## CryptoDB

### Antonin Leroux

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

PKC

SCALLOP-HD: group action from 2-dimensional isogenies
Abstract

We present SCALLOP-HD, a novel group action that builds upon the recent SCALLOP group action introduced by De Feo, Fouotsa, Kutas, Leroux, Merz, Panny and Wesolowski in 2023. While our group action uses the same action of the class group $\textnormal{Cl}(\mathfrak{O})$ on $\mathfrak{O}$-oriented curves where $\mathfrak{O} = \mathbb{Z}[f\sqrt{-d}]$ for a large prime $f$ and small $d$ as SCALLOP, we introduce a different orientation representation: The new representation embeds an endomorphism generating $\mathfrak{O}$ in a $2^e$-isogeny between abelian varieties of dimension $2$ with Kani's Lemma, and this representation comes with a simple algorithm to compute the class group action. Our new approach considerably simplifies the SCALLOP framework, potentially surpassing it in efficiency — a claim supported by preliminary implementation results in SageMath. Additionally, our approach streamlines parameter selection. The new representation allows us to select efficiently a class group $\textnormal{Cl}(\mathfrak{O})$ of smooth order, enabling polynomial-time generation of the lattice of relation, hence enhancing scalability in contrast to SCALLOP.
To instantiate our SCALLOP-HD group action, we introduce a new technique to apply Kani's Lemma in dimension 2 with an isogeny diamond obtained from commuting endomorphisms. This method allows one to represent arbitrary endomorphisms with isogenies in dimension 2, and may be of independent interest.

2024

EUROCRYPT

SQIsignHD: New Dimensions in Cryptography
Abstract

We introduce SQIsignHD, a new post-quantum digital signature scheme inspired by SQIsign.
SQIsignHD exploits the recent algorithmic breakthrough underlying the attack on SIDH, which allows to efficiently represent isogenies of arbitrary degrees as components of a higher dimensional isogeny. SQIsignHD overcomes the main drawbacks of SQIsign. First, it scales well to high security levels, since the public parameters for SQIsignHD are easy to generate: the characteristic of the underlying field needs only be of the form $2^{f}3^{f'}-1$. Second, the signing procedure is simpler and more efficient. Our signing procedure implemented in C runs in 28 ms, which is a significant improvement compared to SQISign. Third, the scheme is easier to analyse, allowing for a much more compelling security reduction. Finally, the signature sizes are even more compact than (the already record-breaking) SQIsign, with compressed signatures as small as 109 bytes for the post-quantum NIST-1 level of security.
These advantages may come at the expense of the verification, which now requires the computation of an isogeny in dimension $4$, a task whose optimised cost is still uncertain, as it has been the focus of very little attention. Our experimental \verb+sagemath+ implementation of the verification runs in 850 ms, indicating the potential cryptographic interest of dimension $4$ isogenies after optimisations and low level implementation.

2023

PKC

SCALLOP: scaling the CSI-FiSh
Abstract

We present SCALLOP: SCALable isogeny action based on Oriented supersingular curves with Prime conductor, a new group action based on isogenies of supersingular curves. Similarly to CSIDH and OSIDH, we use the group action of an imaginary quadratic order's class group on the set of oriented supersingular curves.
Compared to CSIDH, the main benefit of our construction is that it is easy to compute the class-group structure; this data is required to uniquely represent - and efficiently act by - arbitrary group elements, which is a requirement in, e.g., the CSI-FiSh signature scheme by Beullens, Kleinjung and Vercauteren. The index-calculus algorithm used in CSI-FiSh to compute the class-group structure has complexity $L(1/2)$, ruling out class groups much larger than CSIDH-512, a limitation that is particularly problematic in light of the ongoing debate regarding the quantum security of cryptographic group actions.
Hoping to solve this issue, we consider the class group of a quadratic order of large prime conductor inside an imaginary quadratic field of small discriminant. This family of quadratic orders lets us easily determine the size of the class group, and, by carefully choosing the conductor, even exercise significant control on it - in particular supporting highly smooth choices. Although evaluating the resulting group action still has subexponential asymptotic complexity, a careful choice of parameters leads to a practical speedup that we demonstrate in practice for a security level equivalent to CSIDH-1024, a parameter currently firmly out of reach of index-calculus-based methods. However, our implementation takes 35 seconds (resp. 12.5 minutes) for a single group-action evaluation at a CSIDH-512-equivalent (resp. CSIDH-1024-equivalent) security level, showing that, while feasible, the SCALLOP group action does not achieve realistically usable performance yet.

2023

EUROCRYPT

New algorithms for the Deuring correspondence: Towards practical and secure SQISign signatures
Abstract

The Deuring correspondence defines a bijection between isogenies of supersingular elliptic curves and ideals of maximal orders in a quaternion algebra. We present a new algorithm to translate ideals of prime-power norm to their corresponding isogenies --- a central task of the effective Deuring correspondence. The new method improves upon the algorithm introduced in 2021 by De Feo, Kohel, Leroux, Petit and Wesolowski as a building-block of the SQISign signature scheme. SQISign is the most compact post-quantum signature scheme currently known, but is several orders of magnitude slower than competitors, the main bottleneck of the computation being the ideal-to-isogeny translation. We implement the new algorithm and apply it to SQISign, achieving a more than two-fold speedup in key generation and signing with a new choice of parameter. Moreover, after adapting the state-of-the-art GF(p^2) multiplication algorithms by Longa to implement SQISign's underlying extension field arithmetic and adding various improvements, we push the total speedups to over three times for signing and four times for verification.
In a second part of the article, we advance cryptanalysis by showing a very simple distinguisher against one of the assumptions used in SQISign. We present a way to impede the distinguisher through a few changes to the generic KLPT algorithm. We formulate a new assumption capturing these changes, and provide an analysis together with experimental evidence for its validity.

2023

ASIACRYPT

Hidden Stabilizers, the Isogeny To Endomorphism Ring Problem and the Cryptanalysis of pSIDH
Abstract

The Isogeny to Endomorphism Ring Problem (IsERP) asks to compute the endomorphism ring of the codomain of an isogeny between supersingular curves in characteristic p given only a representation for this isogeny, i.e. some data and an algorithm to evaluate this isogeny on any torsion point. This problem plays a central role in isogeny-based cryptography; it underlies the security of pSIDH protocol (ASIACRYPT 2022) and it is at the heart of the recent attacks that broke the SIDH key exchange. Prior to this work, no efficient algorithm was known to solve IsERP for a generic isogeny degree, the hardest case seemingly when the degree is prime.
In this paper, we introduce a new quantum polynomial-time algorithm to solve IsERP for isogenies whose degrees are odd and have O(log(log p)) many prime factors. As main technical tools, our algorithm uses a quantum algorithm for computing hidden Borel subgroups, a group action on supersingular isogenies from EUROCRYPT 2021, various algorithms for the Deuring correspondence and a new algorithm to lift arbitrary quaternion order elements modulo an odd integer N with O(log(log p)) many prime factors to powersmooth elements.
As a main consequence for cryptography, we obtain a quantum polynomial-time key recovery attack on pSIDH. The technical tools we use may also be of independent interest.

2022

ASIACRYPT

A New Isogeny Representation and Applications to Cryptography
📺
Abstract

This paper focuses on isogeny representations, defined as witnesses of membership to the language of isogenous supersingular curves (the set of triples $D,E_1,E_2$ with a cyclic isogeny of degree $D$ between $E_1$ and $E_2$). This language and its proofs of membership are known to have several fundamental cryptographic applications such as the construction of digital signatures and validation of encryption keys.
In the first part of this article, we reinterpret known results on isogenies in the framework of languages and proofs to show that the language of isogenous supersingular curves is in \textsf{NP} with the isogeny representation derived naturally from the Deuring correspondence.
Our main contribution is the design of the suborder representation, a new isogeny representation targetted at the case of (big) prime degree. The core of our new method is the revelation of endomorphisms of smooth norm inside a well-chosen suborder of the codomain's endomorphism ring. These new membership witnesses appear to be opening interesting prospects for isogeny-based cryptography under the hardness of a new computational problem: the SubOrder to Ideal Problem (SOIP). As an application, we introduce pSIDH, a new NIKE based on the suborder representation.
In the process, we also develop several heuristic algorithmic tools to solve norm equations inside a new family of quaternion orders. These new algorithms may be of independent interest.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Séta: Supersingular Encryption from Torsion Attacks
📺
Abstract

We present Séta, a new family of public-key encryption schemes with post-quantum security based on isogenies of supersingular elliptic curves.
It is constructed from a new family of trapdoor one-way functions, where the inversion algorithm uses Petit's so called \emph{torsion attacks} on SIDH to compute an isogeny between supersingular elliptic curves given an endomorphism of the starting curve and images of torsion points.
We prove the OW-CPA security of S\'eta and present an IND-CCA variant using the post-quantum OAEP transformation.
Several variants for key generation are explored together with their impact on the selection of parameters, such as the base prime of the scheme.
We furthermore formalise an ``uber'' isogeny assumption framework which aims to generalize computational isogeny problems encountered in schemes including SIDH, CSDIH, OSIDH and ours.
Finally, we carefully select parameters to achieve a balance between security and run-times and present experimental results from our implementation.

2020

ASIACRYPT

SQISign: Compact Post-Quantum signatures from Quaternions and Isogenies
📺 ★
Abstract

We introduce a new signature scheme, \emph{SQISign}, (for \emph{Short Quaternion and Isogeny Signature}) from isogeny graphs of supersingular elliptic curves. The signature scheme is derived from a new one-round, high soundness, interactive identification protocol. Targeting the post-quantum NIST-1 level of security, our implementation results in signatures of $204$ bytes, secret keys of $16$ bytes and public keys of $64$ bytes. In particular, the signature and public key sizes combined are an order of magnitude smaller than all other post-quantum signature schemes. On a modern workstation, our implementation in C takes 0.6s for key generation, 2.5s for signing, and 50ms for verification.
While the soundness of the identification protocol follows from classical assumptions, the zero-knowledge property relies on the second main contribution of this paper.
We introduce a new algorithm to find an isogeny path connecting two given supersingular elliptic curves of known endomorphism rings.
A previous algorithm to solve this problem, due to Kohel, Lauter, Petit and Tignol, systematically reveals paths from the input curves to a `special' curve. This leakage would break the zero-knowledge property of the protocol. Our algorithm does not directly reveal such a path, and subject to a new computational assumption, we prove that the resulting identification protocol is zero-knowledge.

#### Coauthors

- Mingjie Chen (2)
- Pierrick Dartois (1)
- Luca De Feo (4)
- Tako Boris Fouotsa (2)
- Cyprien Delpech de Saint Guilhem (1)
- Muhammad Imran (1)
- Gábor Ivanyos (1)
- David Kohel (1)
- Péter Kutas (3)
- Patrick Longa (1)
- Simon-Philipp Merz (1)
- Lorenz Panny (2)
- Christophe Petit (3)
- Damien Robert (1)
- Javier Silva (1)
- Benjamin Wesolowski (5)