International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


André Schrottenloher


Optimal Merging in Quantum $k$-xor and $k$-sum Algorithms 📺
María Naya-Plasencia André Schrottenloher
The $k$-xor or Generalized Birthday Problem aims at finding, given $k$ lists of bit-strings, a $k$-tuple among them XORing to 0. If the lists are unbounded, the best classical (exponential) time complexity has withstood since Wagner's CRYPTO 2002 paper. If the lists are bounded (of the same size) and such that there is a single solution, the \emph{dissection algorithms} of Dinur \emph{et al.} (CRYPTO 2012) improve the memory usage over a simple meet-in-the-middle. In this paper, we study quantum algorithms for the $k$-xor problem. With unbounded lists and quantum access, we improve previous work by Grassi \emph{et al.} (ASIACRYPT 2018) for almost all $k$. Next, we extend our study to lists of any size and with classical access only. We define a set of ``merging trees'' which represent the best known strategies for quantum and classical merging in $k$-xor algorithms, and prove that our method is optimal among these. Our complexities are confirmed by a Mixed Integer Linear Program that computes the best strategy for a given $k$-xor problem. All our algorithms apply also when considering modular additions instead of bitwise xors. This framework enables us to give new improved quantum $k$-xor algorithms for all $k$ and list sizes. Applications include the subset-sum problem, LPN with limited memory and the multiple-encryption problem.
Quantum Security Analysis of CSIDH 📺
Xavier Bonnetain André Schrottenloher
CSIDH is a recent proposal for post-quantum non-interactive key-exchange, based on supersingular elliptic curve isogenies. It is similar in design to a previous scheme by Couveignes, Rostovtsev and Stolbunov, but aims at an improved balance between efficiency and security. In the proposal, the authors suggest concrete parameters in order to meet some desired levels of quantum security. These parameters are based on the hardness of recovering a hidden isogeny between two elliptic curves, using a quantum subexponential algorithm of Childs, Jao and Soukharev. This algorithm combines two building blocks: first, a quantum algorithm for recovering a hidden shift in a commutative group. Second, a computation in superposition of all isogenies originating from a given curve, which the algorithm calls as a black box. In this paper, we give a comprehensive security analysis of CSIDH. Our first step is to revisit three quantum algorithms for the abelian hidden shift problem from the perspective of non-asymptotic cost, with trade-offs between their quantum and classical complexities. Second, we complete the non-asymptotic study of the black box in the hidden shift algorithm. We give a quantum procedure that evaluates CSIDH-512 using less than 40~000 logical qubits. This allows us to show that the parameters proposed by the authors of CSIDH do not meet their expected quantum security.
Quantum Security Analysis of AES
Xavier Bonnetain María Naya-Plasencia André Schrottenloher
In this paper we analyze for the first time the post-quantum security of AES. AES is the most popular and widely used block cipher, established as the encryption standard by the NIST in 2001. We consider the secret key setting and, in particular, AES-256, the recommended primitive and one of the few existing ones that aims at providing a post-quantum security of 128 bits. In order to determine the new security margin, i.e., the lowest number of non-attacked rounds in time less than 2128 encryptions, we first provide generalized and quantized versions of the best known cryptanalysis on reduced-round AES, as well as a discussion on attacks that don’t seem to benefit from a significant quantum speed-up. We propose a new framework for structured search that encompasses both the classical and quantum attacks we present, and allows to efficiently compute their complexity. We believe this framework will be useful for future analysis.Our best attack is a quantum Demirci-Selçuk meet-in-the-middle attack. Unexpectedly, using the ideas underlying its design principle also enables us to obtain new, counter-intuitive classical TMD trade-offs. In particular, we can reduce the memory in some attacks against AES-256 and AES-128.One of the building blocks of our attacks is solving efficiently the AES S-Box differential equation, with respect to the quantum cost of a reversible S-Box. We believe that this generic quantum tool will be useful for future quantum differential attacks. Judging by the results obtained so far, AES seems a resistant primitive in the post-quantum world as well as in the classical one, with a bigger security margin with respect to quantum generic attacks.
Quantum Attacks Without Superposition Queries: The Offline Simon’s Algorithm
In symmetric cryptanalysis, the model of superposition queries has led to surprising results, with many constructions being broken in polynomial time thanks to Simon’s period-finding algorithm. But the practical implications of these attacks remain blurry. In contrast, the results obtained so far for a quantum adversary making classical queries only are less impressive.In this paper, we introduce a new quantum algorithm which uses Simon’s subroutines in a novel way. We manage to leverage the algebraic structure of cryptosystems in the context of a quantum attacker limited to classical queries and offline quantum computations. We obtain improved quantum-time/classical-data tradeoffs with respect to the current literature, while using only as much hardware requirements (quantum and classical) as a standard exhaustive search with Grover’s algorithm. In particular, we are able to break the Even-Mansour construction in quantum time $$\tilde{O}(2^{n/3})$$, with $$O(2^{n/3})$$ classical queries and $$O(n^2)$$ qubits only. In addition, we improve some previous superposition attacks by reducing the data complexity from exponential to polynomial, with the same time complexity.Our approach can be seen in two complementary ways: reusing superposition queries during the iteration of a search using Grover’s algorithm, or alternatively, removing the memory requirement in some quantum attacks based on a collision search, thanks to their algebraic structure.We provide a list of cryptographic applications, including the Even-Mansour construction, the FX construction, some Sponge authenticated modes of encryption, and many more.
Quantum Algorithms for the $k$-xor Problem
Lorenzo Grassi María Naya-Plasencia André Schrottenloher
The $$k$$-xor (or generalized birthday) problem is a widely studied question with many applications in cryptography. It aims at finding k elements of n bits, drawn at random, such that the xor of all of them is 0. The algorithms proposed by Wagner more than fifteen years ago remain the best known classical algorithms for solving them, when disregarding logarithmic factors.In this paper we study these problems in the quantum setting, when considering that the elements are created by querying a random function (or k random functions) $$H~: \{0,1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}^n$$. We consider two scenarios: in one we are able to use a limited amount of quantum memory (i.e. a number O(n) of qubits, the same as the one needed by Grover’s search algorithm), and in the other we consider that the algorithm can use an exponential amount of qubits. Our newly proposed algorithms are of general interest. In both settings, they provide the best known quantum time complexities.In particular, we are able to considerately improve the $$3$$-xor algorithm: with limited qubits, we reach a complexity considerably better than what is currently possible for quantum collision search. Furthermore, when having access to exponential amounts of quantum memory, we can take this complexity below $$O(2^{n/3})$$, the well-known lower bound of quantum collision search, clearly improving the best known quantum time complexity also in this setting.We illustrate the importance of these results with some cryptographic applications.