## CryptoDB

### Omri Shmueli

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2022

EUROCRYPT

Non-malleable Commitments Against Quantum Attacks
📺
Abstract

We construct, under standard hardness assumptions, the first non-malleable commitments secure against quantum attacks. Our commitments are statistically binding and satisfy the standard notion of {\em non-malleability with respect to commitment}. We obtain a $\log^\star(\lambda)$-round classical protocol, assuming the existence of post-quantum one-way functions.
Previously, non-malleable commitments with quantum security were only known against a restricted class of adversaries known as {\em synchronizing adversaries.} At the heart of our results is a new general technique that allows to modularly obtain non-malleable commitments from any extractable commitment protocol, obliviously of the underlying extraction strategy (black-box or non-black-box) or round complexity. The transformation may also be of interest in the classical setting.

2022

CRYPTO

Semi-Quantum Tokenized Signatures
Abstract

Quantum tokenized signature schemes (Ben-David and Sattath, QCrypt 2017) allow a sender to generate and distribute quantum unclonable states which grant their holder a one-time permission to sign in the name of the sender. Such schemes are a strengthening of public-key quantum money schemes, as they allow to execute a quantum money scheme where some channels of communication in the system can be made classical.
An even stronger primitive is semi-quantum tokenized signatures, where the sender is classical and can delegate the generation of the token to a (possibly malicious) quantum receiver. Semi-quantum tokenized signature schemes imply a powerful version of public-key quantum money satisfying two key features:
\begin{itemize}
\item
The bank is classical and the scheme can execute on a completely classical communication network. In addition, the bank is \emph{stateless} and after the creation of a banknote, does not hold any information nor trapdoors except the balance of accounts in the system. Such quantum money scheme solves the main open problem presented by Radian and Sattath (AFT 2019).
\item
Furthermore, the classical-communication transactions between users in the system are \emph{direct} and do not need to go through the bank. This enables the transactions to be both classical and private.
\end{itemize}
While fully-quantum tokenized signatures (where the sender is quantum and generates the token by itself) are known based on quantum-secure indistinguishability obfuscation and injective one-way functions, the semi-quantum version is not known under any computational assumption. In this work we construct a semi-quantum tokenized signature scheme based on quantum-secure indistinguishability obfuscation and the sub-exponential hardness of the Learning with Errors problem.
In the process, we show new properties of quantum coset states and a new hardness result on indistinguishability obfuscation of classical subspace membership circuits.

2021

CRYPTO

Multi-theorem Designated-Verifier NIZK for QMA
📺
Abstract

Abstract. We present a designated-verifier non-interactive zero-knowledge argument
system for QMA with multi-theorem security under the Learning with
Errors Assumption. All previous such protocols for QMA are only single-theorem
secure. We also relax the setup assumption required in previous works. We prove
security in the malicious designated-verifier (MDV-NIZK) model (Quach, Rothblum,
and Wichs, EUROCRYPT 2019), where the setup consists of a mutually
trusted random string and an untrusted verifier public key.
Our main technical contribution is a general compiler that given a NIZK for NP
and a quantum sigma protocol for QMA generates an MDV-NIZK protocol for
QMA.

2021

TCC

Post-quantum Resettably-Sound Zero Knowledge
Abstract

We study post-quantum zero-knowledge (classical) protocols that are sound against quantum resetting attacks. Our model is inspired by the classical model of resetting provers (Barak-Goldreich-GoldwasserLindell, FOCS ‘01), providing a malicious efficient prover with oracle access to the verifier’s next-message-function, fixed to some initial random tape; thereby allowing it to effectively reset (or equivalently, rewind) the verifier. In our model, the prover has quantum access to the verifier’s function, and in particular can query it in superposition. The motivation behind quantum resettable soundness is twofold: First, ensuring a strong security guarantee in scenarios where quantum resetting may be possible (e.g., smart cards, or virtual machines). Second, drawing intuition from the classical setting, we hope to improve our understanding of basic questions regarding post-quantum zero knowledge. We prove the following results:
– Black-Box Barriers. Quantum resetting exactly captures the power of black-box zero knowledge quantum simulators. Accordingly, resettable soundness cannot be achieved in conjunction with black-box zero knowledge, except for languages in BQP. Leveraging this, we prove that constant-round public-coin, or three message, protocols cannot be black-box post-quantum zero-knowledge. For this, we show how to transform such protocols into quantumly resettably sound ones. The transformations are similar to classical ones, but their analysis is very different due to the essential difference between classical and quantum resetting.
– A Resettably-Sound Non-Black-Box Zero-Knowledge Protocol. Under the (quantum) Learning with Errors assumption and quantum fully-homomorphic encryption, we construct a post-quantum resettably sound zero knowledge protocol for NP. We rely on non-black-box simulation techniques, thus overcoming the black-box barrier for such protocols.
– From Resettable Soundness to The Impossibility of Quantum Obfuscation. Assuming one-way functions, we prove that any quantumly resettably-sound zero-knowledge protocol for NP implies the impossibility of quantum obfuscation. Combined with the above result, this gives an alternative proof to several recent results on quantum unobfuscatability.

2020

CRYPTO

Scalable Pseudorandom Quantum States
📺
Abstract

Efficiently sampling a quantum state that is hard to distinguish from a truly random quantum state is an elementary task in quantum information theory that has both computational and physical uses. This is often referred to as pseudorandom (quantum) state generator, or PRS generator for short.
In existing constructions of PRS generators, security scales with the number of qubits in the states, i.e.\ the (statistical) security parameter for an $n$-qubit PRS is roughly $n$. Perhaps counter-intuitively, $n$-qubit PRS are not known to imply $k$-qubit PRS even for $k<n$. Therefore the question of \emph{scalability} for PRS was thus far open: is it possible to construct $n$-qubit PRS generators with security parameter $\secp$ for all $n, \secp$. Indeed, we believe that PRS with tiny (even constant) $n$ and large $\secp$ can be quite useful.
We resolve the problem in this work, showing that any quantum-secure one-way function implies scalable PRS. We follow the paradigm of first showing a \emph{statistically} secure construction when given oracle access to a random function, and then replacing the random function with a quantum-secure (classical) pseudorandom function to achieve computational security. However, our methods deviate significantly from prior works since scalable pseudorandom states require randomizing the amplitudes of the quantum state, and not just the phase as in all prior works. We show how to achieve this using Gaussian sampling.

2019

TCC

(Pseudo) Random Quantum States with Binary Phase
Abstract

We prove a quantum information-theoretic conjecture due to Ji, Liu and Song (CRYPTO 2018) which suggested that a uniform superposition with random binary phase is statistically indistinguishable from a Haar random state. That is, any polynomial number of copies of the aforementioned state is within exponentially small trace distance from the same number of copies of a Haar random state.As a consequence, we get a provable elementary construction of pseudorandom quantum states from post-quantum pseudorandom functions. Generating pseudorandom quantum states is desirable for physical applications as well as for computational tasks such as quantum money. We observe that replacing the pseudorandom function with a (2t)-wise independent function (either in our construction or in previous work), results in an explicit construction for quantum state t-designs for all t. In fact, we show that the circuit complexity (in terms of both circuit size and depth) of constructing t-designs is bounded by that of (2t)-wise independent functions. Explicitly, while in prior literature t-designs required linear depth (for $$t > 2$$), this observation shows that polylogarithmic depth suffices for all t.We note that our constructions yield pseudorandom states and state designs with only real-valued amplitudes, which was not previously known. Furthermore, generating these states require quantum circuit of restricted form: applying one layer of Hadamard gates, followed by a sequence of Toffoli gates. This structure may be useful for efficiency and simplicity of implementation.

#### Coauthors

- Nir Bitansky (2)
- Zvika Brakerski (2)
- Michael Kellner (1)
- Huijia Lin (1)