## CryptoDB

### Benjamin Wesolowski

#### ORCID: 0000-0003-1249-6077

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

CIC

Computing isogenies between finite Drinfeld modules
Abstract

<p>We prove that isogenies between Drinfeld F[x]-modules over a finite field can be computed in polynomial time. This breaks Drinfeld analogs of isogeny-based cryptosystems. </p>

2024

CRYPTO

Cryptanalysis of Algebraic Verifiable Delay Functions
Abstract

Verifiable Delay Functions (VDF) are a class of cryptographic primitives aiming to guarantee a minimum computation time, even for an adversary with massive parallel computational power. They are useful in blockchain protocols, and several practical candidates have been proposed based on exponentiation in a large finite field: Sloth++, Veedo, MinRoot. The underlying assumption of these constructions is that computing an exponentiation x^e requires at least log2(e) sequential multiplications.
In this work, we analyze the security of these algebraic VDF candidates. In particular, we show that the latency of exponentiation can be reduced using parallel computation, against the preliminary assumptions.

2024

EUROCRYPT

The supersingular Endomorphism Ring and One Endomorphism problems are equivalent
Abstract

The supersingular Endomorphism Ring problem is the following: given a supersingular elliptic curve, compute all of its endomorphisms. The presumed hardness of this problem is foundational for isogeny-based cryptography. The One Endomorphism problem only asks to find a single non-scalar endomorphism. We prove that these two problems are equivalent, under probabilistic polynomial time reductions.
We prove a number of consequences. First, assuming the hardness of the endomorphism ring problem, the Charles--Goren--Lauter hash function is collision resistant, and the SQIsign identification protocol is sound for uniformly random keys. Second, the endomorphism ring problem is equivalent to the problem of computing arbitrary isogenies between supersingular elliptic curves, a result previously known only for isogenies of smooth degree. Third, there exists an unconditional probabilistic algorithm to solve the endomorphism ring problem in time $\tilde O(p^{1/2})$, a result that previously required to assume the generalized Riemann hypothesis.
To prove our main result, we introduce a flexible framework for the study of isogeny graphs with additional information. We prove a general and easy-to-use rapid mixing theorem.

2024

EUROCRYPT

SQIsignHD: New Dimensions in Cryptography
Abstract

We introduce SQIsignHD, a new post-quantum digital signature scheme inspired by SQIsign.
SQIsignHD exploits the recent algorithmic breakthrough underlying the attack on SIDH, which allows to efficiently represent isogenies of arbitrary degrees as components of a higher dimensional isogeny. SQIsignHD overcomes the main drawbacks of SQIsign. First, it scales well to high security levels, since the public parameters for SQIsignHD are easy to generate: the characteristic of the underlying field needs only be of the form $2^{f}3^{f'}-1$. Second, the signing procedure is simpler and more efficient. Our signing procedure implemented in C runs in 28 ms, which is a significant improvement compared to SQISign. Third, the scheme is easier to analyse, allowing for a much more compelling security reduction. Finally, the signature sizes are even more compact than (the already record-breaking) SQIsign, with compressed signatures as small as 109 bytes for the post-quantum NIST-1 level of security.
These advantages may come at the expense of the verification, which now requires the computation of an isogeny in dimension $4$, a task whose optimised cost is still uncertain, as it has been the focus of very little attention. Our experimental \verb+sagemath+ implementation of the verification runs in 850 ms, indicating the potential cryptographic interest of dimension $4$ isogenies after optimisations and low level implementation.

2024

ASIACRYPT

SQIsign2D-West: The Fast, the Small, and the Safer
Abstract

We introduce SQIsign2D-West, a variant of SQIsign using two-dimensional isogeny representations.
SQIsignHD was the first variant of SQIsign to use higher dimensional isogeny representations. Its eight-dimensional variant is geared towards provable security but is deemed unpractical. Its four-dimensional variant is geared towards efficiency and has significantly faster signing times than SQIsign, but considerably slower verification owing to the complexity of the four-dimensional representation. Its authors commented on the apparent difficulty of getting any improvement over SQIsign by using two-dimensional representations.
In this work, we introduce new algorithmic tools that make two-dimensional representations a viable alternative. These lead to a signature scheme with sizes comparable to SQIsignHD, slightly slower signing than SQIsignHD but still much faster than SQIsign, and the fastest verification of any known variant of SQIsign. We achieve this without compromising on the security proof: the assumptions behind SQIsign2D-West are similar to those of the eight-dimensional variant of SQIsignHD. Additionally, like SQIsignHD, SQIsign2D-West favourably scales to high levels of security.
Concretely, for NIST level I we achieve signing times of 80ms and verifying times of 4.5ms, using optimised arithmetic based on intrinsics available to the Ice Lake architecture. For NIST level V, we achieve 470ms for signing and 31ms for verifying.

2023

EUROCRYPT

A Direct Key Recovery Attack on SIDH
★
Abstract

We present an attack on SIDH utilising isogenies between polarized products of two supersingular elliptic curves. In the case of arbitrary starting curve, our attack (discovered independently from [8]) has subexponential complexity, thus significantly reducing the security of SIDH and SIKE. When the endomorphism ring of the starting curve is known, our attack (here derived from [8]) has polynomial-time complexity assuming the generalised Riemann hypothesis. Our attack applies to any isogeny-based cryptosystem that publishes the images of points under the secret isogeny, for example Séta [13] and B-SIDH [11]. It does not apply to CSIDH [9], CSI-FiSh [3], or SQISign [14].

2023

PKC

SCALLOP: scaling the CSI-FiSh
Abstract

We present SCALLOP: SCALable isogeny action based on Oriented supersingular curves with Prime conductor, a new group action based on isogenies of supersingular curves. Similarly to CSIDH and OSIDH, we use the group action of an imaginary quadratic order's class group on the set of oriented supersingular curves.
Compared to CSIDH, the main benefit of our construction is that it is easy to compute the class-group structure; this data is required to uniquely represent - and efficiently act by - arbitrary group elements, which is a requirement in, e.g., the CSI-FiSh signature scheme by Beullens, Kleinjung and Vercauteren. The index-calculus algorithm used in CSI-FiSh to compute the class-group structure has complexity $L(1/2)$, ruling out class groups much larger than CSIDH-512, a limitation that is particularly problematic in light of the ongoing debate regarding the quantum security of cryptographic group actions.
Hoping to solve this issue, we consider the class group of a quadratic order of large prime conductor inside an imaginary quadratic field of small discriminant. This family of quadratic orders lets us easily determine the size of the class group, and, by carefully choosing the conductor, even exercise significant control on it - in particular supporting highly smooth choices. Although evaluating the resulting group action still has subexponential asymptotic complexity, a careful choice of parameters leads to a practical speedup that we demonstrate in practice for a security level equivalent to CSIDH-1024, a parameter currently firmly out of reach of index-calculus-based methods. However, our implementation takes 35 seconds (resp. 12.5 minutes) for a single group-action evaluation at a CSIDH-512-equivalent (resp. CSIDH-1024-equivalent) security level, showing that, while feasible, the SCALLOP group action does not achieve realistically usable performance yet.

2023

EUROCRYPT

Supersingular Curves You can Trust
Abstract

Generating a supersingular elliptic curve such that nobody knows its endomorphism ring is a notoriously hard task, despite several isogeny-based protocols relying on such an object. A trusted setup is often proposed as a workaround, but several aspects remain unclear. In this work, we develop the tools necessary to practically run such a distributed trusted-setup ceremony.
Our key contribution is the first statistically zero-knowledge proof of isogeny knowledge that is compatible with any base field. To prove statistical ZK, we introduce isogeny graphs with Borel level structure and prove they have the Ramanujan property. Then, we analyze the security of a distributed trusted-setup protocol based on our ZK proof in the simplified universal composability framework. Lastly, we develop an optimized implementation of the ZK proof, and we propose a strategy to concretely deploy the trusted-setup protocol.

2023

EUROCRYPT

New algorithms for the Deuring correspondence: Towards practical and secure SQISign signatures
Abstract

The Deuring correspondence defines a bijection between isogenies of supersingular elliptic curves and ideals of maximal orders in a quaternion algebra. We present a new algorithm to translate ideals of prime-power norm to their corresponding isogenies --- a central task of the effective Deuring correspondence. The new method improves upon the algorithm introduced in 2021 by De Feo, Kohel, Leroux, Petit and Wesolowski as a building-block of the SQISign signature scheme. SQISign is the most compact post-quantum signature scheme currently known, but is several orders of magnitude slower than competitors, the main bottleneck of the computation being the ideal-to-isogeny translation. We implement the new algorithm and apply it to SQISign, achieving a more than two-fold speedup in key generation and signing with a new choice of parameter. Moreover, after adapting the state-of-the-art GF(p^2) multiplication algorithms by Longa to implement SQISign's underlying extension field arithmetic and adding various improvements, we push the total speedups to over three times for signing and four times for verification.
In a second part of the article, we advance cryptanalysis by showing a very simple distinguisher against one of the assumptions used in SQISign. We present a way to impede the distinguisher through a few changes to the generic KLPT algorithm. We formulate a new assumption capturing these changes, and provide an analysis together with experimental evidence for its validity.

2023

TCC

Ideal-SVP is Hard for Small-Norm Uniform Prime Ideals
Abstract

The presumed hardness of the Shortest Vector Problem for ideal lattices (Ideal-SVP) has been a fruitful assumption to understand other assumptions on algebraic lattices and as a security foundation of cryptosystems. Gentry [CRYPTO’10] proved that Ideal-SVP enjoys a worst-case to average-case reduction, where the average-case distribution is the uniform distribution over the set of inverses of prime ideals of small algebraic norm (below d^O(d) for cyclotomic fields, where d refers to the field degree). De Boer et al. [CRYPTO’20] btained another random self-reducibility result for an average-case distribution involving integral ideals of norm 2^O(d^2).
In this work, we show that Ideal-SVP for the uniform distribution over inverses of small-norm prime ideals reduces to Ideal-SVP for the uniform distribution over small-norm prime ideals. Combined with Gentry’s reduction, this leads to a worst-case to average-case reduction for the uniform distribution over the set of small-norm prime ideals. Using the reduction from Pellet-Mary and Stehlé [ASIACRYPT’21], this notably leads to the first distribution over NTRU instances with a polynomial modulus whose hardness is supported by a worst-case lattice problem.

2022

EUROCRYPT

Orientations and the supersingular endomorphism ring problem
📺
Abstract

We study two important families of problems in isogeny-based cryptography and how they relate to each other: computing the endomorphism ring of supersingular elliptic curves, and inverting the action of class groups on oriented supersingular curves. We prove that these two families of problems are closely related through polynomial-time reductions, assuming the generalized Riemann hypothesis.
We identify two classes of essentially equivalent problems. The first class corresponds to the problem of computing the endomorphism ring of oriented curves. The security of a large family of cryptosystems (such as CSIDH) reduces to (and sometimes from) this class, for which there are heuristic quantum algorithms running in subexponential time. The second class corresponds to computing the endomorphism ring of orientable curves. The security of essentially all isogeny-based cryptosystems reduces to (and sometimes from) this second class, for which the best known algorithms are still exponential.
Some of our reductions not only generalise, but also strengthen previously known results. For instance, it was known that in the particular case of curves defined over $\mathbb F_p$, the security of CSIDH reduces to the endomorphism ring problem in subexponential time. Our reductions imply that the security of CSIDH is actually equivalent to the endomorphism ring problem, under polynomial time reductions (circumventing arguments that proved such reductions unlikely).

2021

ASIACRYPT

Séta: Supersingular Encryption from Torsion Attacks
📺
Abstract

We present Séta, a new family of public-key encryption schemes with post-quantum security based on isogenies of supersingular elliptic curves.
It is constructed from a new family of trapdoor one-way functions, where the inversion algorithm uses Petit's so called \emph{torsion attacks} on SIDH to compute an isogeny between supersingular elliptic curves given an endomorphism of the starting curve and images of torsion points.
We prove the OW-CPA security of S\'eta and present an IND-CCA variant using the post-quantum OAEP transformation.
Several variants for key generation are explored together with their impact on the selection of parameters, such as the base prime of the scheme.
We furthermore formalise an ``uber'' isogeny assumption framework which aims to generalize computational isogeny problems encountered in schemes including SIDH, CSDIH, OSIDH and ours.
Finally, we carefully select parameters to achieve a balance between security and run-times and present experimental results from our implementation.

2020

CRYPTO

Random Self-reducibility of Ideal-SVP via Arakelov Random Walks
📺
Abstract

Fixing a number field, the space of all ideal lattices, up to isometry, is naturally an Abelian group, called the *Arakelov class group*. This fact, well known to number theorists, has so far not been explicitly used in the literature on lattice-based cryptography. Remarkably, the Arakelov class group is a combination of two groups that have already led to significant cryptanalytic advances: the class group and the unit torus.
In the present article, we show that the Arakelov class group has more to offer. We start with the development of a new versatile tool: we prove that, subject to the Riemann Hypothesis for Hecke L-functions, certain random walks on the Arakelov class group have a rapid mixing property. We then exploit this result to relate the average-case and the worst-case of the Shortest Vector Problem in ideal lattices. Our reduction appears particularly sharp: for Hermite-SVP in ideal lattices of certain cyclotomic number fields, it loses no more than a $\tilde O(\sqrt n)$ factor on the Hermite approximation factor.
Furthermore, we suggest that this rapid-mixing theorem should find other applications in cryptography and in algorithmic number theory.

2020

ASIACRYPT

SQISign: Compact Post-Quantum signatures from Quaternions and Isogenies
📺 ★
Abstract

We introduce a new signature scheme, \emph{SQISign}, (for \emph{Short Quaternion and Isogeny Signature}) from isogeny graphs of supersingular elliptic curves. The signature scheme is derived from a new one-round, high soundness, interactive identification protocol. Targeting the post-quantum NIST-1 level of security, our implementation results in signatures of $204$ bytes, secret keys of $16$ bytes and public keys of $64$ bytes. In particular, the signature and public key sizes combined are an order of magnitude smaller than all other post-quantum signature schemes. On a modern workstation, our implementation in C takes 0.6s for key generation, 2.5s for signing, and 50ms for verification.
While the soundness of the identification protocol follows from classical assumptions, the zero-knowledge property relies on the second main contribution of this paper.
We introduce a new algorithm to find an isogeny path connecting two given supersingular elliptic curves of known endomorphism rings.
A previous algorithm to solve this problem, due to Kohel, Lauter, Petit and Tignol, systematically reveals paths from the input curves to a `special' curve. This leakage would break the zero-knowledge property of the protocol. Our algorithm does not directly reveal such a path, and subject to a new computational assumption, we prove that the resulting identification protocol is zero-knowledge.

2020

JOFC

Efficient Verifiable Delay Functions
Abstract

We construct a verifiable delay function (VDF). A VDF is a function whose evaluation requires running a given number of sequential steps, yet the result can be efficiently verified. They have applications in decentralised systems, such as the generation of trustworthy public randomness in a trustless environment, or resource-efficient blockchains. To construct our VDF, we actually build a trapdoor VDF. A trapdoor VDF is essentially a VDF which can be evaluated efficiently by parties who know a secret (the trapdoor). By setting up this scheme in a way that the trapdoor is unknown (not even by the party running the setup, so that there is no need for a trusted setup environment), we obtain a simple VDF. Our construction is based on groups of unknown order such as an RSA group or the class group of an imaginary quadratic field. The output of our construction is very short (the result and the proof of correctness are each a single element of the group), and the verification of correctness is very efficient.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Efficient Verifiable Delay Functions
📺 ★
Abstract

We construct a verifiable delay function (VDF). A VDF is a function whose evaluation requires running a given number of sequential steps, yet the result can be efficiently verified. They have applications in decentralised systems, such as the generation of trustworthy public randomness in a trustless environment, or resource-efficient blockchains. To construct our VDF, we actually build a trapdoor VDF. A trapdoor VDF is essentially a VDF which can be evaluated efficiently by parties who know a secret (the trapdoor). By setting up this scheme in a way that the trapdoor is unknown (not even by the party running the setup, so that there is no need for a trusted setup environment), we obtain a simple VDF. Our construction is based on groups of unknown order such as an RSA group, or the class group of an imaginary quadratic field. The output of our construction is very short (the result and the proof of correctness are each a single element of the group), and the verification of correctness is very efficient.

2019

CRYPTO

On the Shortness of Vectors to Be Found by the Ideal-SVP Quantum Algorithm
📺
Abstract

The hardness of finding short vectors in ideals of cyclotomic number fields (hereafter, Ideal-SVP) can serve as a worst-case assumption for numerous efficient cryptosystems, via the average-case problems Ring-SIS and Ring-LWE. For a while, it could be assumed the Ideal-SVP problem was as hard as the analog problem for general lattices (SVP), even when considering quantum algorithms.But in the last few years, a series of works has lead to a quantum algorithm for Ideal-SVP that outperforms what can be done for general SVP in certain regimes. More precisely, it was demonstrated (under certain hypotheses) that one can find in quantum polynomial time a vector longer by a factor at most
$$\alpha = \exp ({\widetilde{O}(n^{1/2})})$$
than the shortest non-zero vector in a cyclotomic ideal lattice, where n is the dimension.In this work, we explore the constants hidden behind this asymptotic claim. While these algorithms have quantum steps, the steps that impact the approximation factor
$$\alpha $$
are entirely classical, which allows us to estimate it experimentally using only classical computing. Moreover, we design heuristic improvements for those steps that significantly decrease the hidden factors in practice. Finally, we derive new provable effective lower bounds based on volumetric arguments.This study allows to predict the crossover point with classical lattice reduction algorithms, and thereby determine the relevance of this quantum algorithm in any cryptanalytic context. For example we predict that this quantum algorithm provides shorter vectors than BKZ-300 (roughly the weakest security level of NIST lattice-based candidates) for cyclotomic rings of rank larger than about 24000.

#### Program Committees

- PKC 2023
- Asiacrypt 2023
- PKC 2022

#### Coauthors

- Andrea Basso (2)
- Alex Biryukov (1)
- Giulio Codogni (1)
- Deirdre Connolly (1)
- Ronald Cramer (1)
- Pierrick Dartois (2)
- Koen de Boer (1)
- Luca De Feo (6)
- Léo Ducas (3)
- Joël Felderhoff (1)
- Ben Fisch (1)
- Tako Boris Fouotsa (3)
- Cyprien Delpech de Saint Guilhem (1)
- Gottfried Herold (1)
- Dmitry Khovratovich (1)
- David Kohel (1)
- Péter Kutas (2)
- Antonin Leroux (6)
- Gaëtan Leurent (1)
- Guido Maria Lido (1)
- Patrick Longa (1)
- Luciano Maino (2)
- Chloe Martindale (1)
- Simon-Philipp Merz (1)
- Travis Morrison (1)
- María Naya-Plasencia (1)
- Aurel Page (1)
- Lorenz Panny (3)
- Sikhar Patranabis (1)
- Alice Pellet-Mary (2)
- Christophe Petit (2)
- Maxime Plançon (1)
- Giacomo Pope (2)
- Damien Robert (2)
- Javier Silva (1)
- Damien Stehlé (1)
- Benjamin Wesolowski (18)