International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Eyal Kushilevitz

Affiliation: Technion

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2019
PKC
Sub-logarithmic Distributed Oblivious RAM with Small Block Size
Eyal Kushilevitz Tamer Mour
Oblivious RAM (ORAM) is a cryptographic primitive that allows a client to securely execute RAM programs over data that is stored in an untrusted server. Distributed Oblivious RAM is a variant of ORAM, where the data is stored in $$m>1$$ servers. Extensive research over the last few decades have succeeded to reduce the bandwidth overhead of ORAM schemes, both in the single-server and the multi-server setting, from $$O(\sqrt{N})$$ to O(1). However, all known protocols that achieve a sub-logarithmic overhead either require heavy server-side computation (e.g. homomorphic encryption), or a large block size of at least $$\varOmega (\log ^3 N)$$.In this paper, we present a family of distributed ORAM constructions that follow the hierarchical approach of Goldreich and Ostrovsky [17]. We enhance known techniques, and develop new ones, to take better advantage of the existence of multiple servers. By plugging efficient known hashing schemes in our constructions, we get the following results:1.For any number $$m\ge 2$$ of servers, we show an m-server ORAM scheme with $$O(\log N/\log \log N)$$ overhead, and block size $$\varOmega (\log ^2 N)$$. This scheme is private even against an $$(m-1)$$-server collusion.2.A three-server ORAM construction with $$O(\omega (1)\cdot \log N/\log \log N)$$ overhead and a block size almost logarithmic, i.e. $$\varOmega (\log ^{1+\epsilon }N)$$. We also investigate a model where the servers are allowed to perform a linear amount of light local computations, and show that constant overhead is achievable in this model, through a simple four-server ORAM protocol. From theoretical viewpoint, this is the first ORAM scheme with asymptotic constant overhead, and polylogarithmic block size, that does not use homomorphic encryption. Practically speaking, although we do not provide an implementation of the suggested construction, evidence from related work (e.g. [12]) confirms that despite the linear computational overhead, our construction is practical, in particular when applied to secure computation.
2018
JOFC
2018
EUROCRYPT
2018
TCC
Best Possible Information-Theoretic MPC
Shai Halevi Yuval Ishai Eyal Kushilevitz Tal Rabin
We reconsider the security guarantee that can be achieved by general protocols for secure multiparty computation in the most basic of settings: information-theoretic security against a semi-honest adversary. Since the 1980s, we have elegant solutions to this problem that offer full security, as long as the adversary controls a minority of the parties, but fail completely when that threshold is crossed. In this work, we revisit this problem, questioning the optimality of the standard notion of security. We put forward a new notion of information-theoretic security which is strictly stronger than the standard one, and which we argue to be “best possible.” This notion still requires full security against dishonest minority in the usual sense, and adds a meaningful notion of information-theoretic security even against dishonest majority.We present protocols for useful classes of functions that satisfy this new notion of security. Our protocols have the unique feature of combining the efficiency benefits of protocols for an honest majority and (most of) the security benefits of protocols for dishonest majority. We further extend some of the solutions to the malicious setting.
2017
EUROCRYPT
2016
CRYPTO
2015
CRYPTO
2015
CRYPTO
2014
CRYPTO
2014
TCC
2013
TCC
2013
CRYPTO
2011
CRYPTO
2011
EUROCRYPT
2010
CRYPTO
2010
EPRINT
On Achieving the "Best of Both Worlds" in Secure Multiparty Computation
Two settings are traditionally considered for secure multiparty computation, depending on whether or not a majority of the parties are assumed to be honest. Protocols designed under this assumption provide ``full security'' (and, in particular, guarantee output delivery and fairness) when this assumption holds; unfortunately, these protocols are completely insecure if this assumption is violated. On the other hand, protocols tolerating an arbitrary number of corruptions do not guarantee fairness or output delivery even if only a \emph{single} party is dishonest. It is natural to wonder whether it is possible to achieve the ``best of both worlds'': namely, a single protocol that simultaneously achieves the best possible security in both the above settings. Here, we rule out this possibility (at least for general functionalities) but show some positive results regarding what \emph{can} be achieved.
2010
EPRINT
Black-Box Constructions of Protocols for Secure Computation
It is well known that secure computation without an honest majority requires computational assumptions. An interesting question that therefore arises relates to the way such computational assumptions are used. Specifically, can the secure protocol use the underlying primitive (e.g., a one-way trapdoor permutation) in a {\em black-box} way, treating it as an oracle, or must it be {\em nonblack-box} (by referring to the code that computes the primitive)? Despite the fact that many general constructions of cryptographic schemes refer to the underlying primitive in a black-box wayonly, there are some constructions that are inherently nonblack-box. Indeed, all known constructions of protocols for general secure computation that are secure in the presence of a malicious adversary and without an honest majority use the underlying primitive in a nonblack-box way (requiring to prove in zero-knowledge statements that relate to the primitive). In this paper, we study whether such nonblack-box use is essential. We answer this question in the negative. Concretely, we present a \emph{fully black-box reduction} from oblivious transfer with security against malicious parties to oblivious transfer with security against semi-honest parties. As a corollary, we get the first constructions of general multiparty protocols (with security against malicious adversaries and without an honest majority) which only make a {\em black-box} use of semi-honest oblivious transfer, or alternatively a black-box use of lower-level primitives such as enhanced trapdoor permutations or homomorphic encryption.
2009
JOFC
2008
TCC
2007
CRYPTO
2007
CRYPTO
2007
CRYPTO
2007
EPRINT
Public Key Encryption that Allows PIR Queries
Consider the following problem: Alice wishes to maintain her email using a storage-provider Bob (such as a Yahoo! or hotmail e-mail account). This storage-provider should provide for Alice the ability to collect, retrieve, search and delete emails but, at the same time, should learn neither the content of messages sent from the senders to Alice (with Bob as an intermediary), nor the search criteria used by Alice. A trivial solution is that messages will be sent to Bob in encrypted form and Alice, whenever she wants to search for some message, will ask Bob to send her a copy of the entire database of encrypted emails. This however is highly inefficient. We will be interested in solutions that are communication-efficient and, at the same time, respect the privacy of Alice. In this paper, we show how to create a public-key encryption scheme for Alice that allows PIR searching over encrypted documents. Our solution provides a theoretical solution to an open problem posed by Boneh, DiCrescenzo, Ostrovsky and Persiano on ``Public-key Encryption with Keyword Search'', providing the first scheme that does not reveal any partial information regarding user's search (including the access pattern) in the public-key setting and with non-trivially small communication complexity. The main technique of our solution also allows for Single-Database PIR writing with sub-linear communication complexity, which we consider of independent interest.
2006
CRYPTO
2006
JOFC
2006
EPRINT
Cryptography from Anonymity
There is a vast body of work on {\em implementing} anonymous communication. In this paper, we study the possibility of using anonymous communication as a {\em building block}, and show that one can leverage on anonymity in a variety of cryptographic contexts. Our results go in two directions. \begin{itemize} \item{\bf Feasibility.} We show that anonymous communication over {\em insecure} channels can be used to implement unconditionally secure point-to-point channels, and hence general multi-party protocols with unconditional security in the presence of an honest majority. In contrast, anonymity cannot be generally used to obtain unconditional security when there is no honest majority. \item{\bf Efficiency.} We show that anonymous channels can yield substantial efficiency improvements for several natural secure computation tasks. In particular, we present the first solution to the problem of private information retrieval (PIR) which can handle multiple users while being close to optimal with respect to {\em both} communication and computation. A key observation that underlies these results is that {\em local randomization} of inputs, via secret-sharing, when combined with the {\em global mixing} of the shares, provided by anonymity, allows to carry out useful computations on the inputs while keeping the inputs private. \end{itemize}
2005
TCC
2004
EUROCRYPT
2004
EPRINT
On the Limitations of Universally Composable Two-Party Computation Without Set-up Assumptions
Ran Canetti Eyal Kushilevitz Yehuda Lindell
The recently proposed {\em universally composable {\em (UC)} security} framework for analyzing security of cryptographic protocols provides very strong security guarantees. In particular, a protocol proven secure in this framework is guaranteed to maintain its security even when run concurrently with arbitrary other protocols. It has been shown that if a majority of the parties are honest, then universally composable protocols exist for essentially any cryptographic task in the {\em plain model} (i.e., with no setup assumptions beyond that of authenticated communication). When honest majority is not guaranteed, general feasibility results are known only given trusted set-up, such as in the common reference string model. Only little was known regarding the existence of universally composable protocols in the plain model without honest majority, and in particular regarding the important special case of two-party protocols. We study the feasibility of universally composable two-party {\em function evaluation} in the plain model. Our results show that in this setting, very few functions can be securely computed in the framework of universal composability. We demonstrate this by providing broad impossibility results that apply to large classes of deterministic and probabilistic functions. For some of these classes, we also present full characterizations of what can and cannot be securely realized in the framework of universal composability. Specifically, our characterizations are for the classes of deterministic functions in which (a) both parties receive the same output, (b) only one party receives output, and (c) only one party has input.
2003
EUROCRYPT
2003
EUROCRYPT
2003
EPRINT
Efficient Multi-Party Computation over Rings
Secure multi-party computation (MPC) is an active research area, and a wide range of literature can be found nowadays suggesting improvements and generalizations of existing protocols in various directions. However, all current techniques for secure MPC apply to functions that are represented by (boolean or arithmetic) circuits over finite {\em fields}. We are motivated by two limitations of these techniques: {\sc Generality.} Existing protocols do not apply to computation over more general algebraic structures (except via a brute-force simulation of computation in these structures). {\sc Efficiency.} The best known {\em constant-round} protocols do not efficiently scale even to the case of large finite fields. Our contribution goes in these two directions. First, we propose a basis for unconditionally secure MPC over an arbitrary finite {\em ring}, an algebraic object with a much less nice structure than a field, and obtain efficient MPC protocols requiring only a {\em black-box access} to the ring operations and to random ring elements. Second, we extend these results to the constant-round setting, and suggest efficiency improvements that are relevant also for the important special case of fields. We demonstrate the usefulness of the above results by presenting a novel application of MPC over (non-field) rings to the round-efficient secure computation of the maximum function.
2002
CRYPTO
2000
EUROCRYPT
2000
EUROCRYPT
2000
JOFC
1998
CRYPTO
1998
EUROCRYPT
1998
EPRINT
Randomness versus Fault-Tolerance
We investigate the relations between two major requirements of multiparty protocols: {\em fault tolerance} (or {\em resilience}) and {\em randomness}. Fault-tolerance is measured in terms of the maximum number of colluding faulty parties, t, that a protocol can withstand and still maintain the privacy of the inputs and the correctness of the outputs (of the honest parties). Randomness is measured in terms of the total number of random bits needed by the parties in order to execute the protocol. Previously, the upper bound on the amount of randomness required by general constructions for securely computing any non-trivial function f was polynomial both in $n$, the total number of parties, and the circuit-size C(f). This was the state of knowledge even for the special case t=1 (i.e., when there is at most one faulty party). In this paper, we show that for any linear-size circuit, and for any number t < n/3 of faulty parties, O(poly(t) * log n) randomness is sufficient. More generally, we show that for any function f with circuit-size C(f), we need only O(poly(t) * log n + poly(t) * C(f)/n) randomness in order to withstand any coalition of size at most t. Furthermore, in our protocol only t+1 parties flip coins and the rest of the parties are deterministic. Our results generalize to the case of adaptive adversaries as well.
1997
EPRINT
Protecting Data Privacy in Private Information Retrieval Schemes
Yuval Ishai Eyal Kushilevitz
Private Information Retrieval (PIR) schemes allow a user to retrieve the i-th bit of a data string x, replicated in k>=2 databases, while keeping the value of i private. The main cost measure for such a scheme is its communication complexity. We study PIR schemes where in addition to the user's privacy we require data privacy. That is, in every invocation of the retrieval protocol the user learns exactly a single physical bit of x and no other information. Further, we require that even a dishonest user would not learn more than a single physical data bit. We present general transformations that allow translating PIR schemes satisfying certain properties into PIR schemes that respect data privacy as well, with a small penalty in the communication complexity. Using our machinery we are able to translate currently known PIR solutions into schemes satisfying the newly introduced, stronger privacy constraint. In particular we get: a k-database scheme of complexity O(log(n) n^{1/(2k-1)}) for every k>=2; an O(log(n))-database scheme of poly-logarithmic complexity; a 2-database computational PIR of complexity O(n^c), for every constant c>0. All these require only a single round of interaction.
1994
CRYPTO
1994
JOFC
1993
JOFC
1993
JOFC
1989
CRYPTO
1988
CRYPTO

Program Committees

TCC 2018
Eurocrypt 2017
TCC 2016 (Program chair)
TCC 2014
Crypto 2013
Crypto 2010
TCC 2008
TCC 2006
Eurocrypt 2005
Crypto 2003
PKC 2002