## CryptoDB

### Thomas Schneider

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

ASIACRYPT

Breaking the Size Barrier: Universal Circuits meet Lookup Tables
Abstract

A Universal Circuit (UC) is a Boolean circuit of size $\Theta(n \log n)$ that can simulate any Boolean function up to a certain size $n$. Valiant (STOC'76) provided the first two UC constructions of asymptotic sizes $\sim5 n\log n$ and $\sim4.75 n\log n$, and today's most efficient construction of Liu et al. (CRYPTO'21) has size $\sim3n\log n$.
Evaluating a public UC with a secure Multi-Party Computation (MPC) protocol allows efficient Private Function Evaluation (PFE), where a private function is evaluated on private data.
Previously, most UC constructions have only been developed for circuits consisting of 2-input gates. In this work, we generalize UCs to simulate circuits consisting of ($\rho \rightarrow \omega)-Lookup Tables (LUTs) that map $\rho$ input bits to $\omega$ output bits. Our LUT-based UC (LUC) construction has an asymptotic size of $1.5\rho\omega n \log \omega n$ and improves the size of the UC over the best previous UC construction of Liu et al. (CRYPTO'21) by factors 1.12$\times$ - $2.18\times$ for common functions. Our results show that the greatest size improvement is achieved for $\rho=3$ inputs, and it decreases for $\rho>3$.
Furthermore, we introduce Varying Universal Circuits (VUCs), which reduce circuit size at the expense of leaking the number of inputs $\rho$ and outputs $\omega$ of each LUT. Our benchmarks demonstrate that VUCs can improve over the size of the LUC construction by a factor of up to $1.45\times$.

2023

JOFC

Breaking and Fixing Garbled Circuits When a Gate has Duplicate Input Wires
Abstract

Garbled circuits are a fundamental cryptographic primitive that allows two or more parties to securely evaluate an arbitrary Boolean circuit without revealing any information beyond the output using a constant number of communication rounds. Garbled circuits have been introduced by Yao (FOCS’86) and generalized to the multi-party setting by Beaver, Micali and Rogaway (STOC’90). Since then, several works have improved their efficiency by providing different garbling schemes and several implementations exist. Starting with the seminal Fairplay compiler (USENIX Security’04), several implementation frameworks decoupled the task of compiling the function to be evaluated into a Boolean circuit from the engine that securely evaluates that circuit, e.g., using a secure two-party computation protocol based on garbled circuits. In this paper, we show that this decoupling of circuit generation and evaluation allows a subtle attack on several prominent garbling schemes. It occurs when violating the implicit assumption on the circuit that gates have different input wires which is most often not explicitly specified in the respective papers. The affected garbling schemes use separate calls to a deterministic encryption function for the left and right input wire of a gate to derive pseudo-random encryption pads that are XORed together. When a circuit contains a gate where the left and right input wire are the same, these two per-wire encryption pads cancel out and we demonstrate that this can result in a complete break of privacy. We show how the vulnerable garbling schemes can be fixed easily.

2020

JOFC

Efficient and Scalable Universal Circuits
Abstract

A universal circuit (UC) can be programmed to simulate any circuit up to a given size n by specifying its program inputs. It provides elegant solutions in various application scenarios, e.g., for private function evaluation (PFE) and for improving the flexibility of attribute-based encryption schemes. The asymptotic lower bound for the size of a UC is $$\Omega (n\log n)$$ Ω ( n log n ) , and Valiant (STOC’76) provided two theoretical constructions, the so-called 2-way and 4-way UCs (i.e., recursive constructions with 2 and 4 substructures), with asymptotic sizes $${\sim }\,5n\log _2n$$ ∼ 5 n log 2 n and $${\sim }\,4.75n\log _2n$$ ∼ 4.75 n log 2 n , respectively. In this article, we present and extend our results published in (Kiss and Schneider EUROCRYPT’16) and (Günther et al. ASIACRYPT’17). We validate the practicality of Valiant’s UCs by realizing the 2-way and 4-way UCs in our modular open-source implementation. We also provide an example implementation for PFE using these size-optimized UCs. We propose a 2/4-hybrid approach that combines the 2-way and the 4-way UCs in order to minimize the size of the resulting UC. We realize that the bottleneck in universal circuit generation and programming becomes the memory consumption of the program since the whole structure of size $${\mathcal {O}}(n\log n)$$ O ( n log n ) is handled by the algorithms in memory. In this work, we overcome this by designing novel scalable algorithms for the UC generation and programming. Both algorithms use only $${\mathcal {O}}(n)$$ O ( n ) memory at any point in time. We prove the practicality of our scalable design with a scalable proof-of-concept implementation for generating Valiant’s 4-way UC. We note that this can be extended to work with optimized building blocks analogously. Moreover, we substantially improve the size of our UCs by including and implementing the recent optimization of Zhao et al. (ASIACRYPT’19) that reduces the asymptotic size of the 4-way UC to $${\sim }\,4.5n\log _2n$$ ∼ 4.5 n log 2 n . Furthermore, we include their optimization in the implementation of our 2/4-hybrid UC which yields the smallest UC construction known so far.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Efficient Circuit-Based PSI with Linear Communication
📺
Abstract

We present a new protocol for computing a circuit which implements the private set intersection functionality (PSI). Using circuits for this task is advantageous over the usage of specific protocols for PSI, since many applications of PSI do not need to compute the intersection itself but rather functions based on the items in the intersection.Our protocol is the first circuit-based PSI protocol to achieve linear communication complexity. It is also concretely more efficient than all previous circuit-based PSI protocols. For example, for sets of size
$$2^{20}$$
it improves the communication of the recent work of Pinkas et al. (EUROCRYPT’18) by more than 10 times, and improves the run time by a factor of 2.8x in the LAN setting, and by a factor of 5.8x in the WAN setting.Our protocol is based on the usage of a protocol for computing oblivious programmable pseudo-random functions (OPPRF), and more specifically on our technique to amortize the cost of batching together multiple invocations of OPPRF.

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2023
- Eurocrypt 2018
- Eurocrypt 2016

#### Coauthors

- Martin R. Albrecht (1)
- Masaud Y. Alhassan (1)
- Gilad Asharov (2)
- Yann Disser (1)
- Daniel Günther (3)
- Kimmo U. Järvinen (1)
- Ágnes Kiss (3)
- Vladimir Kolesnikov (1)
- Yehuda Lindell (2)
- Raine Nieminen (1)
- Benny Pinkas (3)
- Christian Rechberger (1)
- Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi (1)
- Nigel P. Smart (1)
- Maximilian Stillger (1)
- Tyge Tiessen (1)
- Oleksandr Tkachenko (1)
- Christian Weinert (1)
- Udi Wieder (1)
- Arthur Wigandt (1)
- Stephen C. Williams (1)
- Hossein Yalame (1)
- Avishay Yanai (1)
- Michael Zohner (3)