## CryptoDB

### Guoxiao Liu

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

TCHES

High-Performance Hardware Implementation of MPCitH and Picnic3
Abstract

Picnic is a post-quantum digital signature, the security of which relies solely on symmetric-key primitives such as block ciphers and hash functions instead of number theoretic assumptions. One of the main concerns of Picnic is the large signature size. Although Katz et al.’s protocol (MPCitH-PP) significantly reduces the size of Picnic, the involvement of more parties in MPCitH-PP leads to longer signing/verification times and more hardware resources. This poses new challenges for implementing high-performance Picnic on resource-constrained FPGAs. So far as we know, current works on the hardware implementation of MPCitH-based signatures are compatible with 3 parties only. In this work, we investigate the optimization of the implementation of MPCitH-PP and successfully deploying MPCitH-PP with more than three parties on resource-constrained FPGAs, e.g., Xilinx Artix-7 and Kintex-7, for the first time. In particular, we propose a series of optimizations, which include pipelining and parallel optimization for MPCitH-PP and the optimization of the underlying symmetric primitives. Besides, we make a slight modification to the computation of the offline commitment, which can further reduce the number of computations of Keccak. These optimizations significantly improve the hardware performance of Picnic3. Signing messages on our FPGA takes 0.047 ms for the L1 security level, outperforming Picnic1 with hardware by a factor of about 5.3, which is the fastest implementation of post-quantum signatures as far as we know. Our FPGA implementation for the L5 security level takes 0.146 ms beating Picnic1 by a factor of 8.5, and outperforming Sphincs by a factor of 17.3.

2023

ASIACRYPT

Exploiting the Symmetry of $\mathbb{Z}^n$: Randomization and the Automorphism Problem
Abstract

$\mathbb{Z}^n$ is one of the simplest types of lattices, but the computational problems on its rotations, such as $\mathbb{Z}$SVP and $\mathbb{Z}$LIP, have been of great interest in cryptography. Recent advances have been made in building cryptographic primitives based on these problems, as well as in developing new algorithms for solving them. However, the theoretical complexity of $\mathbb{Z}$SVP and $\mathbb{Z}$LIP are still not well understood.
In this work, we study the problems on rotations of $\mathbb{Z}^n$ by exploiting the symmetry property. We introduce a randomization framework that can be roughly viewed as `applying random automorphisms’ to the output of an oracle, without accessing the automorphism group. Using this framework, we obtain new reduction results for rotations of $\mathbb{Z}^n$. First, we present a reduction from $\mathbb{Z}$LIP to $\mathbb{Z}$SCVP. Here $\mathbb{Z}$SCVP is the problem of finding the shortest characteristic vectors, which is a special case of CVP where the target vector is a deep hole of the lattice. Moreover, we prove a reduction from $\mathbb{Z}$SVP to $\gamma$-$\mathbb{Z}$SVP for any constant $\gamma = O(1)$ in the same dimension, which implies that $\mathbb{Z}$SVP is as hard as its approximate version for any constant approximation factor. Second, we investigate the problem of finding a nontrivial automorphism for a given lattice, which is called LAP. Specifically, we use the randomization framework to show that $\mathbb{Z}$LAP is as hard as $\mathbb{Z}$LIP. We note that our result can be viewed as a $\mathbb{Z}^n$-analogue of Lenstra and Silverberg's result in [JoC2017], but with a different assumption: they assume the $G$-lattice structure, while we assume the access to an oracle that outputs a nontrivial automorphism.

#### Coauthors

- Keting Jia (1)
- Kaijie Jiang (1)
- Lei Ju (1)
- Guoxiao Liu (2)
- Hengyi Luo (1)
- An Wang (1)
- Xiaoyun Wang (1)
- Puwen Wei (1)
- Yang Yu (1)