## CryptoDB

### Alice Pellet-Mary

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

CRYPTO

Reductions from module lattices to free module lattices, and application to dequantizing module-LLL
Abstract

In this article, we give evidences that free modules (i.e., modules
which admit a basis) are no weaker than arbitrary modules, when
it comes to solving cryptographic algorithmic problems (and when the
rank of the module is at least 2). More precisely, we show that for three
algorithmic problems used in cryptography, namely the shortest vector
problem, the Hermite shortest vector problem and a variant of the closest
vector problem, there is a reduction from solving the problem in any
module of rank n ≥ 2 to solving the problem in any free module of the
same rank n. As an application, we show that this can be used to dequantize the LLL algorithm for module lattices presented by Lee et al. (Asiacrypt 2019).

2023

TCC

Ideal-SVP is Hard for Small-Norm Uniform Prime Ideals
Abstract

The presumed hardness of the Shortest Vector Problem for ideal lattices (Ideal-SVP) has been a fruitful assumption to understand other assumptions on algebraic lattices and as a security foundation of cryptosystems. Gentry [CRYPTO’10] proved that Ideal-SVP enjoys a worst-case to average-case reduction, where the average-case distribution is the uniform distribution over the set of inverses of prime ideals of small algebraic norm (below d^O(d) for cyclotomic fields, where d refers to the field degree). De Boer et al. [CRYPTO’20] btained another random self-reducibility result for an average-case distribution involving integral ideals of norm 2^O(d^2).
In this work, we show that Ideal-SVP for the uniform distribution over inverses of small-norm prime ideals reduces to Ideal-SVP for the uniform distribution over small-norm prime ideals. Combined with Gentry’s reduction, this leads to a worst-case to average-case reduction for the uniform distribution over the set of small-norm prime ideals. Using the reduction from Pellet-Mary and Stehlé [ASIACRYPT’21], this notably leads to the first distribution over NTRU instances with a polynomial modulus whose hardness is supported by a worst-case lattice problem.

2022

CRYPTO

Some Easy Instances of Ideal-SVP and Implications to the Partial Vandermonde Knapsack Problem
📺 ★
Abstract

In this article, we generalize the works of Pan et al. (Eurocrypt'21) and Porter et al. (ArXiv'21) and provide a simple condition under which an ideal lattice defines an easy instance of the shortest vector problem. Namely, we show that the more automorphisms stabilize the ideal, the easier it is to find a short vector in it. This observation was already made for prime ideals in Galois fields, and we generalize it to any ideal (whose prime factors are not ramified) of any number field.
We then provide a cryptographic application of this result by showing that particular instances of the partial Vandermonde knapsack problem, also known as partial Fourier recovery problem, can be solved classically in polynomial time. As a proof of concept, we implemented our attack and managed to solve those particular instances for concrete parameter settings proposed in the literature. For random instances, we can halve the lattice dimension with non-negligible probability.

2022

ASIACRYPT

On Module Unique-SVP and NTRU
📺
Abstract

The NTRU problem can be viewed as an instance of finding a short non-zero vector in a lattice, under the promise that it contains an exceptionally short vector. Further, the lattice under scope has the structure of a rank-2 module over the ring of integers of a number field. Let us refer to this problem as the module unique Shortest Vector Problem,or mod-uSVP for short. We exhibit two reductions that together provide evidence the NTRU problem is not just a particular case of mod-uSVP, but representative of it from a computational perspective.
First, we reduce worst-case mod-uSVP to worst-case NTRU. For this, we rely on an oracle for id-SVP, the problem of finding short non-zero vectors in ideal lattices. Using the worst-case id-SVP to worst-case NTRU reduction from Pellet-Mary and Stehlé [ASIACRYPT'21],this shows that worst-case NTRU is equivalent to worst-case mod-uSVP.
Second, we give a random self-reduction for mod-uSVP. We put forward a distribution D over mod-uSVP instances such that solving mod-uSVP with a non-negligible probability for samples from D allows to solve mod-uSVP in the worst-case. With the first result, this gives a reduction from worst-case mod-uSVP to an average-case version of NTRU where the NTRU instance distribution is inherited from D. This worst-case to average-case reduction requires an oracle for id-SVP.

2021

ASIACRYPT

On the hardness of the NTRU problem
📺
Abstract

The 25 year-old NTRU problem is an important computational assumption in public-key cryptography. However, from a reduction perspective, its relative hardness compared to other problems on Euclidean lattices is not well-understood. Its decision version reduces to the search Ring-LWE problem, but this only provides a hardness upper bound.
We provide two answers to the long-standing open problem of providing reduction-based evidence of the hardness of the NTRU problem. First, we reduce the worst-case approximate Shortest Vector Problem over ideal lattices to an average-case search variant of the NTRU problem. Second, we reduce another average-case search variant of the NTRU problem to the decision NTRU problem.

2020

EUROCRYPT

Indistinguishability Obfuscation Without Maps: Attacks and Fixes for Noisy Linear FE
📺
Abstract

Candidates of Indistinguishability Obfuscation (iO) can be categorized as ``direct'' or ``bootstrapping based''. Direct constructions rely on high degree multilinear maps [GGH13,GGHRSW13] and provide heuristic guarantees, while bootstrapping based constructions [LV16,Lin17,LT17,AJLMS19,Agr19,JLMS19] rely, in the best case, on bilinear maps as well as new variants of the Learning With Errors (LWE) assumption and pseudorandom generators. Recent times have seen exciting progress in the construction of indistinguishability obfuscation (iO) from bilinear maps (along with other assumptions) [LT17,AJLMS19,JLMS19,Agr19].
As a notable exception, a recent work by Agrawal [Agr19] provided a construction for iO without using any maps. This work identified a new primitive, called Noisy Linear Functional Encryption (NLinFE) that provably suffices for iO and gave a direct construction of NLinFE from new assumptions on lattices. While a preliminary cryptanalysis for the new assumptions was provided in the original work, the author admitted the necessity of performing significantly more cryptanalysis before faith could be placed in the security of the scheme. Moreover, the author did not suggest concrete parameters for the construction.
In this work, we fill this gap by undertaking the task of thorough cryptanalytic study of NLinFE. We design two attacks that let the adversary completely break the security of the scheme. Our attacks are completely new and unrelated to attacks that were hitherto used to break other candidates of iO. To achieve this, we develop new cryptanalytic techniques which (we hope) will inform future designs of the primitive of NLinFE.
From the knowledge gained by our cryptanalytic study, we suggest modifications to the scheme. We provide a new scheme which overcomes the vulnerabilities identified before. We also provide a thorough analysis of all the security aspects of this scheme and argue why plausible attacks do not work. We additionally provide concrete parameters with which the scheme may be instantiated. We believe the security of NLinFE stands on significantly firmer footing as a result of this work.

2020

CRYPTO

Random Self-reducibility of Ideal-SVP via Arakelov Random Walks
📺
Abstract

Fixing a number field, the space of all ideal lattices, up to isometry, is naturally an Abelian group, called the *Arakelov class group*. This fact, well known to number theorists, has so far not been explicitly used in the literature on lattice-based cryptography. Remarkably, the Arakelov class group is a combination of two groups that have already led to significant cryptanalytic advances: the class group and the unit torus.
In the present article, we show that the Arakelov class group has more to offer. We start with the development of a new versatile tool: we prove that, subject to the Riemann Hypothesis for Hecke L-functions, certain random walks on the Arakelov class group have a rapid mixing property. We then exploit this result to relate the average-case and the worst-case of the Shortest Vector Problem in ideal lattices. Our reduction appears particularly sharp: for Hermite-SVP in ideal lattices of certain cyclotomic number fields, it loses no more than a $\tilde O(\sqrt n)$ factor on the Hermite approximation factor.
Furthermore, we suggest that this rapid-mixing theorem should find other applications in cryptography and in algorithmic number theory.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Approx-SVP in Ideal Lattices with Pre-processing
📺
Abstract

We describe an algorithm to solve the approximate Shortest Vector Problem for lattices corresponding to ideals of the ring of integers of an arbitrary number field K. This algorithm has a pre-processing phase, whose run-time is exponential in
$$\log |\varDelta |$$
log|Δ| with
$$\varDelta $$
Δ the discriminant of K. Importantly, this pre-processing phase depends only on K. The pre-processing phase outputs an “advice”, whose bit-size is no more than the run-time of the query phase. Given this advice, the query phase of the algorithm takes as input any ideal I of the ring of integers, and outputs an element of I which is at most
$$\exp (\widetilde{O}((\log |\varDelta |)^{\alpha +1}/n))$$
exp(O~((log|Δ|)α+1/n)) times longer than a shortest non-zero element of I (with respect to the Euclidean norm of its canonical embedding). This query phase runs in time and space
$$\exp (\widetilde{O}( (\log |\varDelta |)^{\max (2/3, 1-2\alpha )}))$$
exp(O~((log|Δ|)max(2/3,1-2α))) in the classical setting, and
$$\exp (\widetilde{O}((\log |\varDelta |)^{1-2\alpha }))$$
exp(O~((log|Δ|)1-2α)) in the quantum setting. The parameter
$$\alpha $$
α can be chosen arbitrarily in [0, 1 / 2]. Both correctness and cost analyses rely on heuristic assumptions, whose validity is consistent with experiments.The algorithm builds upon the algorithms from Cramer et al. [EUROCRYPT 2016] and Cramer et al. [EUROCRYPT 2017]. It relies on the framework from Buchmann [Séminaire de théorie des nombres 1990], which allows to merge them and to extend their applicability from prime-power cyclotomic fields to all number fields. The cost improvements are obtained by allowing precomputations that depend on the field only.

2019

ASIACRYPT

An LLL Algorithm for Module Lattices
Abstract

The LLL algorithm takes as input a basis of a Euclidean lattice, and, within a polynomial number of operations, it outputs another basis of the same lattice but consisting of rather short vectors. We provide a generalization to R-modules contained in
$$K^n$$
for arbitrary number fields K and dimension n, with R denoting the ring of integers of K. Concretely, we introduce an algorithm that efficiently finds short vectors in rank-n modules when given access to an oracle that finds short vectors in rank-2 modules, and an algorithm that efficiently finds short vectors in rank-2 modules given access to a Closest Vector Problem oracle for a lattice that depends only on K. The second algorithm relies on quantum computations and its analysis is heuristic.

2018

CRYPTO

Quantum Attacks Against Indistinguishablility Obfuscators Proved Secure in the Weak Multilinear Map Model
Abstract

We present a quantum polynomial time attack against the GMMSSZ branching program obfuscator of Garg et al. (TCC’16), when instantiated with the GGH13 multilinear map of Garg et al. (EUROCRYPT’13). This candidate obfuscator was proved secure in the weak multilinear map model introduced by Miles et al. (CRYPTO’16).Our attack uses the short principal ideal solver of Cramer et al. (EUROCRYPT’16), to recover a secret element of the GGH13 multilinear map in quantum polynomial time. We then use this secret element to mount a (classical) polynomial time mixed-input attack against the GMMSSZ obfuscator. The main result of this article can hence be seen as a classical reduction from the security of the GMMSSZ obfuscator to the short principal ideal problem (the quantum setting is then only used to solve this problem in polynomial time).As an additional contribution, we explain how the same ideas can be adapted to mount a quantum polynomial time attack against the DGGMM obfuscator of Döttling et al. (ePrint 2016), which was also proved secure in the weak multilinear map model.

2018

ASIACRYPT

On the Statistical Leak of the GGH13 Multilinear Map and Some Variants
Abstract

At EUROCRYPT 2013, Garg, Gentry and Halevi proposed a candidate construction (later referred as GGH13) of cryptographic multilinear map (MMap). Despite weaknesses uncovered by Hu and Jia (EUROCRYPT 2016), this candidate is still used for designing obfuscators.The naive version of the GGH13 scheme was deemed susceptible to averaging attacks, i.e., it could suffer from a statistical leak (yet no precise attack was described). A variant was therefore devised, but it remains heuristic. Recently, to obtain MMaps with low noise and modulus, two variants of this countermeasure were developed by Döttling et al. (EPRINT:2016/599).In this work, we propose a systematic study of this statistical leakage for all these GGH13 variants. In particular, we confirm the weakness of the naive version of GGH13. We also show that, among the two variants proposed by Döttling et al., the so-called conservative method is not so effective: it leaks the same value as the unprotected method. Luckily, the leakage is more noisy than in the unprotected method, making the straightforward attack unsuccessful. Additionally, we note that all the other methods also leak values correlated with secrets.As a conclusion, we propose yet another countermeasure, for which this leakage is made unrelated to all secrets. On our way, we also make explicit and tighten the hidden exponents in the size of the parameters, as an effort to assess and improve the efficiency of MMaps.

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2024
- PKC 2023
- Asiacrypt 2023
- Eurocrypt 2022
- PKC 2022
- PKC 2021
- Asiacrypt 2021

#### Coauthors

- Shweta Agrawal (1)
- Katharina Boudgoust (1)
- Koen de Boer (1)
- Léo Ducas (2)
- Joël Felderhoff (2)
- Erell Gachon (1)
- Guillaume Hanrot (1)
- Changmin Lee (1)
- Daniele Micciancio (1)
- Gabrielle De Micheli (1)
- Damien Stehlé (5)
- Nam Tran (1)
- Alexandre Wallet (1)
- Benjamin Wesolowski (2)