International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Vladimir Kolesnikov

Affiliation: Georgia Institute of Technology

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2019
EUROCRYPT
Covert Security with Public Verifiability: Faster, Leaner, and Simpler
The notion of covert security for secure two-party computation serves as a compromise between the traditional semi-honest and malicious security definitions. Roughly, covert security ensures that cheating behavior is detected by the honest party with reasonable probability (say, 1/2). It provides more realistic guarantees than semi-honest security with significantly less overhead than is required by malicious security.The rationale for covert security is that it dissuades cheating by parties that care about their reputation and do not want to risk being caught. But a much stronger disincentive is obtained if the honest party can generate a publicly verifiable certificate when cheating is detected. While the corresponding notion of publicly verifiable covert (PVC) security has been explored, existing PVC protocols are complex and less efficient than the best covert protocols, and have impractically large certificates.We propose a novel PVC protocol that significantly improves on prior work. Our protocol uses only “off-the-shelf” primitives (in particular, it avoids signed oblivious transfer) and, for deterrence factor 1/2, has only 20–40% overhead compared to state-of-the-art semi-honest protocols. Our protocol also has, for the first time, constant-size certificates of cheating (e.g., 354 bytes long at the 128-bit security level).As our protocol offers strong security guarantees with low overhead, we suggest that it is the best choice for many practical applications of secure two-party computation.
2018
ASIACRYPT
$\mathsf {Free\ }{} \mathtt{IF} $ : How to Omit Inactive Branches and Implement $\mathcal {S}$ -Universal Garbled Circuit (Almost) for Free
Vladimir Kolesnikov
Two-party Secure Function Evaluation (SFE) allows two parties to evaluate a function known to both parties on their private inputs. In some settings, the input of one of the parties is the definition of the computed function, and requires protection as well. The standard solution for SFE of private functions (PF-SFE) is to rely on Universal Circuits (UC), which can be programmed to implement any circuit of size $$s $$ . Recent UC optimizations report the cost of UC for $$s $$ -gate Boolean circuits is $$\approx 5 s \log s $$ .Instead, we consider garbling that allows evaluating one of a given set $$\mathcal {S}$$ of circuits. We show how to evaluate one of the circuits in $$\mathcal {S}$$ at the communication cost comparable to that of evaluating the largest circuit in $$\mathcal {S} $$ . In other words, we show how to omit generating and sending inactive GC branches. Our main insight is that a garbled circuit is just a collection of garbled tables, and as such can be reused to emulate the throw-away computation of an inactive execution branch without revealing to the Evaluator whether it evaluates active or inactive branch.This cannot be proven within the standard BHR garbled circuits framework because the function description is inseparable from the garbling by definition. We carefully extend BHR in a general way, introducing topology-decoupling circuit garbling. We preserve all existing constructions and proofs of the BHR framework, while allowing this and other future constructions which may treat garbled tables separately from function description.Our construction is presented in the semi-honest model.
2017
EUROCRYPT
2017
ASIACRYPT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
TCC
2015
ASIACRYPT
2015
ASIACRYPT
2014
CRYPTO
2014
CRYPTO
2014
EPRINT
2013
CRYPTO
2010
TCC
2010
EPRINT
Modular Design of Efficient Secure Function Evaluation Protocols
Vladimir Kolesnikov Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi Thomas Schneider
Two-party Secure Function Evaluation (SFE) allows mutually distrusting parties to (jointly) correctly compute a function on their private input data, without revealing the inputs. SFE, properly designed, guarantees to satisfy the most stringent security requirements, even for interactive computation. Two-party SFE can benefit almost any client-server interaction where privacy is required, such as privacy-preserving credit checking, medical classification, or face recognition. Today, SFE is a subject of immense amount of research in a variety of directions, and is not easy to navigate. In this paper, we systematize some of the vast research knowledge on \emph{practically} efficient SFE. It turns out that the most efficient SFE protocols are obtained by combining several basic techniques, such as garbled circuits and computation under homomorphic encryption. As an important practical contribution, we present a framework in which these techniques can be viewed as building blocks with well-defined interfaces. These components can be easily combined to establish a complete efficient solution. Further, our approach naturally lends itself to automated protocol generation (compilation). We believe, today, this approach is the best candidate for implementation and deployment.
2010
EPRINT
Garbled Circuits for Leakage-Resilience: Hardware Implementation and Evaluation of One-Time Programs
The power of side-channel leakage attacks on cryptographic implementations is evident. Today's practical defenses are typically attack-specific countermeasures against certain classes of side-channel attacks. The demand for a more general solution has given rise to the recent theoretical research that aims to build provably leakage-resilient cryptography. This direction is, however, very new and still largely lacks practitioners' evaluation with regard to both efficiency and practical security. A recent approach, One-Time Programs (OTPs), proposes using Yao's Garbled Circuit (GC) and very simple tamper-proof hardware to securely implement oblivious transfer, to guarantee leakage resilience. Our main contributions are (i) a generic architecture for using GC/OTP modularly, and (ii) hardware implementation and efficiency analysis of GC/OTP evaluation. We implemented two FPGA-based prototypes: a system-on-a-programmable-chip with access to hardware crypto accelerator (suitable for smartcards and future smartphones), and a stand-alone hardware implementation (suitable for ASIC design). We chose AES as a representative complex function for implementation and measurements. As a result of this work, we are able to understand, evaluate and improve the practicality of employing GC/OTP as a leakage-resistance approach. Last, but not least, we believe that our work contributes to bringing together the results of both theoretical and practical communities.
2010
CHES
2010
EPRINT
A Security Enhancement and Proof for Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA)
Vladimir Kolesnikov
In this work, we consider Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA), a popular client-server Key Exchange (KE) protocol, commonly used in wireless standards (e.g., UMTS), and widely considered for new applications. We discuss natural potential usage scenarios for AKA, attract attention to subtle vulnerabilities, propose a simple and efficient AKA enhancement, and provide its formal proof of security. The vulnerabilities arise due to the fact that AKA is not a secure KE in the standard cryptographic sense, since Client C does not contribute randomness to the session key. We argue that AKA remains secure in current deployments where C is an entity controlled by a single tamper-resistant User Identity Module (UIM). However, we also show that AKA is insecure if several Client's devices/UIMs share his identity and key. We show practical applicability and efficiency benefits of such multi-UIM scenarios. As our main contribution, we adapt AKA for this setting, with only the minimal changes, while adhering to AKA design goals, and preserving its advantages and features. Our protocol involves one extra PRFG evaluation and no extra messages. We formally prove security of the resulting protocol. We discuss how our security improvement allows simplification of some of AKA security heuristics, which may make our protocol more efficient and robust than AKA even for the current deployment scenarios.
2008
EPRINT
Password Mistyping in Two-Factor-Authenticated Key Exchange
Vladimir Kolesnikov Charles Rackoff
Abstract: We study the problem of Key Exchange (KE), where authentication is two-factor and based on both electronically stored long keys and human-supplied credentials (passwords or biometrics). The latter credential has low entropy and may be adversarily mistyped. Our main contribution is the first formal treatment of mistyping in this setting. Ensuring security in presence of mistyping is subtle. We show mistyping-related limitations of previous KE definitions and constructions. We concentrate on the practical two-factor authenticated KE setting where servers exchange keys with clients, who use short passwords (memorized) and long cryptographic keys (stored on a card). Our work is thus a natural generalization of Halevi-Krawczyk and Kolesnikov-Rackoff. We discuss the challenges that arise due to mistyping. We propose the first KE definitions in this setting, and formally discuss their guarantees. We present efficient KE protocols and prove their security.
2006
TCC
2006
EPRINT
Key Exchange Using Passwords and Long Keys
Vladimir Kolesnikov Charles Rackoff
We propose a new model for key exchange (KE) based on a combination of different types of keys. In our setting, servers exchange keys with clients, who memorize short passwords and carry (stealable) storage cards containing long (cryptographic) keys. Our setting is a generalization of that of Halevi and Krawczyk \cite{HaleviKr99} (HK), where clients have a password and the public key of the server. We point out a subtle flaw in the protocols of HK and demonstrate a practical attack on them, resulting in a full password compromise. We give a definition of security of KE in our (and thus also in the HK) setting and discuss many related subtleties. We define and discuss protection against denial of access (DoA) attacks, which is not possible in any of the previous KE models that use passwords. Finally, we give a very simple and efficient protocol satisfying all our requirements.
2005
ASIACRYPT
2004
ASIACRYPT

Program Committees

Crypto 2019
Eurocrypt 2017
PKC 2014