International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Mike Rosulek

Affiliation: Oregon State University

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2019
CRYPTO
SpOT-Light: Lightweight Private Set Intersection from Sparse OT Extension
We describe a novel approach for two-party private set intersection (PSI) with semi-honest security. Compared to existing PSI protocols, ours has a more favorable balance between communication and computation. Specifically, our protocol has the lowest monetary cost of any known PSI protocol, when run over the Internet using cloud-based computing services (taking into account current rates for CPU + data). On slow networks (e.g., 10 Mbps) our protocol is actually the fastest.Our novel underlying technique is a variant of oblivious transfer (OT) extension that we call sparse OT extension. Conceptually it can be thought of as a communication-efficient multipoint oblivious PRF evaluation. Our sparse OT technique relies heavily on manipulating high-degree polynomials over large finite fields (i.e. elements whose representation requires hundreds of bits). We introduce extensive algorithmic and engineering improvements for interpolation and multi-point evaluation of such polynomials, which we believe will be of independent interest.Finally, we present an extensive empirical comparison of state-of-the-art PSI protocols in several application scenarios and along several dimensions of measurement: running time, communication, peak memory consumption, and—arguably the most relevant metric for practice—monetary cost.
2018
CRYPTO
Optimizing Authenticated Garbling for Faster Secure Two-Party Computation 📺
Wang et al. (CCS 2017) recently proposed a protocol for malicious secure two-party computation that represents the state-of-the-art with regard to concrete efficiency in both the single-execution and amortized settings, with or without preprocessing. We show here several optimizations of their protocol that result in a significant improvement in the overall communication and running time. Specifically:We show how to make the “authenticated garbling” at the heart of their protocol compatible with the half-gate optimization of Zahur et al. (Eurocrypt 2015). We also show how to avoid sending an information-theoretic MAC for each garbled row. These two optimizations give up to a 2.6$$\times $$× improvement in communication, and make the communication of the online phase essentially equivalent to that of state-of-the-art semi-honest secure computation.We show various optimizations to their protocol for generating AND triples that, overall, result in a 1.5$$\times $$× improvement in the communication and a 2$$\times $$× improvement in the computation for that step.
2018
TCC
On the Structure of Unconditional UC Hybrid Protocols
Mike Rosulek Morgan Shirley
We study the problem of secure two-party computation in the presence of a trusted setup. If there is an unconditionally UC-secure protocol for f that makes use of calls to an ideal g, then we say that freduces tog (and write $$f \sqsubseteq g$$). Some g are complete in the sense that all functions reduce to g. However, almost nothing is known about the power of an incomplete g in this setting. We shed light on this gap by showing a characterization of $$f \sqsubseteq g$$ for incomplete g.Very roughly speaking, we show that f reduces to g if and only if it does so by the simplest possible protocol: one that makes a single call to ideal g and uses no further communication. Furthermore, such simple protocols can be characterized by a natural combinatorial condition on f and g.Looking more closely, our characterization applies only to a very wide class of f, and only for protocols that are deterministic or logarithmic-round. However, we give concrete examples showing that both of these limitations are inherent to the characterization itself. Functions not covered by our characterization exhibit qualitatively different properties. Likewise, randomized, superlogarithmic-round protocols are qualitatively more powerful than deterministic or logarithmic-round ones.
2017
EUROCRYPT
2017
EUROCRYPT
2017
EUROCRYPT
2017
JOFC
2016
CRYPTO
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
TCC
2015
EUROCRYPT
2015
EUROCRYPT
2015
CRYPTO
2014
CRYPTO
2014
EPRINT
2013
TCC
2013
EUROCRYPT
2012
CRYPTO
2012
CRYPTO
2011
TCC
2010
CRYPTO
2010
EPRINT
A Zero-One Law for Deterministic 2-Party Secure Computation
We use security in the Universal Composition framework as a means to study the ``cryptographic complexity'' of 2-party secure computation tasks (functionalities). We say that a functionality $F$ {\em reduces to} another functionality $G$ if there is a UC-secure protocol for $F$ using ideal access to $G$. This reduction is a natural and fine-grained way to compare the relative complexities of cryptographic tasks. There are two natural ``extremes'' of complexity under the reduction: the {\em trivial} functionalities, which can be reduced to any other functionality; and the {\em complete} functionalities, to which any other functionality can be reduced. In this work we show that under a natural computational assumption (the existence of a protocol for oblivious transfer secure against semi-honest adversaries), there is a {\bf zero-one law} for the cryptographic complexity of 2-party deterministic functionalities. Namely, {\em every such functionality is either trivial or complete.} No other qualitative distinctions exist among functionalities, under this computational assumption. While nearly all previous work classifying multi-party computation functionalities has been restricted to the case of secure function evaluation, our results are the first to consider completeness of arbitrary {\em reactive} functionalities, which receive input and give output repeatedly throughout several rounds of interaction. One important technical contribution in this work is to initiate the comprehensive study of the cryptographic properties of reactive functionalities. We model these functionalities as finite automata and develop an automata-theoretic methodology for classifying and studying their cryptographic properties. Consequently, we completely characterize the reactive behaviors that lead to cryptographic non-triviality. Another contribution of independent interest is to optimize the hardness assumption used by Canetti et al.\ (STOC 2002) in showing that the common random string functionality is complete (a result independently obtained by Damg{\aa}rd et al.\ (TCC 2010)).
2009
TCC
2008
EPRINT
Homomorphic Encryption with CCA Security
Manoj Prabhakaran Mike Rosulek
We address the problem of constructing public-key encryption schemes that meaningfully combine useful {\em computability features} with {\em non-malleability}. In particular, we investigate schemes in which anyone can change an encryption of an unknown message $m$ into an encryption of $T(m)$ (as a {\em feature}), for a specific set of allowed functions $T$, but the scheme is ``non-malleable'' with respect to all other operations. We formulate precise definitions that capture these intuitive requirements and also show relationships among our new definitions and other more standard ones (IND-CCA, gCCA, and RCCA). We further justify our definitions by showing their equivalence to a natural formulation of security in the Universally Composable framework. We also consider extending the definitions to features which combine {\em multiple} ciphertexts, and show that a natural definition is unattainable for a useful class of features. Finally, we describe a new family of encryption schemes that satisfy our definitions for a wide variety of allowed transformations $T$, and which are secure under the standard Decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) assumption.
2008
EPRINT
Attribute-Based Signatures: Achieving Attribute-Privacy and Collusion-Resistance
We introduce a new and versatile cryptographic primitive called {\em Attribute-Based Signatures} (ABS), in which a signature attests not to the identity of the individual who endorsed a message, but instead to a (possibly complex) claim regarding the attributes she posseses. ABS offers: * A strong unforgeability guarantee for the verifier, that the signature was produced by a {\em single} party whose attributes satisfy the claim being made; i.e., not by a collusion of individuals who pooled their attributes together. * A strong privacy guarantee for the signer, that the signature reveals nothing about the identity or attributes of the signer beyond what is explicitly revealed by the claim being made. We formally define the security requirements of ABS as a cryptographic primitive, and then describe an efficient ABS construction based on groups with bilinear pairings. We prove that our construction is secure in the generic group model. Finally, we illustrate several applications of this new tool; in particular, ABS fills a critical security requirement in attribute-based messaging (ABM) systems. A powerful feature of our ABS construction is that unlike many other attribute-based cryptographic primitives, it can be readily used in a {\em multi-authority} setting, wherein users can make claims involving combinations of attributes issued by independent and mutually distrusting authorities.
2008
EPRINT
Complexity of Multiparty Computation Problems: The Case of 2-Party Symmetric Secure Function Evaluation
In symmetric secure function evaluation (SSFE), Alice has an input $x$, Bob has an input $y$, and both parties wish to securely compute $f(x,y)$. We classify these functions $f$ according to their ``cryptographic complexities,'' and show that the landscape of complexity among these functions is surprisingly rich. We give combinatorial characterizations of the SSFE functions $f$ that have passive-secure protocols, and those which are protocols secure in the standalone setting. With respect to universally composable security (for unbounded parties), we show that there is an infinite hierarchy of increasing complexity for SSFE functions, That is, we describe a family of SSFE functions $f_1, f_2, \ldots$ such that there exists a UC-secure protocol for $f_i$ in the $f_j$-hybrid world if and only if $i \le j$. Our main technical tool for deriving complexity separations is a powerful protocol simulation theorem which states that, even in the strict setting of UC security, the canonical protocol for $f$ is as secure as any other protocol for $f$, as long as $f$ satisfies a certain combinatorial characterization. We can then show intuitively clear impossibility results by establishing the combinatorial properties of $f$ and then describing attacks against the very simple canonical protocols, which by extension are also feasible attacks against {\em any} protocol for the same functionality.
2008
ASIACRYPT
2008
CRYPTO
2007
CRYPTO
2007
EPRINT
Rerandomizable RCCA Encryption
Manoj Prabhakaran Mike Rosulek
We give the first perfectly rerandomizable, Replayable-CCA (RCCA) secure encryption scheme, positively answering an open problem of Canetti et al. [CRYPTO 2003]. Our encryption scheme, which we call the Double-strand Cramer-Shoup scheme, is a non-trivial extension of the popular Cramer-Shoup encryption. Its security is based on the standard DDH assumption. To justify our definitions, we define a powerful "Replayable Message Posting" functionality in the Universally Composable (UC) framework, and show that any encryption scheme that satisfies our definitions of rerandomizability and RCCA security is a UC-secure implementation of this functionality. Finally, we enhance the notion of rerandomizable RCCA security by adding a receiver-anonymity (or key-privacy) requirement, and show that it results in a correspondingly enhanced UC functionality. We leave open the problem of constructing a scheme that achieves this enhancement.

Program Committees

Crypto 2018
Eurocrypt 2018
TCC 2018
Crypto 2016
Eurocrypt 2014
TCC 2014
TCC 2012
PKC 2011