Truncated Boomerang Attacks and Application to AES-based Ciphers
The boomerang attack is a cryptanalysis technique that combines two short differentials instead of using a single long differential. It has been applied to many primitives, and results in the best known attacks against several AES-based ciphers (Kiasu-BC, Deoxys-BC). In this paper, we introduce a general framework for boomerang attacks with truncated differentials. We show that the use of truncated differentials provides a significant improvement over the best boomerang attacks in the literature. In particular, we take into account structures on the plaintext and ciphertext sides, and include an analysis of the key recovery step. On 6-round AES, we obtain a competitive structural distinguisher with complexity 2^87 and a key recovery attack with complexity 2^61. The truncated boomerang attack is particularly effective against tweakable AES variants. We apply it to 8-round Kiasu-BC, resulting in the best known attack with complexity 2^83 (rather than 2^103). We also show an interesting use of the 6-round distinguisher on the full TNT-AES, a tweakable block-cipher using 6-round AES as a building block. Finally, we apply this framework to Deoxys-BC, using a MILP model to find optimal trails automatically. We obtain the best attacks against round-reduced versions of all variants of Deoxys-BC.
Algebraic Attacks against Some Arithmetization-Oriented Primitives
Recent advanced Zero-Knowledge protocols, along with other high-level constructions such as Multi-Party Computations (MPC), have highlighted the need for a new type of symmetric primitives that are not optimized for speed on the usual platforms (desktop computers, servers, microcontrollers, RFID tags...), but for their ability to be implemented using arithmetic circuits.Several primitives have already been proposed to satisfy this need. In order to enable an efficient arithmetization, they operate over large finite fields, and use round functions that can be modelled using low degree equations. The impact of these properties on their security remains to be completely assessed. In particular, algebraic attacks relying on polynomial root-finding become extremely relevant. Such attacks work by writing the cryptanalysis as systems of polynomial equations over the large field, and solving them with off-the-shelf tools (SageMath, NTL, Magma, . . . ).The need for further analysis of these new designs has been recently highlighted by the Ethereum Foundation, as it issued bounties for successful attacks against round-reduced versions of several of them.In this paper, we show that the security analysis performed by the designers (or challenge authors) of four such primitives is too optimistic, and that it is possible to improve algebraic attacks using insights gathered from a careful study of the round function.First, we show that univariate polynomial root-finding can be of great relevance n practice, as it allows us to solve many of the Ethereum Foundation’s challenges on Feistel–MiMC. Second, we introduce a trick to essentially shave off two full rounds at little to no cost for Substitution-Permutation Networks (SPN). This can be combined with univariate (resp. multivariate) root-finding, which allowed to solve some challenges for Poseidon (resp. Rescue–Prime). Finally, we also find an alternative way to set up a system of equations to attack Ciminion, leading to much faster attacks than expected by the designers.
Cryptanalysis of Forkciphers 📺
The forkcipher framework was designed in 2018 by Andreeva et al. for authenticated encryption of short messages. Two dedicated ciphers were proposed in this framework: ForkAES based on the AES (and its tweakable variant Kiasu-BC), and ForkSkinny based on Skinny. The main motivation is that the forked ciphers should keep the same security as the underlying ciphers, but offer better performances thanks to the larger output. Recent cryptanalysis results at ACNS ’19 have shown that ForkAES actually offers a reduced security margin compared to the AES with an 8-round attack, and this was taken into account in the design of ForkSkinny.In this paper, we present new cryptanalysis results on forkciphers. First we improve the previous attack on ForkAES in order to attack the full 10 rounds. This is the first attack challenging the security of full ForkAES. Then we present the first analysis of ForkSkinny, showing that the best attacks on Skinny can be extended to one round for most ForkSkinny variants, and up to three rounds for ForkSkinny-128-256. This allows to evaluate the security degradation between ForkSkinny and the underlying block cipher.Our analysis shows that all components of a forkcipher must be carefully designed: the attack against ForkAES uses the weak diffusion of the middle rounds in reconstruction queries (going from one ciphertext to the other), but the attack against ForkSkinny uses a weakness of the tweakey schedule in encryption queries (when one branch of the tweakey schedule is skipped).