International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Charles Rackoff

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2010
CRYPTO
2008
TCC
2008
EPRINT
Password Mistyping in Two-Factor-Authenticated Key Exchange
Vladimir Kolesnikov Charles Rackoff
Abstract: We study the problem of Key Exchange (KE), where authentication is two-factor and based on both electronically stored long keys and human-supplied credentials (passwords or biometrics). The latter credential has low entropy and may be adversarily mistyped. Our main contribution is the first formal treatment of mistyping in this setting. Ensuring security in presence of mistyping is subtle. We show mistyping-related limitations of previous KE definitions and constructions. We concentrate on the practical two-factor authenticated KE setting where servers exchange keys with clients, who use short passwords (memorized) and long cryptographic keys (stored on a card). Our work is thus a natural generalization of Halevi-Krawczyk and Kolesnikov-Rackoff. We discuss the challenges that arise due to mistyping. We propose the first KE definitions in this setting, and formally discuss their guarantees. We present efficient KE protocols and prove their security.
2006
TCC
2006
EPRINT
Key Exchange Using Passwords and Long Keys
Vladimir Kolesnikov Charles Rackoff
We propose a new model for key exchange (KE) based on a combination of different types of keys. In our setting, servers exchange keys with clients, who memorize short passwords and carry (stealable) storage cards containing long (cryptographic) keys. Our setting is a generalization of that of Halevi and Krawczyk \cite{HaleviKr99} (HK), where clients have a password and the public key of the server. We point out a subtle flaw in the protocols of HK and demonstrate a practical attack on them, resulting in a full password compromise. We give a definition of security of KE in our (and thus also in the HK) setting and discuss many related subtleties. We define and discuss protection against denial of access (DoA) attacks, which is not possible in any of the previous KE models that use passwords. Finally, we give a very simple and efficient protocol satisfying all our requirements.
2004
EPRINT
Efficient Consistency Proofs for Generalized Queries on a Committed Database
Rafail Ostrovsky Charles Rackoff Adam Smith
A *consistent query protocol* (CQP) allows a database owner to publish a very short string $c$ which *commits* her and everybody else to a particular database $D$, so that any copy of the database can later be used to answer queries and give short proofs that the answers are consistent with the commitment $c$. Here *commits* means that there is at most one database $D$ that anybody can find (in polynomial time) which is consistent with $c$. (Unlike in some previous work, this strong guarantee holds even for owners who try to cheat while creating $c$.) Efficient CQPs for membership and one-dimensional range queries are known \cite{BRW02,K98,MR}: given a query pair $a,b\in \mathbb{R}$, the server answers with all the keys in the database which lie in the interval $[a,b]$ and a proof that the answer is correct. This paper explores CQPs for more general types of databases. We put forward a general technique for constructing CQPs for any type of query, assuming the existence of a data structure/algorithm with certain inherent robustness properties that we define (called a *data robust algorithm*). We illustrate our technique by constructing an efficient protocol for *orthogonal range queries*, where the database keys are points in $\mathbb{R}^d$ and a query asks for all keys in a rectangle $[a_1,b_1]\times\ldots \times [a_d,b_d]$. Our data-robust algorithm is within a $O(\log N)$ factor of the best known standard data structure (a range tree, due to Bentley (1980)). We modify our protocol so that it is also private, that is, the proofs leak no information about the database beyond the query answers. We show a generic modification to ensure privacy based on zero-knowledge proofs, and also give a new, more efficient protocol tailored to hash trees.
2000
JOFC
1997
EPRINT
CBC MAC for Real-Time Data Sources
Erez Petrank Charles Rackoff
The Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) Message Authentication Code (MAC) is an authentication method which is widely used in practice. It is well known that the naive use of CBC MAC for variable length messages is not secure, and a few rules of thumb for the correct use of CBC MAC are known by folklore. The first rigorous proof of the security of CBC MAC, when used on fixed length messages, was given only recently by Bellare, Kilian and Rogaway. They also suggested variants of CBC MAC that handle variable length messages but in these variants the length of the message has to be known in advance (i.e., before the message is processed). We study CBC authentication of real time applications in which the length of the message is not known until the message ends, and furthermore, since the application is real-time, it is not possible to start processing the authentication only after the message ends. We first present a variant of CBC MAC, called {\em double MAC} (DMAC) which handles messages of variable unknown lengths. Computing DMAC on a message is virtually as simple and as efficient as computing the standard CBC MAC on the message. We provide a rigorous proof that its security is implied by the security of the underlying block cipher. Next, we argue that the basic CBC MAC is secure when applied to prefix free message space. A message space can be made prefix free by authenticating also the (usually hidden) last character which marks the end of the message.
1996
JOFC
1991
CRYPTO
1989
JOFC
1988
CRYPTO
1987
CRYPTO
1986
CRYPTO
1985
CRYPTO

Program Committees

Crypto 2013
Crypto 1988