## CryptoDB

### Chaya Ganesh

#### ORCID: 0000-0002-2909-9177

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

PKC

Succinct Verification of Compressed Sigma Protocols in the Updatable SRS setting
Abstract

We propose protocols in the Compressed Sigma Protocol framework that achieve a succinct verifier. Towards this, we construct a new inner product argument and cast it in the Compressed Sigma Protocol (CSP) framework as a protocol for opening a committed linear form, achieving logarithmic verification.
We then use our succinct-verifier CSP to construct a zero-knowledge argument for circuit satisfiability (under the discrete logarithm assumption in bilinear groups) in the updatable Structured Reference String (SRS) setting that achieves $O(\log n)$ proof size and $O(\log n)$ verification complexity. Our circuit zero-knowledge protocol has concretely better proof/prover/verifier complexity compared to the the state-of-the-art protocol in the updatable setting under the same assumption. Our techniques of achieving verifier-succinctness in the compression framework is of independent interest.
We then show a commitment scheme for committing to group elements using a structured commitment key. We construct protocols to open a committed homomorphism on a committed vector with verifier succinctness in the designated verifier setting. This has applications in making the verifier in compressed sigma protocols for bilinear group arithmetic circuits, succinct.

2024

CIC

How to Make Rational Arguments Practical and Extractable
Abstract

<p> We investigate proof systems where security holds against rational parties instead of malicious ones. Our starting point is the notion of rational arguments, a variant of rational proofs (Azar and Micali, STOC 2012) where security holds against rational adversaries that are also computationally bounded.</p><p>Rational arguments are an interesting primitive because they generally allow for very efficient protocols, and in particular sublinear verification (i.e. where the Verifier does not have to read the entire input). In this paper we aim at narrowing the gap between literature on rational schemes and real world applications. Our contribution is two-fold.</p><p>We provide the first construction of rational arguments for the class of polynomial computations that is practical (i.e., it can be applied to real-world computations on reasonably common hardware) and with logarithmic communication. Techniques-wise, we obtain this result through a compiler from information-theoretic protocols and rational proofs for polynomial evaluation. The latter could be of independent interest.</p><p>As a second contribution, we propose a new notion of extractability for rational arguments. Through this notion we can obtain arguments where knowledge of a witness is incentivized (rather than incentivizing mere soundness). We show how our aforementioned compiler can also be applied to obtain efficient extractable rational arguments for $\mathsf{NP}$. </p>

2023

PKC

Dew: A Transparent Constant-sized Polynomial Commitment Scheme
Abstract

We construct a polynomial commitment scheme
with constant (i.e., independent of the degree) sized evaluation proofs and logarithmic (in the degree) verification time in the transparent setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first result achieving this combination of properties.
We build our scheme from an inner product commitment scheme with constant-sized proofs but with linear verification time. To improve the verification time to logarithmic for polynomial commitments, we prove a new extremal combinatorial bound.
Our constructions rely on groups of unknown order instantiated by class groups. We prove security of our constructions in the Generic Group Model.
Compiling known information-theoretic proof systems using our polynomial commitment scheme yields transparent and constant-sized zkSNARKs (Zero-knowledge Succinct Non-interactive ARguments of Knowledge) with logarithmic verification.

2023

EUROCRYPT

Reverse Firewalls for Oblivious Transfer Extension and Applications to Zero-Knowledge
Abstract

In the setting of subversion, an adversary tampers with the machines of the honest parties thus leaking the honest parties' secrets through the protocol transcript. The work of Mironov and Stephens-Davidowitz (EUROCRYPT’15) introduced the idea of reverse firewalls (RF) to protect against tampering of honest parties' machines. All known constructions in the RF framework rely on the malleability of the underlying operations in order for the RF to rerandomize/sanitize the transcript. RFs are thus limited to protocols that offer some structure, and hence based on public-key operations. In this work, we initiate the study of efficient Multiparty Computation (MPC) protocols in the presence of tampering. In this regard,
- We construct the first Oblivious Transfer (OT) extension protocol in the RF setting. We construct poly(k) maliciously-secure OTs using O(k) public key operations and O(1) inexpensive symmetric key operations, where k is the security parameter.
- We construct the first Zero-knowledge protocol in the RF setting where each multiplication gate can be proven using O(1) symmetric key operations. We achieve this using our OT extension protocol and by extending the ZK protocol of Quicksilver (Yang, Sarkar, Weng and Wang, CCS'21) to the RF setting.
- Along the way, we introduce new ideas for malleable interactive proofs that could be of independent interest. We define a notion of full malleability for Sigma protocols that unlike prior notions allow modifying the instance as well, in addition to the transcript. We construct new protocols that satisfy this notion, construct RFs for such protocols and use them in constructing our OT extension.
The key idea of our work is to demonstrate that correlated randomness may be obtained in an RF friendly way without having to rerandomize the entire transcript. This enables us to avoid expensive public-key operations that grow with the circuit-size.

2023

EUROCRYPT

Witness-Succinct Universally-Composable SNARKs
Abstract

Zero-knowledge Succinct Non-interactive ARguments of Knowledge (zkSNARKs) are becoming an increasingly fundamental tool in many real-world applications where the proof compactness is of the utmost importance, including blockchains. A proof of security for SNARKs in the Universal Composability (UC) framework (Canetti, FOCS'01) would rule out devastating malleability attacks. To retain security of SNARKs in the UC model, one must show their \emph{simulation-extractability} such that the knowledge extractor is both \emph{black-box} and \emph{straight-line}, which would imply that proofs generated by honest provers are \emph{non-malleable}. However, existing simulation-extractability results on SNARKs either lack some of these properties, or alternatively have to sacrifice \emph{witness succinctness} to prove UC security.
In this paper, we provide a compiler lifting any simulation-extractable NIZKAoK into a UC-secure one in the global random oracle model, importantly, while preserving the same level of witness succinctness. Combining this with existing zkSNARKs, we achieve, to the best of our knowledge, the first zkSNARKs simultaneously achieving UC-security and constant sized proofs.

2023

JOFC

Rinocchio: SNARKs for Ring Arithmetic
Abstract

Succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge (SNARKs) enable non-interactive efficient verification of NP computations and admit short proofs. However, all current SNARK constructions assume that the statements to be proven can be efficiently represented as either Boolean or arithmetic circuits over finite fields. For most constructions, the choice of the prime field $${\mathbb {F}}_{p}$$ F p is limited by the existence of groups of matching order for which secure bilinear maps exist. In this work, we overcome such restrictions and enable verifying computations over rings. We construct the first designated-verifier SNARK for statements which are represented as circuits over a broader kind of commutative rings. Our contribution is threefold: 1. We first introduce Quadratic Ring Programs (QRPs) as a characterization of NP where the arithmetic is over a ring. 2. Second, inspired by the framework in Gennaro et al. (in: Johansson and Nguyen (eds) EUROCRYPT 2013, volume 7881 of LNCS, pp 626–645. Springer, Heidelberg, 2013), we design SNARKs over rings in a modular way. We generalize preexistent assumptions employed in field-restricted SNARKs to encoding schemes over rings. As our encoding notion is generic in the choice of the ring, it is amenable to different settings. 3. Finally, we propose two applications for our SNARKs. Our first application is verifiable computation over encrypted data, specifically for evaluations of Ring-LWE-based homomorphic encryption schemes. In the second one, we use Rinocchio to naturally prove statements about circuits over, e.g., $${\mathbb {Z}}_{2^{64}}$$ Z 2 64 , which closely matches real-life computer architectures such as standard CPUs.

2022

PKC

ECLIPSE: Enhanced Compiling method for Pedersen-committed zkSNARK Engines
📺
Abstract

We advance the state-of-the art for zero-knowledge commit-and-prove SNARKs (CP-SNARKs).
CP-SNARKs are an important class of SNARKs which, using commitments as ``glue'', allow to efficiently combine proof systems---e.g., general-purpose SNARKs (an efficient way to prove statements about circuits) and $\Sigma$-protocols (an efficient way to prove statements about group operations).
Thus, CP-SNARKs allow to efficiently provide zero-knowledge proofs for composite statements such as $h=H(g^{x})$ for some hash-function $H$.
Our main contribution is providing the first construction of CP-SNARKs where the proof size is succinct in the number of commitments.
We achieve our result by providing a general technique to compile Algebraic Holographic Proofs (AHP) (an underlying abstraction used in many modern SNARKs) with special ``decomposition'' properties into an efficient CP-SNARK. We then show that some of the most efficient AHP constructions---Marlin, PLONK, and Sonic---satisfy our compilation requirements.
Our resulting SNARKs achieve universal and updatable reference strings, which are highly desirable features as they greatly reduce the trust needed in the SNARK setup phase.

2022

EUROCRYPT

Fiat-Shamir Bulletproofs are Non-Malleable (in the Algebraic Group Model)
📺
Abstract

Bulletproofs (B{\"u}nz et al.~IEEE S\&P 2018) are a celebrated ZK proof system that allows for short and efficient proofs, and have been implemented and deployed in several real-world systems.
In practice, they are most often implemented in their \emph{non-interactive} version obtained using the Fiat-Shamir transform, despite the lack of a formal proof of security for this setting.
Prior to this work, there was no evidence that \emph{malleability attacks} were not possible against Fiat-Shamir Bulletproofs. Malleability attacks can lead to very severe vulnerabilities, as they allow an adversary to forge proofs re-using or modifying parts of the proofs provided by the honest parties.
In this paper, we show for the first time that Bulletproofs (or any other similar multi-round proof system satisfying some form of \emph{weak unique response} property) achieve \emph{simulation-extractability} in the \emph{algebraic group model}.
This implies that Fiat-Shamir Bulletproofs are \emph{non-malleable}.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Reverse Firewalls for Adaptively Secure MPC without Setup
📺
Abstract

We study Multi-party computation (MPC) in the setting of subversion, where the adversary tampers with the machines of honest parties. Our goal is to construct actively secure MPC protocols where parties are corrupted adaptively by an adversary (as in the standard adaptive security setting), and in addition, honest parties' machines are compromised.
The idea of reverse firewalls (RF) was introduced at EUROCRYPT'15 by Mironov and Stephens-Davidowitz as an approach to protecting protocols against corruption of honest parties' devices. Intuitively, an RF for a party $\mathcal{P}$ is an external entity that sits between $\mathcal{P}$ and the outside world and whose scope is to sanitize $\mathcal{P}$’s incoming and outgoing messages in the face of subversion of their computer.
Mironov and Stephens-Davidowitz constructed a protocol for passively-secure two-party computation. At CRYPTO'20, Chakraborty, Dziembowski and Nielsen constructed a protocol for secure computation with firewalls that improved on this result, both by extending it to \textit{multi}-party computation protocol, and considering \textit{active} security in the presence of \textit{static} corruptions.
In this paper, we initiate the study of RF for MPC in the \textit{adaptive} setting. We put forward a definition for adaptively secure MPC in the reverse firewall setting, explore relationships among the security notions, and then construct reverse firewalls for MPC in this stronger setting of adaptive security. We also resolve the open question of Chakraborty, Dziembowski and Nielsen by removing the need for a trusted setup in constructing RF for MPC.
Towards this end, we construct reverse firewalls for adaptively secure augmented coin tossing and adaptively secure zero-knowledge protocols and obtain a constant round adaptively secure MPC protocol in the reverse firewall setting without setup. Along the way, we propose a new multi-party adaptively secure coin tossing protocol in the plain model, that is of independent interest.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Proof-of-Stake Protocols for Privacy-Aware Blockchains
Abstract

Proof-of-stake (PoS) protocols are emerging as one of the most promising alternative to the wasteful proof-of-work (PoW) protocols for consensus in Blockchains (or distributed ledgers). However, current PoS protocols inherently disclose both the identity and the wealth of the stakeholders, and thus seem incompatible with privacy-preserving cryptocurrencies (such as ZCash, Monero, etc.). In this paper we initiate the formal study for PoS protocols with privacy properties. Our results include:1.A (theoretical) feasibility result showing that it is possible to construct a general class of private PoS (PPoS) protocols; and to add privacy to a wide class of PoS protocols,2.A privacy-preserving version of a popular PoS protocol, Ouroboros Praos.
Towards our result, we define the notion of anonymous verifiable random function, which we believe is of independent interest.

2019

CRYPTO

Proofs of Replicated Storage Without Timing Assumptions
📺
Abstract

In this paper we provide a formal treatment of proof of replicated storage, a novel cryptographic primitive recently proposed in the context of a novel cryptocurrency, namely Filecoin.In a nutshell, proofs of replicated storage is a solution to the following problem: A user stores a file m on n different servers to ensure that the file will be available even if some of the servers fail. Using proof of retrievability, the user could check that every server is indeed storing the file. However, what if the servers collude and, in order to save on resources, decide to only store one copy of the file? A proof of replicated storage guarantees that, unless the (potentially colluding) servers are indeed reserving the space necessary to store n copies of the file, the user will not accept the proofs. While some candidate proofs of replicated storage have already been proposed, their soundness relies on timing assumptions i.e., the user must reject the proof if the prover does not reply within a certain time-bound.In this paper we provide the first construction of a proof of replication which does not rely on any timing assumptions.

2018

CRYPTO

Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge Proofs for Composite Statements
📺
Abstract

The two most common ways to design non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proofs are based on Sigma protocols and QAP-based SNARKs. The former is highly efficient for proving algebraic statements while the latter is superior for arithmetic representations. Motivated by applications such as privacy-preserving credentials and privacy-preserving audits in cryptocurrencies, we study the design of NIZKs for composite statements that compose algebraic and arithmetic statements in arbitrary ways. Specifically, we provide a framework for proving statements that consist of ANDs, ORs and function compositions of a mix of algebraic and arithmetic components. This allows us to explore the full spectrum of trade-offs between proof size, prover cost, and CRS size/generation cost. This leads to proofs for statements of the form: knowledge of x such that $$SHA(g^x)=y$$SHA(gx)=y for some public y where the prover’s work is 500 times fewer exponentiations compared to a QAP-based SNARK at the cost of increasing the proof size to 2404 group and field elements. In application to anonymous credentials, our techniques result in 8 times fewer exponentiations for the prover at the cost of increasing the proof size to 298 elements.

2018

PKC

Efficient Adaptively Secure Zero-Knowledge from Garbled Circuits
Abstract

Zero-knowledge (ZK) protocols are undoubtedly among the central primitives in cryptography, lending their power to numerous applications such as secure computation, voting, auctions, and anonymous credentials to name a few. The study of efficient ZK protocols for non-algebraic statements has seen rapid progress in recent times, relying on secure computation techniques. The primary contribution of this work lies in constructing efficient UC-secure constant round ZK protocols from garbled circuits that are secure against adaptive corruptions, with communication linear in the size of the statement. We begin by showing that the practically efficient ZK protocol of Jawurek et al. (CCS 2013) is adaptively secure when the underlying oblivious transfer (OT) satisfies a mild adaptive security guarantee. We gain adaptive security with little to no overhead over the static case. A conditional verification technique is then used to obtain a three-round adaptively secure zero-knowledge argument in the non-programmable random oracle model (NPROM). Our three-round protocol yields a proof size that is shorter than the known UC-secure practically-efficient schemes in the short-CRS model with the right choice of security parameters.We draw motivation from state-of-the-art non-interactive secure computation protocols and leveraging specifics of ZK functionality show a two-round protocol that achieves static security. It is a proof, while most known efficient ZK protocols and our three round protocol are only arguments.

2016

CRYPTO

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2024
- Crypto 2023
- Eurocrypt 2023
- PKC 2023
- Asiacrypt 2022
- Crypto 2021

#### Coauthors

- Shashank Agrawal (1)
- Diego F. Aranha (1)
- Arasu Arun (1)
- Emil Madsen Bennedsen (1)
- Matteo Campanelli (2)
- Suvradip Chakraborty (2)
- Melissa Chase (1)
- Ivan Damgård (1)
- Yevgeniy Dodis (1)
- Moumita Dutta (1)
- Xiong Fan (1)
- Rosario Gennaro (1)
- Alexander Golovnev (1)
- Ari Juels (1)
- Vladimir Kolesnikov (1)
- Yashvanth Kondi (2)
- Satyanarayana V. Lokam (1)
- Payman Mohassel (2)
- Tushar Mopuri (1)
- Anca Nitulescu (1)
- Claudio Orlandi (5)
- Mahak Pancholi (3)
- Arpita Patra (1)
- Jawalkar Neha Prashant (1)
- Thomas Ristenpart (1)
- Pratik Sarkar (3)
- Eduardo Soria-Vazquez (1)
- Sriram Sridhar (1)
- Akira Takahashi (3)
- Daniel Tschudi (3)