## CryptoDB

### Xavier Bonnetain

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

CRYPTO

Improving Generic Attacks Using Exceptional Functions
Abstract

Over the past ten years, there have been many attacks on symmetric constructions using the statistical properties of random functions. Initially, these attacks targeted iterated hash constructions and their combiners, developing a wide array of methods based on internal collisions and on the average behavior of iterated random functions. More recently, Gilbert et al. (EUROCRYPT 2023) introduced a forgery attack on so called duplex-based Authenticated Encryption modes which was based on exceptional random functions, i.e., functions whose graph admits a large component with an exceptionally small cycle.
In this paper, we expand the use of such functions in generic cryptanalysis with several new attacks. First, we improve the attack of Gilbert et al. from O(2^{3c/4}) to O(2^{2c/3}), where c is the capacity. This new attack uses a nested pair of functions with exceptional behavior, where the second function is defined over the cycle of the first one. Next, we introduce several new generic attacks against hash combiners, notably using small cycles to improve the complexities of the best existing attacks on the XOR combiner, Zipper Hash and Hash-Twice.
Last but not least, we propose the first quantum second preimage attack against Hash-Twice, reaching a quantum complexity O(2^{3n/7}).

2024

CRYPTO

Quantum Lattice Enumeration in Limited Depth
Abstract

In 2018, Aono et al. (ASIACRYPT 2018) proposed to use quantum backtracking algorithms (Montanaro, TOC 2018; Ambainis and Kokainis, STOC 2017) to speedup lattice point enumeration. Quantum lattice sieving algorithms had already been proposed (Laarhoven et al., PQCRYPTO 2013), being shown to provide an asymptotic speedup over classical counterparts, but also to lose competitiveness at dimensions relevant to cryptography if practical considerations on quantum computer architecture were taken into account (Albrecht et al., ASIACRYPT 2020). Aono et al.'s work argued that quantum walk speedups can be applied to lattice enumeration, achieving at least a quadratic asymptotic speedup à la Grover search while not requiring exponential amounts of quantum accessible classical memory, as it is the case for sieving. In this work, we explore how to lower bound the cost of using Aono et al.'s techniques on lattice enumeration with extreme cylinder pruning, assuming a limit to the maximum depth that a quantum computation can achieve without decohering, with the objective of better understanding the practical applicability of quantum backtracking in lattice cryptanalysis.

2024

TOSC

On Impossible Boomerang Attacks: Application to Simon and SKINNYee
Abstract

The impossible boomerang attack, introduced in 2008 by Jiqiang Lu, is an extension of the impossible differential attack that relies on a boomerang distinguisher of probability 0 for discarding incorrect key guesses. In Lu’s work, the considered impossible boomerang distinguishers were built from 4 (different) probability-1 differentials that lead to 4 differences that do not sum to 0 in the middle, in a miss-in-the-middle way.In this article, we study the possibility of extending this notion by looking at finerlevel contradictions that derive from boomerang switch constraints. We start by discussing the case of quadratic Feistel ciphers and in particular of the Simon ciphers. We exploit their very specific boomerang constraints to enforce a contradiction that creates a new type of impossible boomerang distinguisher that we search with an SMT solver. We next switch to word-oriented ciphers and study how to leverage the Boomerang Connectivity Table contradictions. We apply this idea to SKINNYee, a recent tweakable block cipher proposed at Crypto 2022 and obtain a 21-round distinguisher.After detailing the process and the complexities of an impossible boomerang attack in the single (twea)key and related (twea)key model, we extend our distinguishers into attacks and present a 23-round impossible boomerang attack on Simon-32/64 (out of 32 rounds) and a 29-round impossible boomerang attack on SKINNYee (out of 56 rounds). To the best of our knowledge our analysis covers two more rounds than the (so far, only) other third-party analysis of SKINNYee that has been published to date.

2024

TOSC

Single-Query Quantum Hidden Shift Attacks
Abstract

Quantum attacks using superposition queries are known to break many classically secure modes of operation. While these attacks do not necessarily threaten the security of the modes themselves, since they rely on a strong adversary model, they help us to draw limits on their provable security.Typically these attacks use the structure of the mode (stream cipher, MAC or authenticated encryption scheme) to embed a period-finding problem, which can be solved with a dedicated quantum algorithm. The hidden period can be recovered with a few superposition queries (e.g., O(n) for Simon’s algorithm), leading to state or key-recovery attacks. However, this strategy breaks down if the period changes at each query, e.g., if it depends on a nonce.In this paper, we focus on this case and give dedicated state-recovery attacks on the authenticated encryption schemes Rocca, Rocca-S, Tiaoxin-346 and AEGIS- 128L. These attacks rely on a procedure to find a Boolean hidden shift with a single superposition query, which overcomes the change of nonce at each query. This approach has the drawback of a lower success probability, meaning multiple independent (and parallelizable) runs are needed.We stress that these attacks do not break any security claim of the authors, and do not threaten the schemes if the adversary only makes classical queries.

2023

EUROCRYPT

Finding many Collisions via Reusable Quantum Walks - Application to Lattice Sieving
Abstract

Given a random function $f$ with domain $[2^n]$ and codomain $[2^m]$, with $m \geq n$, a collision of $f$ is a pair of distinct inputs with the same image. Collision finding is an ubiquitous problem in cryptanalysis, and it has been well studied using both classical and quantum algorithms. Indeed, the quantum query complexity of the problem is well known to be $\Theta(2^{m/3})$, and matching algorithms are known for any value of $m$.
The situation becomes different when one is looking for \emph{multiple} collision pairs. Here, for $2^k$ collisions, a query lower bound of $\Theta(2^{(2k+m)/3})$ was shown by Liu and Zhandry (EUROCRYPT~2019). A matching algorithm is known, but only for relatively small values of $m$, when many collisions exist. In this paper, we improve the algorithms for this problem and, in particular, extend the range of admissible parameters where the lower bound is met.
Our new method relies on a \emph{chained quantum walk} algorithm, which might be of independent interest. It allows to extract multiple solutions of an MNRS-style quantum walk, without having to recompute it entirely: after finding and outputting a solution, the current state is reused as the initial state of another walk.
As an application, we improve the quantum sieving algorithms for the shortest vector problem (SVP), with a complexity of $2^{0.2563d + o(d)}$ instead of the previous $2^{0.2570d + o(d)}$.

2023

TOSC

On Boomerang Attacks on Quadratic Feistel Ciphers: New results on KATAN and Simon
Abstract

The recent introduction of the Boomerang Connectivity Table (BCT) at Eurocrypt 2018 revived interest in boomerang cryptanalysis and in the need to correctly build boomerang distinguishers. Several important advances have been made on this matter, with in particular the study of the extension of the BCT theory to multiple rounds and to different types of ciphers.In this paper, we pursue these investigations by studying the specific case of quadratic Feistel ciphers, motivated by the need to look at two particularly lightweight ciphers, KATAN and Simon. Our analysis shows that their light round function leads to an extreme case, as a one-round boomerang can only have a probability of 0 or 1. We identify six papers presenting boomerang analyses of KATAN or Simon and all use the naive approach to compute the distinguisher’s probability. We are able to prove that several results are theoretically incorrect and we run experiments to check the probability of the others. Many do not have the claimed probability: it fails distinguishing in some cases, but we also identify instances where the experimental probability turns out to be better than the claimed one.To address this shortfall, we propose an SMT model taking into account the boomerang constraints. We present several experimentally-verified related-key distinguishers obtained with our new technique: on KATAN32 a 151-round boomerang and on Simon-32/64 a 17-round boomerang, a 19-round rotational-xor boomerang and a 15-round rotational-xor-differential boomerang.Furthermore, we extend our 19-round distinguisher into a 25-round rotational-xor rectangle attack on Simon-32/64. To the best of our knowledge this attack reaches one more round than previously published results.

2022

TCHES

Quantum Period Finding against Symmetric Primitives in Practice
Abstract

We present the first complete descriptions of quantum circuits for the offline Simon’s algorithm, and estimate their cost to attack the MAC Chaskey, the block cipher PRINCE and the NIST lightweight finalist AEAD scheme Elephant. These attacks require a reasonable amount of qubits, comparable to the number of qubits required to break RSA-2048. They are faster than other collision algorithms, and the attacks against PRINCE and Chaskey are the most efficient known to date. As Elephant has a key smaller than its state size, the algorithm is less efficient and its cost ends up very close to or above the cost of exhaustive search.We also propose an optimized quantum circuit for boolean linear algebra as well as complete reversible implementations of PRINCE, Chaskey, spongent and Keccak which are of independent interest for quantum cryptanalysis. We stress that our attacks could be applied in the future against today’s communications, and recommend caution when choosing symmetric constructions for cases where long-term security is expected.

2022

EUROCRYPT

Beyond quadratic speedups in quantum attacks on symmetric schemes
📺
Abstract

In this paper, we report the first quantum key-recovery attack on a symmetric block cipher design, using classical queries only, with a more than quadratic time speedup compared to the best classical attack.
We study the 2XOR-Cascade construction of Ga{\v{z}}i and Tessaro (EUROCRYPT~2012). It is a key length extension technique which provides an n-bit block cipher with 5n/2 bits of security out of an n-bit block cipher with 2n bits of key, with a security proof in the ideal model. We show that the offline-Simon algorithm of Bonnetain et al. (ASIACRYPT~2019) can be extended to, in particular, attack this construction in quantum time $\widetilde{\mathcal{O}}{2^n}$, providing a 2.5 quantum speedup over the best classical attack.
Regarding post-quantum security of symmetric ciphers, it is commonly assumed that doubling the key sizes is a sufficient precaution. This is because Grover's quantum search algorithm, and its derivatives, can only reach a quadratic speedup at most. Our attack shows that the structure of some symmetric constructions can be exploited to overcome this limit. In particular, the 2XOR-Cascade cannot be used to generically strengthen block ciphers against quantum adversaries, as it would offer only the same security as the block cipher itself.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Quantum Linearization Attacks
📺
Abstract

Recent works have shown that quantum period-finding can be used to break many popular constructions (some block ciphers such as Even-Mansour, multiple MACs and AEs...) in the superposition query model. So far, all the constructions broken exhibited a strong algebraic structure, which enables to craft a periodic function of a single input block. The recovery of the secret period allows to recover a key, distinguish, break the confidentiality or authenticity of these modes.
In this paper, we introduce the \emph{quantum linearization attack}, a new way of using Simon's algorithm to target MACs in the superposition query model. Specifically, we use inputs of multiple blocks as an interface to a function hiding a linear structure. The recovery of this structure allows to perform forgeries.
We also present some variants of this attack that use other quantum algorithms, which are much less common in quantum symmetric cryptanalysis: Deutsch's, Bernstein-Vazirani's, and Shor's. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these algorithms have been used in quantum forgery or key-recovery attacks.
Our attack breaks many parallelizable MACs such as {\sf LightMac}, {\sf PMAC}, and numerous variants with (classical) beyond-birthday-bound security ({\sf LightMAC+}, {\sf PMAC+}) or using tweakable block ciphers ({\sf ZMAC}). More generally, it shows that constructing parallelizable quantum-secure PRFs might be a challenging task.

2021

ASIACRYPT

QCB: Efficient Quantum-secure Authenticated Encryption
📺
Abstract

It was long thought that symmetric cryptography was only mildly affected by quantum attacks, and that doubling the key length was sufficient to restore security. However, recent works have shown that Simon's quantum period finding algorithm breaks a large number of MAC and authenticated encryption algorithms when the adversary can query the MAC/encryption oracle with a quantum superposition of messages. In particular, the OCB authenticated encryption mode is broken in this setting, and no quantum-secure mode is known with the same efficiency (rate-one and parallelizable).
In this paper we generalize the previous attacks, show that a large class of OCB-like schemes is unsafe against superposition queries, and discuss the quantum security notions for authenticated encryption modes. We propose a new rate-one parallelizable mode named QCB inspired by TAE and OCB and prove its security against quantum superposition queries.

2020

EUROCRYPT

Quantum Security Analysis of CSIDH
📺
Abstract

CSIDH is a recent proposal for post-quantum non-interactive key-exchange, based on supersingular elliptic curve isogenies. It is similar in design to a previous scheme by Couveignes, Rostovtsev and Stolbunov, but aims at an improved balance between efficiency and security.
In the proposal, the authors suggest concrete parameters in order to meet some desired levels of quantum security. These parameters are based on the hardness of recovering a hidden isogeny between two elliptic curves, using a quantum subexponential algorithm of Childs, Jao and Soukharev. This algorithm combines two building blocks: first, a quantum algorithm for recovering a hidden shift in a commutative group. Second, a computation in superposition of all isogenies originating from a given curve, which the algorithm calls as a black box.
In this paper, we give a comprehensive security analysis of CSIDH. Our first step is to revisit three quantum algorithms for the abelian hidden shift problem from the perspective of non-asymptotic cost, with trade-offs between their quantum and classical complexities. Second, we complete the non-asymptotic study of the black box in the hidden shift algorithm. We give a quantum procedure that evaluates CSIDH-512 using less than 40~000 logical qubits.
This allows us to show that the parameters proposed by the authors of CSIDH do not meet their expected quantum security.

2020

ASIACRYPT

Improved Classical and Quantum Algorithms for Subset-Sum
📺
Abstract

We present new classical and quantum algorithms for solving random subset-sum instances. First, we improve over the Becker-Coron-Joux algorithm (EUROCRYPT 2011) from $\widetilde{O}(2^{0.291 n})$ down to $\widetilde{O}(2^{0.283 n})$, using more general representations with values in $\{0,1,-1,2\}$.
Next, we improve the state of the art of quantum algorithms for this problem in several directions. By combining the Howgrave-Graham-Joux algorithm (EUROCRYPT 2010) and quantum search, we devise an algorithm with asymptotic cost $\widetilde{O}(2^{0.236 n})$, lower than the cost of the quantum walk based on the same classical algorithm proposed by Bernstein, Jeffery, Lange and Meurer (PQCRYPTO 2013). This algorithm has the advantage of using \emph{classical} memory with quantum random access, while the previously known algorithms used the quantum walk framework, and required \emph{quantum} memory with quantum random access.
We also propose new quantum walks for subset-sum, performing better than the previous best time complexity of $\widetilde{O}(2^{0.226 n})$ given by Helm and May (TQC 2018). We combine our new techniques to reach a time $\widetilde{O}(2^{0.216 n})$. This time is dependent on a heuristic on quantum walk updates, formalized by Helm and May, that is also required by the previous algorithms. We show how to partially overcome this heuristic, and we obtain an algorithm with quantum time $\widetilde{O}(2^{0.218 n})$ requiring only the standard classical subset-sum heuristics.

2019

TOSC

Quantum Security Analysis of AES
📺
Abstract

In this paper we analyze for the first time the post-quantum security of AES. AES is the most popular and widely used block cipher, established as the encryption standard by the NIST in 2001. We consider the secret key setting and, in particular, AES-256, the recommended primitive and one of the few existing ones that aims at providing a post-quantum security of 128 bits. In order to determine the new security margin, i.e., the lowest number of non-attacked rounds in time less than 2128 encryptions, we first provide generalized and quantized versions of the best known cryptanalysis on reduced-round AES, as well as a discussion on attacks that don’t seem to benefit from a significant quantum speed-up. We propose a new framework for structured search that encompasses both the classical and quantum attacks we present, and allows to efficiently compute their complexity. We believe this framework will be useful for future analysis.Our best attack is a quantum Demirci-Selçuk meet-in-the-middle attack. Unexpectedly, using the ideas underlying its design principle also enables us to obtain new, counter-intuitive classical TMD trade-offs. In particular, we can reduce the memory in some attacks against AES-256 and AES-128.One of the building blocks of our attacks is solving efficiently the AES S-Box differential equation, with respect to the quantum cost of a reversible S-Box. We believe that this generic quantum tool will be useful for future quantum differential attacks. Judging by the results obtained so far, AES seems a resistant primitive in the post-quantum world as well as in the classical one, with a bigger security margin with respect to quantum generic attacks.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Anomalies and Vector Space Search: Tools for S-Box Analysis
Abstract

S-boxes are functions with an input so small that the simplest way to specify them is their lookup table (LUT). How can we quantify the distance between the behavior of a given S-box and that of an S-box picked uniformly at random?To answer this question, we introduce various “anomalies”. These real numbers are such that a property with an anomaly equal to a should be found roughly once in a set of $$2^{a}$$ random S-boxes. First, we present statistical anomalies based on the distribution of the coefficients in the difference distribution table, linear approximation table, and for the first time, the boomerang connectivity table.We then count the number of S-boxes that have block-cipher like structures to estimate the anomaly associated to those. In order to recover these structures, we show that the most general tool for decomposing S-boxes is an algorithm efficiently listing all the vector spaces of a given dimension contained in a given set, and we present such an algorithm.Combining these approaches, we conclude that all permutations that are actually picked uniformly at random always have essentially the same cryptographic properties and the same lack of structure.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Quantum Attacks Without Superposition Queries: The Offline Simon’s Algorithm
Abstract

In symmetric cryptanalysis, the model of superposition queries has led to surprising results, with many constructions being broken in polynomial time thanks to Simon’s period-finding algorithm. But the practical implications of these attacks remain blurry. In contrast, the results obtained so far for a quantum adversary making classical queries only are less impressive.In this paper, we introduce a new quantum algorithm which uses Simon’s subroutines in a novel way. We manage to leverage the algebraic structure of cryptosystems in the context of a quantum attacker limited to classical queries and offline quantum computations. We obtain improved quantum-time/classical-data tradeoffs with respect to the current literature, while using only as much hardware requirements (quantum and classical) as a standard exhaustive search with Grover’s algorithm. In particular, we are able to break the Even-Mansour construction in quantum time $$\tilde{O}(2^{n/3})$$, with $$O(2^{n/3})$$ classical queries and $$O(n^2)$$ qubits only. In addition, we improve some previous superposition attacks by reducing the data complexity from exponential to polynomial, with the same time complexity.Our approach can be seen in two complementary ways: reusing superposition queries during the iteration of a search using Grover’s algorithm, or alternatively, removing the memory requirement in some quantum attacks based on a collision search, thanks to their algebraic structure.We provide a list of cryptographic applications, including the Even-Mansour construction, the FX construction, some Sponge authenticated modes of encryption, and many more.

2018

ASIACRYPT

Hidden Shift Quantum Cryptanalysis and Implications
Abstract

At Eurocrypt 2017 a tweak to counter Simon’s quantum attack was proposed: replace the common bitwise addition with other operations, as a modular addition. The starting point of our paper is a follow up of these previous results:First, we have developed new algorithms that improves and generalizes Kuperberg’s algorithm for the hidden shift problem, which is the algorithm that applies instead of Simon when considering modular additions. Thanks to our improved algorithm, we have been able to build a quantum attack in the superposition model on Poly1305, proposed at FSE 2005, widely used and claimed to be quantumly secure. We also answer an open problem by analyzing the effect of the tweak to the FX construction.We have also generalized the algorithm. We propose for the first time a quantum algorithm for solving the hidden problem with parallel modular additions, with a complexity that matches both Simon and Kuperberg in its extremes.In order to verify our theoretical analysis, and to get concrete estimates of the cost of the algorithms, we have simulated them, and were able to validate our estimated complexities.Finally, we analyze the security of some classical symmetric constructions with concrete parameters, to evaluate the impact and practicality of the proposed tweak. We concluded that the tweak does not seem to be efficient.

#### Program Committees

- Eurocrypt 2023
- FSE 2023
- FSE 2022
- CHES 2022
- Crypto 2021
- Asiacrypt 2021

#### Coauthors

- Ritam Bhaumik (1)
- Nina Bindel (1)
- Xavier Bonnetain (16)
- Rémi Bricout (1)
- André Chailloux (2)
- Margarita Cordero (1)
- Rachelle Heim Boissier (1)
- Akinori Hosoyamada (1)
- Samuel Jaques (1)
- Virginie Lallemand (2)
- Gaëtan Leurent (3)
- Marine Minier (1)
- María Naya-Plasencia (6)
- Léo Perrin (1)
- Yu Sasaki (1)
- André Schrottenloher (10)
- Yannick Seurin (1)
- Yixin Shen (2)
- Ferdinand Sibleyras (1)
- Shizhu Tian (1)
- Marcel Tiepelt (1)
- Fernando Virdia (1)