International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

David Cash

Affiliation: University of Chicago

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2018
TCC
A Ciphertext-Size Lower Bound for Order-Preserving Encryption with Limited Leakage
David Cash Cong Zhang
We consider a security definition of Chenette, Lewi, Weis, and Wu for order-revealing encryption (ORE) and order-preserving encryption (OPE) (FSE 2016). Their definition says that the comparison of two ciphertexts should only leak the index of the most significant bit on which they differ. While their work could achieve order-revealing encryption with short ciphertexts that expand the plaintext by a factor $$\approx 1.58$$, it could only find order-preserving encryption with longer ciphertexts that expanded the plaintext by a security-parameter factor. We give evidence that this gap between ORE and OPE is inherent, by proving that any OPE meeting the information-theoretic version of their security definition (for instance, in the random oracle model) must have ciphertext length close to that of their constructions. We extend our result to identify an abstract security property of any OPE that will result in the same lower bound.
2018
ASIACRYPT
Parameter-Hiding Order Revealing Encryption
Order-revealing encryption (ORE) is a primitive for outsourcing encrypted databases which allows for efficiently performing range queries over encrypted data. Unfortunately, a series of works, starting with Naveed et al. (CCS 2015), have shown that when the adversary has a good estimate of the distribution of the data, ORE provides little protection. In this work, we consider the case that the database entries are drawn identically and independently from a distribution of known shape, but for which the mean and variance are not (and thus the attacks of Naveed et al. do not apply). We define a new notion of security for ORE, called parameter-hiding ORE, which maintains the secrecy of these parameters. We give a construction of ORE satisfying our new definition from bilinear maps.
2017
CRYPTO
2017
JOFC
2017
JOFC
2016
TCC
2016
TCC
2015
PKC
2014
EUROCRYPT
2014
EPRINT
2013
CRYPTO
2013
EUROCRYPT
2012
PKC
2012
JOFC
Bonsai Trees, or How to Delegate a Lattice Basis
We introduce a new lattice-based cryptographic structure called a bonsai tree, and use it to resolve some important open problems in the area. Applications of bonsai trees include an efficient, stateless ‘hash-and-sign’ signature scheme in the standard model (i.e., no random oracles), and the first hierarchical identity-based encryption (HIBE) scheme (also in the standard model) that does not rely on bilinear pairings. Interestingly, the abstract properties of bonsai trees seem to have no known realization in conventional number-theoretic cryptography.
2011
EUROCRYPT
2011
ASIACRYPT
2010
CRYPTO
2010
EUROCRYPT
2010
EUROCRYPT
2010
EPRINT
Cryptographic Agility and its Relation to Circular Encryption
We initiate a provable-security treatment of cryptographic \emph{agility}. A primitive (for example PRFs, authenticated encryption schemes or digital signatures) is agile when multiple, individually secure schemes can securely share the same key. We provide a surprising connection between two seemingly unrelated but challenging questions. The first, new to this paper, is whether wPRFs (weak-PRFs) are agile. The second, already posed several times in the literature, is whether every secure (IND-R) encryption scheme is secure when encrypting cycles. We resolve the second question in the negative and thereby the first as well. We go on to provide a comprehensive treatment of agility, with definitions for various different primitives. We explain the practical motivations for agility. We provide foundational results that show to what extent it is achievable and practical constructions to achieve it to the best extent possible. On the theoretical side our work uncovers new notions and relations and settles stated open questions, and on the practical side it serves to guide developers.
2010
EPRINT
Pseudorandom Functions and Permutations Provably Secure Against Related-Key Attacks
Mihir Bellare David Cash
This paper fills an important foundational gap with the first proofs, under standard assumptions and in the standard model, of the existence of pseudorandom functions (PRFs) and pseudorandom permutations (PRPs) resisting rich and relevant forms of related-key attacks (RKA). An RKA allows the adversary to query the function not only under the target key but under other keys derived from it in adversary-specified ways. Based on the Naor-Reingold PRF we obtain an RKA-PRF whose keyspace is a group and that is proven, under DDH, to resist attacks in which the key may be operated on by arbitrary adversary-specified group elements. Previous work was able only to provide schemes in idealized models (ideal cipher, random oracle), under new, non-standard assumptions, or for limited classes of attacks. The reason was technical difficulties that we resolve via a new approach and framework that, in addition to the above, yields other RKA-PRFs including a DLIN-based one derived from the Lewko-Waters PRF. Over the last 15 years cryptanalysts and blockcipher designers have routinely and consistently targeted RKA-security; it is visibly important for abuse-resistant cryptography; and it helps protect against fault-injection sidechannel attacks. Yet ours are the first significant proofs of existence of secure constructs. We warn that our constructs are proofs-of-concept in the foundational style and not practical.
2009
EPRINT
Foundations of Non-Malleable Hash and One-Way Functions
Non-malleability is an interesting and useful property which ensures that a cryptographic protocol preserves the independence of the underlying values: given for example an encryption Enc(m) of some unknown message m, it should be hard to transform this ciphertext into some encryption Enc(m*) of a related message m*. This notion has been studied extensively for primitives like encryption, commitments and zero-knowledge. Non-malleability of one-way functions and hash functions has surfaced as a crucial property in several recent results, but it has not undergone a comprehensive treatment so far. In this paper we initiate the study of such non-malleable functions. We start with the design of an appropriate security definition. We then show that non-malleability for hash and one-way functions can be achieved, via a theoretical construction that uses perfectly one-way hash functions and simulation-sound non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge (NIZKPoK). We also discuss the complexity of non-malleable hash and one-way functions. Specifically, we give a black-box based separation of non-malleable functions from one-way permutations (which our construction bypasses due to the 'non-black-box' NIZKPoK). We exemplify the usefulness of our definition in cryptographic applications by showing that non-malleability is necessary and sufficient to securely replace one of the two random oracles in the IND-CCA encryption scheme by Bellare and Rogaway, and to improve the security of client-server puzzles.
2009
ASIACRYPT
2009
JOFC
2009
CRYPTO
2008
EUROCRYPT
2008
EPRINT
The Twin Diffie-Hellman Problem and Applications
We propose a new computational problem called the twin Diffie-Hellman problem. This problem is closely related to the usual (computational) Diffie-Hellman problem and can be used in many of the same cryptographic constructions that are based on the Diffie-Hellman problem. Moreover, the twin Diffie-Hellman problem is at least as hard as the ordinary Diffie-Hellman problem. However, we are able to show that the twin Diffie-Hellman problem remains hard, even in the presence of a decision oracle that recognizes solutions to the problem — this is a feature not enjoyed by the ordinary Diffie-Hellman problem. In particular, we show how to build a certain “trapdoor test” that allows us to effectively answer such decision oracle queries without knowing any of the corresponding discrete logarithms. Our new techniques have many applications. As one such application, we present a new variant of ElGamal encryption with very short ciphertexts, and with a very simple and tight security proof, in the random oracle model, under the assumption that the ordinary Diffie-Hellman problem is hard. We present several other applications as well, including: a new variant of Diffie and Hellman’s non-interactive key exchange protocol; a new variant of Cramer-Shoup encryption, with a very simple proof in the standard model; a new variant of Boneh-Franklin identity-based encryption, with very short ciphertexts; a more robust version of a password-authenticated key exchange protocol of Abdalla and Pointcheval.
2007
TCC
2005
EPRINT
Intrusion-Resilient Authentication in the Limited Communication Model
We describe a general technique for building authentication systems that resist compromises at the client side. We derive this resistance by storing key information on hardware fast enough for valid use but too slow for an intruder (e.g., a virus) to capture much of the key before being detected and removed. We give formal models for two types of protocols: user authentication and authenticated session-key generation. The first can be used for physical authentication tokens, e.g., used for gaining access to a building. The second can be used for conducting secure remote sessions on laptops that are occasionally infected by viruses. We present and analyze protocols for each of these tasks and describe how they can be implemented. With one example setting of parameters, in the case of user authentication, we are able to guarantee security for 6 months using a device storing 384MB, and in the key generation protocol, a 128GB drive guarantees that an adversary would need 700 days to compromise the key information. The model for intrusion resilience considered in this paper was first introduced by Dagon et al. \cite{DLL05} and motivated by the bounded storage model for cryptography \cite{Mau92}. Recently Dziembowski \cite{Dzi05} independently developed this model, and studied the same problems as the ones addressed in this paper. Our user authentication protocol is essentially the same as that of \cite{Dzi05}, while our authenticated session-key generation protocol builds on that of \cite{Dzi05}.

Program Committees

Eurocrypt 2019
Eurocrypt 2016
Eurocrypt 2014
PKC 2014
Crypto 2013
PKC 2013
Eurocrypt 2012
Asiacrypt 2012