International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Tim Beyne

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2022
TCHES
Cryptanalysis of Efficient Masked Ciphers: Applications to Low Latency
This work introduces second-order masked implementations of LED, Midori, SKINNY, and PRINCE ciphers which do not require fresh masks to be updated at every clock cycle. The main idea lies on a combination of the constructions given by Shahmirzadi and Moradi at CHES2021, and the theory presented by Beyne et al. at Asiacrypt2020. The presented masked designs only use a minimal number of shares, i.e., three to achieve second-order security, and we make use of a trick to pair a couple of S-boxes to reduce their latency. The theoretical security analyses of our constructions are based on the linear-cryptanalytic properties of the underlying masked primitive as well as SILVER, the leakage verification tool presented at Asiacrypt2020. To improve this cryptanalytic analysis, we use the noisy probing model which allows for the inclusion of noise in the framework of Beyne et al. We further provide FPGA-based experimental security analysis confirming second-order protection of our masked implementations.
2021
CRYPTO
Linear Cryptanalysis of FF3-1 and FEA 📺
Tim Beyne
Improved attacks on generic small-domain Feistel ciphers with alternating round tweaks are obtained using linear cryptanalysis. This results in practical distinguishing and message-recovery attacks on the United States format-preserving encryption standard FF3-1 and the South-Korean standards FEA-1 and FEA-2. The data-complexity of the proposed attacks on FF3-1 and FEA-1 is $O(N^{r/2 - 1.5})$, where $N^2$ is the domain size and $r$ is the number of rounds. For example, FF3-1 with $N = 10^3$ can be distinguished from an ideal tweakable block cipher with advantage $\ge 1/10$ using $2^{23}$ encryption queries. Recovering the left half of a message with similar advantage requires $2^{24}$ data. The analysis of FF3-1 serves as an interesting real-world application of (generalized) linear cryptanalysis over the group $\mathbb{Z}/N\mathbb{Z}$.
2021
ASIACRYPT
A Geometric Approach to Linear Cryptanalysis
Tim Beyne
A new interpretation of linear cryptanalysis is proposed. This 'geometric approach' unifies all common variants of linear cryptanalysis, reveals links between various properties, and suggests additional generalizations. For example, new insights into invariants corresponding to non-real eigenvalues of correlation matrices and a generalization of the link between zero-correlation and integral attacks are obtained. Geometric intuition leads to a fixed-key motivation for the piling-up principle, which is illustrated by explaining and generalizing previous results relating invariants and linear approximations. Rank-one approximations are proposed to analyze cell-oriented ciphers, and used to resolve an open problem posed by Beierle, Canteaut and Leander at FSE 2019. In particular, it is shown how such approximations can be analyzed automatically using Riemannian optimization.
2020
JOFC
Block Cipher Invariants as Eigenvectors of Correlation Matrices
Tim Beyne
A new approach to invariant subspaces and nonlinear invariants is developed. This results in both theoretical insights and practical attacks on block ciphers. It is shown that, with minor modifications to some of the round constants, Midori-64 has a nonlinear invariant with $$2^{96} + 2^{64}$$ 2 96 + 2 64 corresponding weak keys. Furthermore, this invariant corresponds to a linear hull with maximal correlation. By combining the new invariant with integral cryptanalysis, a practical key-recovery attack on ten rounds of unmodified Midori-64 is obtained. The attack works for $$2^{96}$$ 2 96 weak keys and irrespective of the choice of round constants. The data complexity is $$1.25 \cdot 2^{21}$$ 1.25 · 2 21 chosen plaintexts, and the computational cost is dominated by $$2^{56}$$ 2 56 block cipher calls. The validity of the attack is verified by means of experiments.
2020
JOFC
Revisiting the Wrong-Key-Randomization Hypothesis
Linear cryptanalysis is considered to be one of the strongest techniques in the cryptanalyst’s arsenal. In most cases, Matsui’s Algorithm 2 is used for the key recovery part of the attack. The success rate analysis of this algorithm is based on an assumption regarding the bias of a linear approximation for a wrong key, known as the wrong-key-randomization hypothesis. This hypothesis was refined by Bogdanov and Tischhauser to take into account the stochastic nature of the bias for a wrong key. We provide further refinements to the analysis of Matsui’s Algorithm 2 by considering sampling without replacement. This paper derives the distribution of the observed bias for wrong keys when sampling is done without replacement and shows that less data are required in this scenario. It also develops formulas for the success probability and the required data complexity when this approach is taken. The formulas predict that the success probability may reach a peak and then decrease as more pairs are considered. We provide a new explanation for this behavior and derive the conditions for encountering it. We empirically verify our results and compare them to previous work.
2020
TOSC
Cryptanalysis of the Legendre PRF and Generalizations 📺
The Legendre PRF relies on the conjectured pseudorandomness properties of the Legendre symbol with a hidden shift. Originally proposed as a PRG by Damgård at CRYPTO 1988, it was recently suggested as an efficient PRF for multiparty computation purposes by Grassi et al. at CCS 2016. Moreover, the Legendre PRF is being considered for usage in the Ethereum 2.0 blockchain.This paper improves previous attacks on the Legendre PRF and its higher-degree variant due to Khovratovich by reducing the time complexity from O(< (p log p/M) to O(p log2 p/M2) Legendre symbol evaluations when M ≤ 4√ p log2 p queries are available. The practical relevance of our improved attack is demonstrated by breaking three concrete instances of the PRF proposed by the Ethereum foundation. Furthermore, we generalize our attack in a nontrivial way to the higher-degree variant of the Legendre PRF and we point out a large class of weak keys for this construction. Lastly, we provide the first security analysis of two additional generalizations of the Legendre PRF originally proposed by Damgård in the PRG setting, namely the Jacobi PRF and the power residue PRF.
2020
CRYPTO
Out of Oddity -- New Cryptanalytic Techniques against Symmetric Primitives Optimized for Integrity Proof Systems 📺
The security and performance of many integrity proof systems like SNARKs, STARKs and Bulletproofs highly depend on the underlying hash function. For this reason several new proposals have recently been developed. These primitives obviously require an in-depth security evaluation, especially since their implementation constraints have led to less standard design approaches. This work compares the security levels offered by two recent families of such primitives, namely GMiMC and HadesMiMC. We exhibit low-complexity distinguishers against the GMiMC and HadesMiMC permutations for most parameters proposed in recently launched public challenges for STARK-friendly hash functions. In the more concrete setting of the sponge construction corresponding to the practical use in the ZK-STARK protocol, we present a practical collision attack on a round-reduced version of GMiMC and a preimage attack on some instances of HadesMiMC. To achieve those results, we adapt and generalize several cryptographic techniques to fields of odd characteristic.
2020
TOSC
Dumbo, Jumbo, and Delirium: Parallel Authenticated Encryption for the Lightweight Circus 📺
With the trend to connect more and more devices to the Internet, authenticated encryption has become a major backbone in securing the communication, not only between these devices and servers, but also the direct communication among these devices. Most authenticated encryption algorithms used in practice are developed to perform well on modern high-end devices, but are not necessarily suited for usage on resource-constrained devices. We present a lightweight authenticated encryption scheme, called Elephant. Elephant retains the advantages of GCM such as parallelism, but is tailored to the needs of resource-constrained devices. The two smallest instances of Elephant, Dumbo and Jumbo, are based on the 160-bit and 176-bit Spongent permutation, respectively, and are particularly suited for hardware; the largest instance of Elephant, Delirium, is based on 200-bit Keccak and is developed towards software use. All three instances are parallelizable, have a small state size while achieving a high level of security, and are constant time by design.
2020
ASIACRYPT
Cryptanalysis of Masked Ciphers: A not so Random Idea 📺
A new approach to the security analysis of hardware-oriented masked ciphers against second-order side-channel attacks is developed. By relying on techniques from symmetric-key cryptanalysis, concrete security bounds are obtained in a variant of the probing model that allows the adversary to make only a bounded, but possibly very large, number of measurements. Specifically, it is formally shown how a bounded-query variant of robust probing security can be reduced to the linear cryptanalysis of masked ciphers. As a result, the compositional issues of higher-order threshold implementations can be overcome without relying on fresh randomness. From a practical point of view, the aforementioned approach makes it possible to transfer many of the desirable properties of first-order threshold implementations, such as their low randomness usage, to the second-order setting. For example, a straightforward application to the block cipher LED results in a masking using less than 700 random bits including the initial sharing. In addition, the cryptanalytic approach introduced in this paper provides additional insight into the design of masked ciphers and allows for a quantifiable trade-off between security and performance.
2018
ASIACRYPT
Block Cipher Invariants as Eigenvectors of Correlation Matrices
Tim Beyne
A new approach to invariant subspaces and nonlinear invariants is developed. This results in both theoretical insights and practical attacks on block ciphers. It is shown that, with minor modifications to some of the round constants, Midori-64 has a nonlinear invariant with $$2^{96}$$ corresponding weak keys. Furthermore, this invariant corresponds to a linear hull with maximal correlation. By combining the new invariant with integral cryptanalysis, a practical key-recovery attack on 10 rounds of unmodified Midori-64 is obtained. The attack works for $$2^{96}$$ weak keys and irrespective of the choice of round constants. The data complexity is $$1.25 \cdot 2^{21}$$ chosen plaintexts and the computational cost is dominated by $$2^{56}$$ block cipher calls. Finally, it is shown that similar techniques lead to a practical key-recovery attack on MANTIS-4. The full key is recovered using 640 chosen plaintexts and the attack requires about $$2^{56}$$ block cipher calls.