## CryptoDB

### Péter Kutas

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

CRYPTO

Improved algorithms for finding fixed-degree isogenies between supersingular elliptic curves
Abstract

Finding isogenies between supersingular elliptic curves is a natural algorithmic problem which is known to be equivalent to computing the curves' endomorphism rings.
When the isogeny is additionally required to have a specific known degree $d$, the problem appears to be somewhat different in nature, yet its hardness is also required in isogeny-based cryptography.
Let $E_1,E_2$ be supersingular elliptic curves over $\mathbb{F}_{p^2}$. We present improved classical and quantum algorithms that compute an isogeny of degree $d$ between $E_1$ and $E_2$ if it exists. Let $d \approx p^{1/2+ \epsilon}$ for some $\epsilon>0$.
Our essentially memory-free algorithms have better time complexity than meet-in-the-middle algorithms, which require exponential memory storage, in the range $1/2\leq\epsilon\leq 3/4$ on a classical computer. For quantum computers, we improve the time complexity in the range $0<\epsilon<5/2$.
Our strategy is to compute the endomorphism rings of both curves, compute the reduced norm form associated to $\Hom(E_1,E_2)$ and try to represent the integer $d$ as a solution of this form. We present multiple approaches to solving this problem which combine guessing certain variables exhaustively (or use Grover's search in the quantum case) with methods for solving quadratic Diophantine equations such as Cornacchia's algorithm and multivariate variants of Coppersmith's method. For the different approaches, we provide implementations and experimental results. A solution to the norm form can then be efficiently translated to recover the sought-after isogeny using well-known techniques.
As a consequence of our results we show that a recently introduced signature scheme from~\cite{BassoSIDHsign} does not reach NIST level I security.

2023

PKC

SCALLOP: scaling the CSI-FiSh
Abstract

We present SCALLOP: SCALable isogeny action based on Oriented supersingular curves with Prime conductor, a new group action based on isogenies of supersingular curves. Similarly to CSIDH and OSIDH, we use the group action of an imaginary quadratic order's class group on the set of oriented supersingular curves.
Compared to CSIDH, the main benefit of our construction is that it is easy to compute the class-group structure; this data is required to uniquely represent - and efficiently act by - arbitrary group elements, which is a requirement in, e.g., the CSI-FiSh signature scheme by Beullens, Kleinjung and Vercauteren. The index-calculus algorithm used in CSI-FiSh to compute the class-group structure has complexity $L(1/2)$, ruling out class groups much larger than CSIDH-512, a limitation that is particularly problematic in light of the ongoing debate regarding the quantum security of cryptographic group actions.
Hoping to solve this issue, we consider the class group of a quadratic order of large prime conductor inside an imaginary quadratic field of small discriminant. This family of quadratic orders lets us easily determine the size of the class group, and, by carefully choosing the conductor, even exercise significant control on it - in particular supporting highly smooth choices. Although evaluating the resulting group action still has subexponential asymptotic complexity, a careful choice of parameters leads to a practical speedup that we demonstrate in practice for a security level equivalent to CSIDH-1024, a parameter currently firmly out of reach of index-calculus-based methods. However, our implementation takes 35 seconds (resp. 12.5 minutes) for a single group-action evaluation at a CSIDH-512-equivalent (resp. CSIDH-1024-equivalent) security level, showing that, while feasible, the SCALLOP group action does not achieve realistically usable performance yet.

2023

ASIACRYPT

Hidden Stabilizers, the Isogeny To Endomorphism Ring Problem and the Cryptanalysis of pSIDH
Abstract

The Isogeny to Endomorphism Ring Problem (IsERP) asks to compute the endomorphism ring of the codomain of an isogeny between supersingular curves in characteristic p given only a representation for this isogeny, i.e. some data and an algorithm to evaluate this isogeny on any torsion point. This problem plays a central role in isogeny-based cryptography; it underlies the security of pSIDH protocol (ASIACRYPT 2022) and it is at the heart of the recent attacks that broke the SIDH key exchange. Prior to this work, no efficient algorithm was known to solve IsERP for a generic isogeny degree, the hardest case seemingly when the degree is prime.
In this paper, we introduce a new quantum polynomial-time algorithm to solve IsERP for isogenies whose degrees are odd and have O(log(log p)) many prime factors. As main technical tools, our algorithm uses a quantum algorithm for computing hidden Borel subgroups, a group action on supersingular isogenies from EUROCRYPT 2021, various algorithms for the Deuring correspondence and a new algorithm to lift arbitrary quaternion order elements modulo an odd integer N with O(log(log p)) many prime factors to powersmooth elements.
As a main consequence for cryptography, we obtain a quantum polynomial-time key recovery attack on pSIDH. The technical tools we use may also be of independent interest.

2022

PKC

On the Isogeny Problem with Torsion Point Information
📺
Abstract

It has recently been rigorously proven (and was previously known under certain heuristics) that the general supersingular isogeny problem reduces to the supersingular endomorphism ring computation problem. However, in order to attack SIDH-type schemes, one requires a particular isogeny which is usually not returned by the general reduction. At Asiacrypt 2016, Galbraith, Petit, Shani and Ti presented a polynomial-time reduction of the problem of finding the secret isogeny in SIDH to the problem of computing the endomorphism ring of a supersingular elliptic curve. Their method exploits the fact that secret isogenies in SIDH are of degree approximately $p^{1/2}$. The method does not extend to other SIDH-type schemes, where secret isogenies of larger degree are used and this condition is not fulfilled.
We present a more general reduction algorithm that generalises to all SIDH-type schemes. The main idea of our algorithm is to exploit available torsion point images together with the KLPT algorithm to obtain a linear system of equations over a certain residue class ring. We show that this system will have a unique solution that can be lifted to the integers if some mild conditions on the parameters are satisfied. This lift then yields the secret isogeny. One consequence of this work is that the choice of the prime $p$ in \mbox{B-SIDH} is tight.

2021

EUROCRYPT

One-way functions and malleability oracles: Hidden shift attacks on isogeny-based protocols
📺
Abstract

Supersingular isogeny Diffie-Hellman key exchange (SIDH) is a post-quantum protocol based on the presumed hardness of computing an isogeny between two supersingular elliptic curves given some additional torsion point information. Unlike other isogeny-based protocols, SIDH has been widely believed to be immune to subexponential quantum attacks because of the non-commutative structure of the endomorphism rings of supersingular curves.
We contradict this commonly believed misconception in this paper. More precisely, we highlight the existence of an abelian group action on the SIDH key space, and we show that for sufficiently \emph{unbalanced} and \emph{overstretched} SIDH parameters, this action can be efficiently computed (heuristically) using the torsion point information revealed in the protocol. This reduces the underlying hardness assumption to a hidden shift problem instance which can be solved in quantum subexponential time.
We formulate our attack in a new framework allowing the inversion of one-way functions in quantum subexponential time provided a malleability oracle with respect to some commutative group action. This framework unifies our new attack with earlier subexponential quantum attacks on isogeny-based protocols, and it may be of further interest for cryptanalysis.

2021

CRYPTO

Improved torsion-point attacks on SIDH variants
📺
Abstract

SIDH is a post-quantum key exchange algorithm based on the presumed difficulty of finding isogenies between supersingular elliptic curves.
However, SIDH and related cryptosystems also reveal additional information: the restriction of a secret isogeny to a subgroup of the curve (torsion-point information). Petit [31] was the first to demonstrate that torsion-point information could noticeably lower the difficulty of finding secret isogenies. In particular, Petit showed that "overstretched'' parameterizations of SIDH could be broken in polynomial time. However, this did not impact the security of any cryptosystems proposed in the literature. The contribution of this paper is twofold: First, we strengthen the techniques of [31] by exploiting additional information coming from a dual and a Frobenius isogeny. This extends the impact of torsion-point attacks considerably. In particular, our techniques yield a classical attack that completely breaks the $n$-party group key exchange of [2], first introduced as GSIDH in [17], for 6 parties or more, and a quantum attack for 3 parties or more that improves on the best known asymptotic complexity. We also provide a Magma implementation of our attack for 6 parties. We give the full range of parameters for which our attacks apply.
Second, we construct SIDH variants designed to be weak against our attacks; this includes backdoor choices of starting curve, as well as backdoor choices of base-field prime. We stress that our results do not degrade the security of, or reveal any weakness in, the NIST submission SIKE [20].

2021

ASIACRYPT

Cryptanalysis of an oblivious PRF from supersingular isogenies
📺
Abstract

We cryptanalyse the SIDH-based oblivious pseudorandom function from supersingular isogenies proposed at Asiacrypt'20 by Boneh, Kogan and Woo. To this end, we give an attack on an assumption, the auxiliary one-more assumption, that was introduced by Boneh et al. and we show that this leads to an attack on the oblivious PRF itself. The attack breaks the pseudorandomness as it allows adversaries to evaluate the OPRF without further interactions with the server after some initial OPRF evaluations and some offline computations. More specifically, we first propose a polynomial-time attack. Then, we argue it is easy to change the OPRF protocol to include some countermeasures, and present a second subexponential attack that succeeds in the presence of said countermeasures. Both attacks break the security parameters suggested by Boneh et al. Furthermore, we provide a proof of concept implementation as well as some timings of our attack. Finally, we examine the generation of one of the OPRF parameters and argue that a trusted third party is needed to guarantee provable security.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Séta: Supersingular Encryption from Torsion Attacks
📺
Abstract

We present Séta, a new family of public-key encryption schemes with post-quantum security based on isogenies of supersingular elliptic curves.
It is constructed from a new family of trapdoor one-way functions, where the inversion algorithm uses Petit's so called \emph{torsion attacks} on SIDH to compute an isogeny between supersingular elliptic curves given an endomorphism of the starting curve and images of torsion points.
We prove the OW-CPA security of S\'eta and present an IND-CCA variant using the post-quantum OAEP transformation.
Several variants for key generation are explored together with their impact on the selection of parameters, such as the base prime of the scheme.
We furthermore formalise an ``uber'' isogeny assumption framework which aims to generalize computational isogeny problems encountered in schemes including SIDH, CSDIH, OSIDH and ours.
Finally, we carefully select parameters to achieve a balance between security and run-times and present experimental results from our implementation.

#### Coauthors

- Andrea Basso (1)
- Benjamin Benčina (1)
- Mingjie Chen (1)
- Luca De Feo (2)
- Victoria de Quehen (1)
- Tako Boris Fouotsa (3)
- Cyprien Delpech de Saint Guilhem (1)
- Muhammad Imran (1)
- Gábor Ivanyos (1)
- Péter Kutas (8)
- Chris Leonardi (1)
- Antonin Leroux (3)
- Chloe Martindale (1)
- Simon-Philipp Merz (5)
- Lorenz Panny (2)
- Christophe Petit (6)
- Antonio Sanso (1)
- Javier Silva (1)
- Katherine E. Stange (1)
- Miha Stopar (1)
- Yan Bo Ti (1)
- Charlotte Weitkämper (2)
- Benjamin Wesolowski (2)