYPTO
2001
EUROCRYPT
2001
EPRINT
Efficient and Non-Interactive Non-Malleable Commitment
Giovanni Di Crescenzo Jonathan Katz Rafail Ostrovsky Adam Smith
We present new constructions of non-malleable commitment schemes, in the public parameter model (where a trusted party makes parameters available to all parties), based on the discrete logarithm or RSA assumptions. The main features of our schemes are: they achieve near-optimal communication for arbitrarily-large messages and are non-interactive. Previous schemes either required (several rounds of) interaction or focused on achieving non-malleable commitment based on general assumptions and were thus efficient only when committing to a single bit. Although our main constructions are for the case of perfectly-hiding commitment, we also present a communication-efficient, non-interactive commitment scheme (based on general assumptions) that is perfectly binding.
2001
JOFC
2000
EUROCRYPT
1999
CRYPTO
1999
EUROCRYPT
1998
CRYPTO
1998
EPRINT
The Graph Clustering Problem has a Perfect Zero-Knowledge Proof
The input to the Graph Clustering Problem consists of a sequence of integers $m_1,...,m_t$ and a sequence of $\sum_{i=1}^{t}m_i$ graphs. The question is whether the equivalence classes, under the graph isomorphism relation, of the input graphs have sizes which match the input sequence of integers. In this note we show that this problem has a (perfect) zero-knowledge interactive proof system. This result improves over <a href="http:../1996/96-14.html">record 96-14</a>, where a parametrized (by the sequence of integers) version of the problem was studied.
1998
EPRINT
Security amplification by composition: The case of doubly-iterated, ideal ciphers
We investigate, in the Shannon model, the security of constructions corresponding to double and (two-key) triple DES. That is, we consider F<sub>k1</sub>(F<sub>k2</sub>(.)) and F<sub>k1</sub>(F<sub>k2</sub><sup>-1</sup>(F<sub>k1</sub>(.))) with the component functions being ideal ciphers. This models the resistance of these constructions to ``generic'' attacks like meet in the middle attacks. We obtain the first proof that composition actually increases the security in some meaningful sense. We compute a bound on the probability of breaking the double cipher as a function of the number of computations of the base cipher made, and the number of examples of the composed cipher seen, and show that the success probability is the square of that for a single key cipher. The same bound holds for the two-key triple cipher. The first bound is tight and shows that meet in the middle is the best possible generic attack against the double cipher.
1997
CRYPTO
1995
EUROCRYPT
1995
EUROCRYPT
1994
ASIACRYPT
1994
CRYPTO
1994
EUROCRYPT
1993
CRYPTO

Program Committees

PKC 2007
Asiacrypt 2006
PKC 2003
Crypto 2002
Asiacrypt 2002