International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Claudio Orlandi

Affiliation: Aarhus University

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2020
EUROCRYPT
Security of Hedged Fiat-Shamir Signatures under Fault Attacks 📺
Deterministic generation of per-signature randomness has been a widely accepted solution to mitigate the catastrophic risk of randomness failure in Fiat--Shamir type signature schemes. However, recent studies have practically demonstrated that such de-randomized schemes, including EdDSA, are vulnerable to differential fault attacks, which enable adversaries to recover the entire secret signing key, by artificially provoking randomness reuse or corrupting computation in other ways. In order to balance concerns of both randomness failures and the threat of fault injection, some signature designs are advocating a ``hedged'' derivation of the per-signature randomness, by hashing the secret key, message, and a nonce. Despite the growing popularity of the hedged paradigm in practical signature schemes, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no attempt to formally analyze the fault resilience of hedged signatures. We perform a formal security analysis of the fault resilience of signature schemes constructed via the Fiat--Shamir transform. We propose a model to characterize bit-tampering fault attacks, and investigate their impact across different steps of the signing operation. We prove that, for some types of faults, attacks are mitigated by the hedged paradigm, while attacks remain possible for others. As concrete case studies, we then apply our results to XEdDSA, a hedged version of EdDSA used in the Signal messaging protocol, and to Picnic2, a hedged Fiat--Shamir signature scheme in Round 2 of the NIST Post-Quantum standardization process.
2020
CRYPTO
Black-Box Transformations from Passive to Covert Security with Public Verifiability
Ivan Damgard Claudio Orlandi Mark Simkin
In the context of secure computation, protocols with security against covert adversaries ensure that any misbehavior by malicious parties will be detected by the honest parties with some constant probability. As such, these protocols provide better security guarantees than passively secure protocols and, moreover, are easier to construct than protocols with full security against active adversaries. Protocols that, upon detecting a cheating attempt, allow the honest parties to compute a certificate that enables third parties to verify whether an accused party misbehaved or not are called publicly verifiable. In this work, we present the first generic compilers for constructing two-party protocols with covert security and public verifiability from protocols with passive security. We present two separate compilers, which are both fully blackbox in the underlying protocols they use. Both of them only incur a constant multiplicative factor in terms of bandwidth overhead and a constant additive factor in terms of round complexity on top of the passively secure protocols they use. The first compiler applies to all two-party protocols that have no private inputs. This class of protocols covers the important class of preprocessing protocols that are used to setup correlated randomness among parties. We use our compiler to obtain the first secret-sharing based two-party protocol with covert security and public verifiability. Notably, the produced protocol achieves public verifiability essentially for free when compared with the best known previous solutions based on secret-sharing that did not provide public verifiability Our second compiler constructs protocols with covert security and public verifiability for arbitrary functionalities from passively secure protocols. It uses our first compiler to perform a setup phase, which is independent of the parties' inputs as well as the protocol they would like to execute. Finally, we show how to extend our techniques to obtain multiparty computation protocols with covert security and public verifiability against arbitrary constant fractions of corruptions.
2019
EUROCRYPT
Proof-of-Stake Protocols for Privacy-Aware Blockchains
Chaya Ganesh Claudio Orlandi Daniel Tschudi
Proof-of-stake (PoS) protocols are emerging as one of the most promising alternative to the wasteful proof-of-work (PoW) protocols for consensus in Blockchains (or distributed ledgers). However, current PoS protocols inherently disclose both the identity and the wealth of the stakeholders, and thus seem incompatible with privacy-preserving cryptocurrencies (such as ZCash, Monero, etc.). In this paper we initiate the formal study for PoS protocols with privacy properties. Our results include:1.A (theoretical) feasibility result showing that it is possible to construct a general class of private PoS (PPoS) protocols; and to add privacy to a wide class of PoS protocols,2.A privacy-preserving version of a popular PoS protocol, Ouroboros Praos. Towards our result, we define the notion of anonymous verifiable random function, which we believe is of independent interest.
2019
CRYPTO
Proofs of Replicated Storage Without Timing Assumptions 📺
Ivan Damgård Chaya Ganesh Claudio Orlandi
In this paper we provide a formal treatment of proof of replicated storage, a novel cryptographic primitive recently proposed in the context of a novel cryptocurrency, namely Filecoin.In a nutshell, proofs of replicated storage is a solution to the following problem: A user stores a file m on n different servers to ensure that the file will be available even if some of the servers fail. Using proof of retrievability, the user could check that every server is indeed storing the file. However, what if the servers collude and, in order to save on resources, decide to only store one copy of the file? A proof of replicated storage guarantees that, unless the (potentially colluding) servers are indeed reserving the space necessary to store n copies of the file, the user will not accept the proofs. While some candidate proofs of replicated storage have already been proposed, their soundness relies on timing assumptions i.e., the user must reject the proof if the prover does not reply within a certain time-bound.In this paper we provide the first construction of a proof of replication which does not rely on any timing assumptions.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Quisquis: A New Design for Anonymous Cryptocurrencies
Despite their usage of pseudonyms rather than persistent identifiers, most existing cryptocurrencies do not provide users with any meaningful levels of privacy. This has prompted the creation of privacy-enhanced cryptocurrencies such as Monero and Zcash, which are specifically designed to counteract the tracking analysis possible in currencies like Bitcoin. These cryptocurrencies, however, also suffer from some drawbacks: in both Monero and Zcash, the set of potential unspent coins is always growing, which means users cannot store a concise representation of the blockchain. Additionally, Zcash requires a common reference string and the fact that addresses are reused multiple times in Monero has led to attacks to its anonymity.In this paper we propose a new design for anonymous cryptocurrencies, Quisquis, that achieves provably secure notions of anonymity. Quisquis stores a relatively small amount of data, does not require trusted setup, and in Quisquis each address appears on the blockchain at most twice: once when it is generated as output of a transaction, and once when it is spent as input to a transaction. Our result is achieved by combining a DDH-based tool (that we call updatable keys) with efficient zero-knowledge arguments.
2018
CRYPTO
Yet Another Compiler for Active Security or: Efficient MPC Over Arbitrary Rings 📺
Ivan Damgård Claudio Orlandi Mark Simkin
We present a very simple yet very powerful idea for turning any passively secure MPC protocol into an actively secure one, at the price of reducing the threshold of tolerated corruptions.Our compiler leads to a very efficient MPC protocols for the important case of secure evaluation of arithmetic circuits over arbitrary rings (e.g., the natural case of $${\mathbb {Z}}_{2^{\ell }}\!$$) for a small number of parties. We show this by giving a concrete protocol in the preprocessing model for the popular setting with three parties and one corruption. This is the first protocol for secure computation over rings that achieves active security with constant overhead.
2017
PKC
2017
TOSC
Security of Symmetric Primitives under Incorrect Usage of Keys
Pooya Farshim Claudio Orlandi Razvan Rosie
We study the security of symmetric primitives under the incorrect usage of keys. Roughly speaking, a key-robust scheme does not output ciphertexts/tags that are valid with respect to distinct keys. Key-robustness is a notion that is often tacitly expected/assumed in protocol design — as is the case with anonymous auction, oblivious transfer, or public-key encryption. We formalize simple, yet strong definitions of key robustness for authenticated-encryption, message-authentication codes and PRFs. We show standard notions (such as AE or PRF security) guarantee a basic level of key-robustness under honestly generated keys, but fail to imply keyrobustness under adversarially generated (or known) keys. We show robust encryption and MACs compose well through generic composition, and identify robust PRFs as the main primitive used in building robust schemes. Standard hash functions are expected to satisfy key-robustness and PRF security, and hence suffice for practical instantiations. We however provide further theoretical justifications (in the standardmodel) by constructing robust PRFs from (left-and-right) collision-resistant PRGs.
2016
TCC
2016
TCC
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EUROCRYPT
2014
TCC
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2013
TCC
2013
ASIACRYPT
2013
EUROCRYPT
2012
CRYPTO
2012
ASIACRYPT
2011
EUROCRYPT
2011
ASIACRYPT
2010
TCC
2010
EPRINT
Multiparty Computation for Dishonest Majority: from Passive to Active Security at Low Cost
Ivan Damgård Claudio Orlandi
Multiparty computation protocols have been known for more than twenty years now, but due to their lack of efficiency their use is still limited in real-world applications: the goal of this paper is the design of efficient two and multi party computation protocols aimed to fill the gap between theory and practice. We propose a new protocol to securely evaluate reactive arithmetic circuits, that offers security against an active adversary in the universally composable security framework. Instead of the ``do-and-compile'' approach (where the parties use zero-knowledge proofs to show that they are following the protocol) our key ingredient is an efficient version of the ``cut-and-choose'' technique, that allow us to achieve active security for just a (small) constant amount of work more than for passive security.
2010
ASIACRYPT
2010
CRYPTO
2009
TCC
2008
EPRINT
Essentially Optimal Universally Composable Oblivious Transfer
Oblivious transfer is one of the most important cryptographic primitives, both for theoretical and practical reasons and several protocols were proposed during the years. We provide the first oblivious transfer protocol which is simultaneously optimal on the following list of parameters: Security: it has universal composition. Trust in setup assumptions: only one of the parties needs to trust the setup and some setup is needed for UC security. Trust in computational assumptions: only one of the parties needs to trust a computational assumption. Round complexity: it uses only two rounds. Communication complexity: it communicates O(1) group elements to transfer one out of two group elements. The Big-O notation hides 32, meaning that the communication is probably not optimal, but is essentially optimal in that the overhead is at least constant. Our construction is based on pairings, and we assume the presence of a key registration authority.
2008
EPRINT
LEGO for Two Party Secure Computation
Jesper Buus Nielsen Claudio Orlandi
The first and still most popular solution for secure two-party computation relies on Yao's garbled circuits. Unfortunately, Yao's construction provide security only against passive adversaries. Several constructions (zero-knowledge compiler, cut-and-choose) are known in order to provide security against active adversaries, but most of them are not efficient enough to be considered practical. In this paper we propose a new approach called LEGO (Large Efficient Garbled-circuit Optimization) for two-party computation, which allows to construct more efficient protocols secure against active adversaries. The basic idea is the following: Alice constructs and provides Bob a set of garbled NAND gates. A fraction of them is checked by Alice giving Bob the randomness used to construct them. When the check goes through, with overwhelming probability there are very few bad gates among the non-checked gates. These gates Bob permutes and connects to a Yao circuit, according to a fault-tolerant circuit design which computes the desired function even in the presence of a few random faulty gates. Finally he evaluates this Yao circuit in the usual way. For large circuits, our protocol offers better performance than any other existing protocol. The protocol is universally composable (UC) in the OT-hybrid model.

Program Committees

Crypto 2020
Eurocrypt 2019
Crypto 2017
Eurocrypt 2016
TCC 2016
Crypto 2014
TCC 2014
PKC 2013