## CryptoDB

### Varun Narayanan

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

EUROCRYPT

Constant-Round Simulation-Secure Coin Tossing Extension with Guaranteed Output
Abstract

Common randomness is an essential resource in many applications. However, a celebrated result of Cleve (STOC 86) rules out the possibility of tossing a fair coin from scratch in the presence of a dishonest majority. A second-best alternative is a Coin Tossing Extension (CTE) protocol, which uses an "online" oracle that produces a small number of common random bits to generate a large number of common random-looking bits.This work initiates the systematic study of fully-secure CTE, which guarantees output even in the presence of malicious behavior. A fully-secure two-party statistical CTE protocol with black-box simulation was implicit in Hofheinz et al. (Eurocrypt 06), but its round complexity is nearly linear in its output length. The problem of constant-round CTE with superlogarithmic stretch remained open.
We prove that any statistical CTE with full black-box security and superlogarithmic stretch must have superconstant rounds. To circumvent this impossibility we investigate fully-secure computational CTE, and prove that with N parties and any polynomial stretch:
• One round suffices for CTE under subexponential LWE, even with Universally Composable security against adaptive corruptions.
• One-round CTE is implied by DDH or the hidden subgroup assumption in class groups, with a short, reusable Uniform Random String, and by both DCR and QR, with a reusable Structured Reference String.
• One-way functions imply CTE with O(N) rounds, and thus constant-round CTE for any constant number of parties.
Such results were not known even in the two-party setting with standalone, static security. Furthermore, we extend one-round CTE to sample from any efficient distribution, via strong assumptions that include indistinguishability obfuscation.
Our one-round CTE protocols can be interpreted as explainable variants of classical randomness extractors, wherein a (short) seed and a source instance can be efficiently reverse-sampled given a random output. Such explainable extractors may be of independent interest.

2024

ASIACRYPT

Randomness in Private Sequential Stateless Protocols
Abstract

A significant body of work in information-theoretic cryptography has been devoted to the fundamental problem of understanding the power of randomness in private computation. This has included both in-depth study of the randomness complexity of specific functions (e.g., Couteau and Rosén, ASIACRYPT 2022, gives an upper bound of 6 for n-party AND), and results for broad classes of functions (e.g., Kushilevitz et al., STOC 1996, gives an O(1) upper bound for all functions with linear-sized circuits). In this work, we make further progress on both fronts by studying randomness complexity in a new simple model of secure computation called Private Sequential Stateless (PSS) model.
We show that functions with O(1) randomness complexity in the PSS model are exactly those with constant-width branching programs, restricting to “speak-constant-times” protocols and to “read-constant-times” branching programs.
Towards this our main construction is a novel PSS protocol for “strongly regular branching programs” (SRBP). As we show, any constant-width branching program can be converted to a constant-width SRBP, yielding one side of our characterization. The converse direction uses ideas from Kushilevitz et al. to translate randomness to communication.
Our protocols are concretely efficient, has a simple structure, covers the broad class of functions with small-width, read-once (or read-a-few-times) branching programs, and hence may be of practical interest when 1-privacy is considered adequate. Also, as a consequence of our general result for SRBPs, we obtain an improvement over the protocol of Couteau and Rosén for AND in certain cases — not in terms of the number of bits of randomness, but in terms of a simpler protocol structure (sequential, stateless).

2024

ASIACRYPT

Leakage-Resilient Incompressible Cryptography: Constructions and Barriers
Abstract

We introduce Leakage-Resilient Incompressible cryptography, which simultaneously addresses two variants of side-channel attacks that have been tackled in theoretical cryptography. Leakage-resilience seeks to provide security against an adversary who learns a part of the secret-key and the entire ciphertext or signature; conversely, incompressible cryptography provides security against an adversary who learns the entire secret-key, but only a part of the ciphertext or signature. However, constructions in either of these security models can fail against an attack in the other model. In this work, we define a new model of security that subsumes both leakage-resilient cryptography and incompressible cryptography, and we present several non-trivial positive and negative results.
On the positive side, first we present a transformation from incompressible symmetric-key encryption (SKE) to leakage-resilient incompressible SKE in the information-theoretic setting. Next, as one of our main results, we construct a leakage-resilient incompressible public-key encryption (PKE), combining an incompressible SKE and a new primitive that we call leakage-resilient non-committing key encapsulation mechanism (LR-NC-KEM). While an incompressible SKE suitable for use in both these constructions already exists in the literature (Dziembowski, CRYPTO 2006), we present a new construction with better parameters, using an appropriate notion of invertible extractors; this leads to corresponding improvements in the final parameters we obtain in these constructions. We also design a leakage-resilient incompressible signature scheme.
On the negative side, we show barriers to significantly improving the parameters we obtain, by showing impossibility of basing the security of such improved schemes on blackbox reductions.
Apart from the general framework and the specific results we obtain, some of the intermediate tools that we define and instantiate, like LR-NC-KEM and invertible extractors, may be of independent interest.

2024

TCC

Secure Computation with Parallel Calls to 2-ary Functions
Abstract

Reductions are the workhorses of cryptography. They allow constructions of complex cryptographic primitives from simple building blocks. A prominent example is the non-interactive reduction from securely computing a ``complex" function f to securely computing a ``simple" function g via randomized encodings.
Prior work equated simplicity with functions of small degree. In this work, we consider a different notion of simplicity where we require g to only take inputs from a small number of parties. In other words, we want the arity of g to be as small as possible.
In more detail, we consider the problem of reducing secure computation of arbitrary functions to secure computation of functions with arity two (two is the minimal arity required to compute non-trivial functions). Specifically, we want to compute a function f via a protocol that makes parallel calls to a 2-ary function g. We want this protocol to be secure against malicious adversaries that could corrupt an arbitrary number of parties. We obtain the following results:
- Negative Result: We show that there exists a degree-2 polynomial p such that no protocol that makes parallel calls to 2-ary functions can compute p with statistical security with abort.
- Positive Results: We give two ways to bypass the above impossibility result.
1. Weakening the Security Notion. We show that every degree-2 polynomial can be computed with statistical privacy with knowledge of outputs (PwKO) by making parallel calls to a 2-ary function. Privacy with knowledge of outputs is weaker than security with abort.
2. Computational Security. We prove that for every function f, there exists a protocol for computing f that makes parallel calls to a 2-ary function and achieves security with abort against computationally-bounded adversaries. The security of this protocol relies on the existence of semi-honest secure oblivious transfer.
- Applications: We give connections between this problem and the task of reducing the encoding complexity of Multiparty Randomized Encodings (MPRE) (Applebaum, Brakerski, and Tsabary, TCC 2018). Specifically, we show that under standard computational assumptions, there exists an MPRE where the encoder can be implemented by an NC0 circuit with constant fan-out.
- Extensions: We explore this problem in the honest majority setting and give similar results assuming one-way functions. We also show that if the parties have access to 3-ary functions then we can construct a computationally secure protocol in the dishonest majority setting assuming one-way functions.

2024

TCC

Statistical Layered MPC
Abstract

The seminal work of Rabin and Ben-Or (STOC '89) showed that the problem of secure $n$-party computation can be solved for $t<n/2$ corruptions with guaranteed output delivery and statistical security. This holds in the traditional static model where the set of parties is fixed throughout the entire protocol execution.
The need to better capture the dynamics of large scale and long-lived computations, where compromised parties may recover and the set of parties can change over time, has sparked renewed interest in the proactive security model by Ostrovsky and Yung (PODC '91). This abstraction, where the adversary may periodically uncorrupt and corrupt a new set of parties, is taken even a step further in the more recent YOSO and Fluid MPC models (CRYPTO '21) which allow, in addition, disjoint sets of parties participating in each round. Previous solutions with guaranteed output delivery and statistical security only tolerate $t<n/3$ corruptions, or assume a random corruption pattern plus non-standard communication models.
Matching the Rabin and Ben-Or bound in these settings remains an open problem.
In this work, we settle this question considering the unifying Layered MPC abstraction recently introduced by David et al. (CRYPTO '23). In this model, the interaction pattern is defined by a layered acyclic graph, where each party sends secret messages and broadcast messages only to parties in the very next layer. We complete the feasibility landscape of layered MPC, by extending the Rabin and Ben-Or result to this setting. Our results imply maximally-proactive MPC with statistical security in the honest-majority setting.

2023

EUROCRYPT

Complete Characterization of Broadcast and Pseudo-Signatures from Correlations
Abstract

Unconditionally secure broadcast is feasible among parties connected by pairwise secure links only if there is a strict two-thirds majority of honest parties when no additional resources are available. This limitation may be circumvented when the parties have recourse to additional resources such as correlated randomness. Fitzi, Wolf, and Wullschleger (CRYPTO 2004) attempted to characterize the conditions on correlated randomness shared among three parties which would enable them to realize broadcast. Due to a gap in their impossibility argument, it turns out that their characterization is incorrect. Using a novel construction we show that broadcast is feasible under a considerably larger class of correlations. In fact, we realize pseudo-signatures, which are information theoretic counterparts of digital signatures using which unconditionally secure broadcast may be obtained. We also obtain a matching impossibility result thereby characterizing the class of correlations on which three-party broadcast (and pseudo-signatures) can be based. Our impossibility proof, which extends the well-know argument of Fischer, Lynch and Merritt (Distr. Comp., 1986) to the case where parties observe correlated randomness, maybe of independent interest.

2023

CRYPTO

One-Message Secure Reductions: On the Cost of Converting Correlations
Abstract

Correlated secret randomness is a useful resource for secure computation protocols, often enabling dramatic speedups compared to protocols in the plain model. This has motivated a line of work on identifying and securely generating useful correlations.
Different kinds of correlations can vary greatly in terms of usefulness and ease of generation. While there has been major progress on efficiency generating oblivious transfer (OT) correlations, other useful kinds of correlations are much more costly to generate. Thus, it is highly desirable to develop efficient techniques for securely converting copies of a given source correlation into copies of a given target correlation, especially when the former are cheaper to generate than the latter.
In this work, we initiate a systematic study of such conversions that only involve a single uni-directional message. We refer to such a conversion as a one-way secure reduction (OMSR). Recent works (Agarwal et. al, Eurocrypt 2022; Khorasgani et. al, Eurocrypt 2022) studied a similar problem when no communication was allowed; this setting is quite restrictive, however, with few non-trivial conversions being feasible. The OMSR setting substantially expands the scope of feasible results, allowing for direct applications to existing MPC protocols.
We obtain the following positive and negative results.
- (OMSR constructions). We present a general rejection-sampling based technique for OMSR with OT source correlations. We apply it to substantially improve in the communication complexity of optimized protocols for distributed symmetric cryptography (Dinur et al., Crypto 2021).
- (OMSR lower bounds). We develop general techniques for proving lower bounds on the communication complexity of OMSR, matching our positive results up to small constant factors.

2023

CRYPTO

Perfect MPC over Layered Graphs
Abstract

The classical “BGW protocol” (Ben-Or, Goldwasser and Wigderson, STOC 1988) shows that secure multiparty computation (MPC) among n parties can be realized with perfect full security if t < n/3 parties are corrupted. This holds against malicious adversaries in the “standard” model for MPC, where a fixed set of n parties is involved in the full execution of the protocol. However, the picture is less clear in the mobile adversary setting of Ostrovsky and Yung (PODC 1991), where the adversary may periodically “move” by uncorrupting parties and corrupting a new set of t parties. In this setting, it is unclear if full security can be achieved against an adversary that is maximally mobile, i.e., moves after every round. The question is further motivated by the “You Only Speak Once” (YOSO) setting of Gentry et al. (Crypto 2021), where not only the adversary is mobile but also each round is executed by a disjoint set of parties. Previous positive results in this model do not achieve perfect security, and either assume probabilistic corruption and a nonstandard communication model, or only realize the weaker goal of security-with-abort. The question of matching the BGW result in these settings remained open.
In this work, we tackle the above two challenges simultaneously. We consider a layered MPC model, a simplified variant of the fluid MPC model of Choudhuri et al. (Crypto 2021). Layered MPC is an instance of standard MPC where the interaction pattern is defined by a layered graph of width n, allowing each party to send secret messages and broadcast messages only to parties in the next layer. We require perfect security against a malicious adversary who may corrupt at most t parties in each layer. Our main result is a perfect, fully secure layered MPC protocol with an
optimal corruption threshold of t < n/3, thus extending the BGW feasibility result to the layered setting. This implies perfectly secure MPC protocols against a maximally mobile adversary.

2023

TCC

Cryptography from Planted Graphs: Security with Logarithmic-Size Messages
Abstract

We study the following broad question about cryptographic primitives: is it possible to achieve security against arbitrary poly(n)-size adversaries with O(log n)-size messages? It is common knowledge that the answer is “no” unless information-theoretic security is possible. In this work, we revisit this question by considering the setting of cryptography with public information and computational security.
We obtain the following main results, assuming variants of well-studied
intractability assumptions:
1. A private simultaneous messages (PSM) protocol for every f : [n] × [n] → {0, 1} with (1 + eps) log n-bit messages, beating the known lower bound on information-theoretic PSM. We apply this towards non-interactive secure 3-party computation with similar message size in the preprocessing model, improving over previous 2-round protocols.
2. A secret-sharing scheme for any “forbidden-graph” access structure on n nodes with O(log n) share size.
3. On the negative side, we show that computational threshold secret-sharing schemes with public information require share size Ω(log log n). For arbitrary access structures, we show that computational security does not help with 1-bit shares.
The above positive results guarantee that any adversary of size n^{o(log n)} achieves an n^{−Ω(1)} distinguishing advantage. We show how to make the advantage negligible by slightly increasing the asymptotic message size, still improving over all known constructions.
The security of our constructions is based on the conjectured hardness of variants of the planted clique problem, which was extensively studied in the algorithms, statistical inference, and complexity-theory communities. Our work provides the first applications of such assumptions to
improving the efficiency of mainstream cryptographic primitives, gives evidence for the necessity of such assumptions, and gives rise to new questions in this domain that may be of independent interest.

2022

EUROCRYPT

Secure Non-Interactive Reduction and Spectral Analysis of Correlations
📺
Abstract

Correlated pairs of random variables are a central concept in information-theoretically secure cryptography. Secure reductions between different correlations have been studied, and completeness results are known. Further, the complexity of such reductions is intimately connected with circuit complexity and efficiency of locally decodable codes. As such, making progress on these complexity questions faces strong barriers. Motivated by this, in this work, we study a restricted form of secure reductions --- namely, Secure Non-Interactive Reductions (SNIR) --- which is still closely related to the original problem, and establish several fundamental results and relevant techniques for it.
We uncover striking connections between SNIR and linear algebraic properties of correlations. Specifically, we define the spectrum of a correlation, and show that a target correlation has a SNIR to a source correlation only if the spectrum of the latter contains the entire spectrum of the former. We also establish a `mirroring lemma' that shows an unexpected symmetry between the two parties in a SNIR, when viewed through the lens of spectral analysis. We also use cryptographic insights and elementary linear algebraic analysis to fully characterize the role of common randomness as well as local randomness in SNIRs. We employ these results to resolve several fundamental questions about SNIRs, and to define future directions.

2022

TCC

Secure Non-Interactive Reducibility is Decidable
Abstract

Secure Non-Interactive Reductions (SNIR) is a recently introduced, but fundamental cryp- tographic primitive. The basic question about SNIRs is how to determine if there is a SNIR from one 2-party correlation to another. While prior work provided answers for several pairs of correlations, the possibility that this is an undecidable problem in general was left open. In this work we show that the existence of a SNIR between any pair of correlations can be determined by an algorithm.
At a high-level, our proof follows the blueprint of a similar (but restricted) result by Khorasgani et al. But combining the spectral analysis of SNIRs by Agrawal et al. (Eurocrypt 2022) with a new variant of a “junta theorem” by Kindler and Safra, we obtain a complete resolution of the decidability question for SNIRs. The new junta theorem that we identify and prove may be of independent interest.

2022

TCC

Oblivious-Transfer Complexity of Noisy Coin-Toss via Secure Zero Communication Reductions
Abstract

In $p$-noisy coin-tossing, Alice and Bob obtain fair coins which are of
opposite values with probability $p$. Its Oblivious-Transfer (OT) complexity
refers to the least number of OTs required by a semi-honest perfectly secure
2-party protocol for this task. We show a tight bound of $\Theta(\log 1/p)$
for the OT complexity of $p$-noisy coin-tossing. This is the first instance
of a lower bound for OT complexity that is independent of the input/output
length of the function.
We obtain our result by providing a general connection between the OT complexity of
randomized functions and the complexity of Secure Zero Communication
Reductions (SZCR), as recently defined by Narayanan et al. (TCC 2020), and
then showing a lower bound for the complexity of an SZCR from noisy
coin-tossing to (a predicate corresponding to) OT.

2021

CRYPTO

Secure Computation from One-Way Noisy Communication, or: Anti-Correlation via Anti-Concentration
📺
Abstract

Can a sender encode a pair of messages (m_0,m_1) jointly, and send their encoding over (say) a binary erasure channel, so that the receiver can decode exactly one of the two messages and the sender does not know which one?
Garg et al. (Crypto 2015) showed that this is information-theoretically impossible.
We show how to circumvent this impossibility by assuming that the receiver is computationally bounded, settling for an inverse-polynomial security error (which is provably necessary), and relying on ideal obfuscation.
Our solution creates a ``computational anti-correlation'' between the events of receiving m_0 and receiving m_1 by exploiting the anti-concentration of the binomial distribution.
The ideal obfuscation primitive in our construction can either be directly realized using (stateless) tamper-proof hardware, yielding an unconditional result, or heuristically instantiated using existing indistinguishability obfuscation schemes. We put forward a new notion of obfuscation that suffices to securely instantiate our construction.
As a corollary, we get similar feasibility results for general secure computation of sender-receiver functionalities by leveraging the completeness of the above ``random oblivious transfer'' functionality.

2020

TCC

Zero-Communication Reductions
📺
Abstract

We introduce a new primitive in information-theoretic cryptography, namely zero-communication reductions (ZCR), with different levels of security. We relate ZCR to several other important primitives, and obtain new results on upper and lower bounds.
In particular, we obtain new upper bounds for PSM, CDS and OT complexity of functions, which are exponential in the information complexity of the functions. These upper bounds complement the results of Beimel et al. (2014) which broke the circuit-complexity barrier for ``high complexity'' functions; our results break the barrier of input size for ``low complexity'' functions.
We also show that lower bounds on secure ZCR can be used to establish lower bounds for OT-complexity. We recover the known (linear) lower bounds on OT-complexity by Beimal and Malkin (2004) via this new route. We also formulate the lower bound problem for secure ZCR in purely linear-algebraic terms, by defining the invertible rank of a matrix.
We present an Invertible Rank Conjecture, proving which will establish super-linear lower bounds for OT-complexity (and if accompanied by an explicit construction, will provide explicit functions with super-linear circuit lower bounds).

2020

ASIACRYPT

Cryptography from One-Way Communication: On Completeness of Finite Channels
📺
Abstract

Garg et al. (Crypto 2015) initiated the study of cryptographic protocols over noisy channels in the non-interactive setting, namely when only one party speaks. A major question left open by this work is the completeness of {\em finite} channels, whose input and output alphabets do not grow with the desired level of security. In this work, we address this question by obtaining the following results:
Completeness of Bit-ROT with Inverse Polynomial Error: We show that bit-ROT (i.e., Randomized Oblivious Transfer channel, where each of the two messages is a single bit) can be used to realize general randomized functionalities with inverse polynomial error. Towards this, we provide a construction of string-ROT from bit-ROT with inverse polynomial error.
No Finite Channel is Complete with Negligible Error: To complement the above, we show that {\it no} finite channel can be used to realize string-ROT with negligible error, implying that the inverse polynomial error in the completeness of bit-ROT is inherent. This holds even with semi-honest parties and for computational security, and is contrasted with the (negligible-error) completeness of string-ROT shown by Garg et al.
Characterization of Finite Channels Enabling Zero-Knowledge Proofs: An important instance of secure computation is zero-knowledge proofs.
Noisy channels can potentially be used to realize truly non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs, without trusted common randomness, and with non-transferability and deniability features that cannot be realized in the plain model. Garg et al. obtain such zero-knowledge proofs from the binary erasure channel (BEC) and the binary symmetric channel (BSC). We complete the picture by showing that in fact any non-trivial channel suffices.

2018

TCC

Oblivious Transfer in Incomplete Networks
Abstract

Secure message transmission and Byzantine agreement have been studied extensively in incomplete networks. However, information theoretically secure multiparty computation (MPC) in incomplete networks is less well understood. In this paper, we characterize the conditions under which a pair of parties can compute oblivious transfer (OT) information theoretically securely against a general adversary structure in an incomplete network of reliable, private channels. We provide characterizations for both semi-honest and malicious models. A consequence of our results is a complete characterization of networks in which a given subset of parties can compute any functionality securely with respect to an adversary structure in the semi-honest case and a partial characterization in the malicious case.

#### Coauthors

- Damiano Abram (2)
- Shweta Agrawal (2)
- Hari Krishnan P Anilkumar (1)
- Amos Beimel (1)
- Kaartik Bhushan (2)
- Bernardo David (1)
- Giovanni Deligios (2)
- Jack Doerner (1)
- Aarushi Goel (1)
- Saumya Goyal (1)
- Rishab Goyal (1)
- Yuval Ishai (6)
- Mahimna Kelkar (1)
- Anders Konring (2)
- Venkata Koppula (1)
- Eyal Kushilevitz (4)
- Chen-Da Liu-Zhang (2)
- Ankit Kumar Misra (1)
- Varun Narayanan (16)
- Pratyush Agarwal (1)
- Shubham Vivek Pawar (1)
- Vinod Prabhakaran (2)
- Shreya Pathak (1)
- Manoj Prabhakaran (8)
- Vinod M. Prabhakaran (5)
- Mahesh Sreekumar Rajasree (1)
- Mohammad Ali Rehan (1)
- Alon Rosen (2)
- Neha Sangwan (1)
- Akshayaram Srinivasan (1)
- Shun Watanabe (1)
- Liav Zafar (1)