Composable Long-Term Security with Rewinding
Long-term security, a variant of Universally Composable (UC) security introduced by Müller-Quade and Unruh (TCC ’07, JoC ’10), allows to analyze the security of protocols in a setting where all hardness assumptions no longer hold after the protocol execution has finished. Such a strict notion is highly desirable when properties such as input privacy need to be guaranteed for a long time, e.g. with zero-knowledge proofs for secure electronic voting. Strong impossibility results rule out so-called long-term-revealing setups, e.g. a common reference string (CRS), to achieve long-term security, with known constructions for long-term security requiring hardware assumptions, e.g. signature cards. We circumvent these impossibility results with new techniques, enabling rewinding-based simulation in a way that universal composability is achieved. This allows us to construct a long-term-secure composable commitment scheme in the CRS-hybrid model, which is provably impossible in the notion of Müller-Quade and Unruh. We base our construction on a statistically hiding commitment scheme in the CRS-hybrid model with CCA-like properties. To provide a CCA oracle, we cannot rely on super-polynomial extraction techniques and instead extract the value committed to via rewinding. To this end, we incorporate rewinding-based commitment extraction into the UC framework via a helper in analogy to Canetti, Lin and Pass (FOCS 2010), allowing both adversary and environment to extract statistically hiding commitments. Our new framework provides the first setting in which a commitment scheme that is both statistically hiding and universally composable can be constructed from standard polynomial-time hardness assumptions and a CRS only. We also prove that our CCA oracle is k-robust extractable. This asserts that extraction is possible without rewinding a concurrently executed k-round protocol. Consequently any k-round (standard) UC-secure protocol remains secure in the presence of our helper. Finally, we prove that building long-term-secure oblivious transfer (and thus general two-party computations) from long-term-revealing setups remains impossible in our setting. Still, our long-term-secure commitment scheme suffices for natural applications, such as long-term secure and composable (commit-and-prove) zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge.
Environmentally Friendly Composable Multi-Party Computation in the Plain Model from Standard (Timed) Assumptions 📺
Starting with the work of Rivest et al. in 1996, timed assumptions have found many applications in cryptography, building e.g. the foundation of the blockchain technology. They also have been used in the context of classical MPC, e.g. to enable fairness. We follow this line of research to obtain composable general MPC in the plain model. This approach comes with a major advantage regarding environmental friendliness, a property coined by Canetti et al. (FOCS 2013). Informally, this means that our constructions do not “hurt” game-based security properties of protocols that hold against polynomial-time adversaries when executed alone. As an additional property, our constructions can be plugged into any UC-secure protocol without loss of security. Towards proving the security of our constructions, we introduce a variant of the UC security notion that captures timed cryptographic assumptions. Combining standard timed commitment schemes and standard polynomial-time hardness assumptions, we construct a composable commitment scheme in the plain model. As this construction is constant-round and black-box, we obtain the first fully environmentally friendly composable constant-round black-box general MPC protocol in the plain model from standard (timed) assumptions.
Non-malleability vs. CCA-Security: The Case of Commitments
In this work, we settle the relations among a variety of security notions related to non-malleability and CCA-security that have been proposed for commitment schemes in the literature. Interestingly, all our separations follow from two generic transformations. Given two appropriate security notions X and Y from the class of security notions we compare, these transformations take a commitment scheme that fulfills notion X and output a commitment scheme that still fulfills notion X but not notion Y.Using these transformations, we are able to show that some of the known relations for public-key encryption do not carry over to commitments. In particular, we show that, surprisingly, parallel non-malleability and parallel CCA-security are not equivalent for commitment schemes. This stands in contrast to the situation for public-key encryption where these two notions are equivalent as shown by Bellare et al. at CRYPTO ‘99.