## CryptoDB

### Luca De Feo

#### ORCID: 0000-0002-9321-0773

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

EUROCRYPT

Isogeny problems with level structure
Abstract

Given two elliptic curves and the degree of an isogeny between
them, finding the isogeny is believed to be a difficult
problem—upon which rests the security of nearly any isogeny-based
scheme.
If, however, to the data above we add information about the behavior
of the isogeny on a large enough subgroup, the problem can become easy,
as recent cryptanalyses on SIDH have shown.
Between the restriction of the isogeny to a full N‑torsion subgroup
and no "torsion information" at all lies a spectrum of interesting
intermediate problems, raising the question of how easy or hard each
of them is.
Here we explore modular isogeny problems where the torsion
information is masked by the action of a group of 2×2
matrices.
We give reductions between these problems, classify them by their
difficulty, and link them to security assumptions found in the
literature.

2023

PKC

SCALLOP: scaling the CSI-FiSh
Abstract

We present SCALLOP: SCALable isogeny action based on Oriented supersingular curves with Prime conductor, a new group action based on isogenies of supersingular curves. Similarly to CSIDH and OSIDH, we use the group action of an imaginary quadratic order's class group on the set of oriented supersingular curves.
Compared to CSIDH, the main benefit of our construction is that it is easy to compute the class-group structure; this data is required to uniquely represent - and efficiently act by - arbitrary group elements, which is a requirement in, e.g., the CSI-FiSh signature scheme by Beullens, Kleinjung and Vercauteren. The index-calculus algorithm used in CSI-FiSh to compute the class-group structure has complexity $L(1/2)$, ruling out class groups much larger than CSIDH-512, a limitation that is particularly problematic in light of the ongoing debate regarding the quantum security of cryptographic group actions.
Hoping to solve this issue, we consider the class group of a quadratic order of large prime conductor inside an imaginary quadratic field of small discriminant. This family of quadratic orders lets us easily determine the size of the class group, and, by carefully choosing the conductor, even exercise significant control on it - in particular supporting highly smooth choices. Although evaluating the resulting group action still has subexponential asymptotic complexity, a careful choice of parameters leads to a practical speedup that we demonstrate in practice for a security level equivalent to CSIDH-1024, a parameter currently firmly out of reach of index-calculus-based methods. However, our implementation takes 35 seconds (resp. 12.5 minutes) for a single group-action evaluation at a CSIDH-512-equivalent (resp. CSIDH-1024-equivalent) security level, showing that, while feasible, the SCALLOP group action does not achieve realistically usable performance yet.

2023

EUROCRYPT

Supersingular Curves You can Trust
Abstract

Generating a supersingular elliptic curve such that nobody knows its endomorphism ring is a notoriously hard task, despite several isogeny-based protocols relying on such an object. A trusted setup is often proposed as a workaround, but several aspects remain unclear. In this work, we develop the tools necessary to practically run such a distributed trusted-setup ceremony.
Our key contribution is the first statistically zero-knowledge proof of isogeny knowledge that is compatible with any base field. To prove statistical ZK, we introduce isogeny graphs with Borel level structure and prove they have the Ramanujan property. Then, we analyze the security of a distributed trusted-setup protocol based on our ZK proof in the simplified universal composability framework. Lastly, we develop an optimized implementation of the ZK proof, and we propose a strategy to concretely deploy the trusted-setup protocol.

2023

EUROCRYPT

New algorithms for the Deuring correspondence: Towards practical and secure SQISign signatures
Abstract

The Deuring correspondence defines a bijection between isogenies of supersingular elliptic curves and ideals of maximal orders in a quaternion algebra. We present a new algorithm to translate ideals of prime-power norm to their corresponding isogenies --- a central task of the effective Deuring correspondence. The new method improves upon the algorithm introduced in 2021 by De Feo, Kohel, Leroux, Petit and Wesolowski as a building-block of the SQISign signature scheme. SQISign is the most compact post-quantum signature scheme currently known, but is several orders of magnitude slower than competitors, the main bottleneck of the computation being the ideal-to-isogeny translation. We implement the new algorithm and apply it to SQISign, achieving a more than two-fold speedup in key generation and signing with a new choice of parameter. Moreover, after adapting the state-of-the-art GF(p^2) multiplication algorithms by Longa to implement SQISign's underlying extension field arithmetic and adding various improvements, we push the total speedups to over three times for signing and four times for verification.
In a second part of the article, we advance cryptanalysis by showing a very simple distinguisher against one of the assumptions used in SQISign. We present a way to impede the distinguisher through a few changes to the generic KLPT algorithm. We formulate a new assumption capturing these changes, and provide an analysis together with experimental evidence for its validity.

2022

TCHES

SIKE Channels: Zero-Value Side-Channel Attacks on SIKE
Abstract

We present new side-channel attacks on SIKE, the isogeny-based candidate in the NIST PQC competition. Previous works had shown that SIKE is vulnerable to differential power analysis, and pointed to coordinate randomization as an effective countermeasure. We show that coordinate randomization alone is not sufficient, because SIKE is vulnerable to a class of attacks similar to refined power analysis in elliptic curve cryptography, named zero-value attacks. We describe and confirm in the lab two such attacks leading to full key recovery, and analyze their countermeasures.

2022

PKC

On the security of OSIDH
📺
Abstract

The Oriented Supersingular Isogeny Diffie-Hellman is a post-quantum key exchange scheme recently introduced by Colò and Kohel. It is based on the group action of an ideal class group of a quadratic imaginary order on a subset of supersingular elliptic curves, and in this sense it can be viewed as a generalization of the popular isogeny based key exchange CSIDH. From an algorithmic standpoint, however, OSIDH is quite different from CSIDH. In a sense, OSIDH uses class groups which are more structured than in CSIDH, creating a potential weakness that was already recognized by Colò and Kohel. To circumvent the weakness, they proposed an ingenious way to realize a key exchange by exchanging partial information on how the class group acts in the neighborhood of the public curves, and conjectured that this additional information would not impact security.
In this work we revisit the security of OSIDH by presenting a new attack, building upon previous work of Onuki. Our attack has exponential complexity, but it practically breaks Colò and Kohel's parameters unlike Onuki's attack. We also discuss countermeasures to our attack, and analyze their impact on OSIDH, both from an efficiency and a functionality point of view.

2022

ASIACRYPT

SIDH Proof of Knowledge
📺
Abstract

We show that the soundness proof for the De Feo--Jao--Plût identification scheme (the basis for supersingular isogeny Diffie--Hellman (SIDH) signatures) contains an invalid assumption, and we provide a counterexample for this assumption---thus showing the proof of soundness is invalid. As this proof was repeated in a number of works by various authors, multiple pieces of literature are affected by this result. Due to the importance of being able to prove knowledge of an SIDH key (for example, to prevent adaptive attacks), soundness is a vital property.
Surprisingly, the problem of proving knowledge of a specific isogeny turns out to be considerably more difficult than was perhaps anticipated.
The main results of this paper are a sigma protocol to prove knowledge of a walk of specified length in a supersingular isogeny graph, and a second one to additionally prove that the isogeny maps some torsion points to some other torsion points (as seen in SIDH public keys).
Our scheme also avoids the SIDH identification scheme soundness issue raised by Ghantous, Pintore and Veroni. In particular, our protocol provides a non-interactive way of verifying correctness of SIDH public keys, and related statements, as protection against adaptive attacks.
Post-scriptum: Some months after this work was completed and made public, the SIDH assumption was broken in a series of papers by several authors.
Hence, in the standard SIDH setting, some of the statements studied here now have trivial polynomial time non-interactive proofs.
Nevertheless our first sigma protocol is unaffected by the attacks, and our second protocol may still be useful in present and future variants of SIDH that escape the attacks.

2021

EUROCRYPT

Delay Encryption
📺
Abstract

We introduce a new primitive named Delay Encryption, and give an
efficient instantation based on isogenies of supersingular curves
and pairings.
Delay Encryption is related to Time-lock Puzzles and Verifiable
Delay Functions, and can be roughly described as ``time-lock
identity based encryption''.
It has several applications in distributed protocols, such as
sealed bid Vickrey auctions and electronic voting.
We give an instantiation of Delay Encryption by modifying Boneh and
Frankiln's IBE scheme, where we replace the master secret key by a
long chain of isogenies, as in the isogeny VDF of De Feo, Masson,
Petit and Sanso.
Similarly to the isogeny-based VDF, our Delay Encryption requires a
trusted setup before parameters can be safely used; our trusted
setup is identical to that of the VDF, thus the same parameters can
be generated once and shared for many executions of both protocols,
with possibly different delay parameters.
We also discuss several topics around delay protocols
based on isogenies that were left untreated by De Feo et al.,
namely: distributed trusted setup, watermarking, and implementation
issues.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Séta: Supersingular Encryption from Torsion Attacks
📺
Abstract

We present Séta, a new family of public-key encryption schemes with post-quantum security based on isogenies of supersingular elliptic curves.
It is constructed from a new family of trapdoor one-way functions, where the inversion algorithm uses Petit's so called \emph{torsion attacks} on SIDH to compute an isogeny between supersingular elliptic curves given an endomorphism of the starting curve and images of torsion points.
We prove the OW-CPA security of S\'eta and present an IND-CCA variant using the post-quantum OAEP transformation.
Several variants for key generation are explored together with their impact on the selection of parameters, such as the base prime of the scheme.
We furthermore formalise an ``uber'' isogeny assumption framework which aims to generalize computational isogeny problems encountered in schemes including SIDH, CSDIH, OSIDH and ours.
Finally, we carefully select parameters to achieve a balance between security and run-times and present experimental results from our implementation.

2020

PKC

Threshold Schemes from Isogeny Assumptions
📺
Abstract

We initiate the study of threshold schemes based on the Hard Homogeneous Spaces (HHS) framework of Couveignes. Quantum-resistant HHS based on supersingular isogeny graphs have recently become usable thanks to the record class group precomputation performed for the signature scheme CSI-FiSh. Using the HHS equivalent of the technique of Shamir’s secret sharing in the exponents , we adapt isogeny based schemes to the threshold setting. In particular we present threshold versions of the CSIDH public key encryption, and the CSI-FiSh signature schemes. The main highlight is a threshold version of CSI-FiSh which runs almost as fast as the original scheme, for message sizes as low as 1880 B, public key sizes as low as 128 B, and thresholds up to 56; other speed-size-threshold compromises are possible.

2020

ASIACRYPT

Cryptographic Group Actions and Applications
📺
Abstract

Isogeny-based assumptions have emerged as a viable option for quantum-secure cryptography. Recent works have shown how to build efficient (public-key) primitives from isogeny-based assumptions such as CSIDH and CSI-FiSh. However, in its present form, the landscape of isogenies does not seem very amenable to realizing new cryptographic applications. Isogeny-based assumptions often have unique efficiency and security properties, which makes building new cryptographic applications from them a potentially tedious and time-consuming task.
In this work, we propose a new framework based on group actions that enables the easy usage of a variety of isogeny-based assumptions. Our framework generalizes the works of Brassard and Yung (Crypto'90) and Couveignes (Eprint'06). We provide new definitions for group actions endowed with natural hardness assumptions that model isogeny-based constructions amenable to group actions such as CSIDH and CSI-FiSh.
We demonstrate the utility of our new framework by leveraging it to construct several primitives that were not previously known from isogeny-based assumptions. These include smooth projective hashing, dual-mode PKE, two-message statistically sender-private OT, and Naor-Reingold style PRF. These primitives are useful building blocks for a wide range of cryptographic applications.
We introduce a new assumption over group actions called Linear Hidden Shift (LHS) assumption. We then present some discussions on the security of the LHS assumption and we show that it implies symmetric KDM-secure encryption, which in turn enables many other primitives that were not previously known from isogeny-based assumptions.

2020

ASIACRYPT

SQISign: Compact Post-Quantum signatures from Quaternions and Isogenies
📺 ★
Abstract

We introduce a new signature scheme, \emph{SQISign}, (for \emph{Short Quaternion and Isogeny Signature}) from isogeny graphs of supersingular elliptic curves. The signature scheme is derived from a new one-round, high soundness, interactive identification protocol. Targeting the post-quantum NIST-1 level of security, our implementation results in signatures of $204$ bytes, secret keys of $16$ bytes and public keys of $64$ bytes. In particular, the signature and public key sizes combined are an order of magnitude smaller than all other post-quantum signature schemes. On a modern workstation, our implementation in C takes 0.6s for key generation, 2.5s for signing, and 50ms for verification.
While the soundness of the identification protocol follows from classical assumptions, the zero-knowledge property relies on the second main contribution of this paper.
We introduce a new algorithm to find an isogeny path connecting two given supersingular elliptic curves of known endomorphism rings.
A previous algorithm to solve this problem, due to Kohel, Lauter, Petit and Tignol, systematically reveals paths from the input curves to a `special' curve. This leakage would break the zero-knowledge property of the protocol. Our algorithm does not directly reveal such a path, and subject to a new computational assumption, we prove that the resulting identification protocol is zero-knowledge.

2019

EUROCRYPT

SeaSign: Compact Isogeny Signatures from Class Group Actions
📺
Abstract

We give a new signature scheme for isogenies that combines the class group actions of CSIDH with the notion of Fiat-Shamir with aborts. Our techniques allow to have signatures of size less than one kilobyte at the 128-bit security level, even with tight security reduction (to a non-standard problem) in the quantum random oracle model. Hence our signatures are potentially shorter than lattice signatures, but signing and verification are currently very expensive.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Verifiable Delay Functions from Supersingular Isogenies and Pairings
Abstract

We present two new Verifiable Delay Functions (VDF) based on assumptions from elliptic curve cryptography. We discuss both the advantages and drawbacks of our constructions, we study their security and we demonstrate their practicality with a proof-of-concept implementation.

2018

ASIACRYPT

Towards Practical Key Exchange from Ordinary Isogeny Graphs
Abstract

We revisit the ordinary isogeny-graph based cryptosystems of Couveignes and Rostovtsev–Stolbunov, long dismissed as impractical. We give algorithmic improvements that accelerate key exchange in this framework, and explore the problem of generating suitable system parameters for contemporary pre- and post-quantum security that take advantage of these new algorithms. We also prove the session-key security of this key exchange in the Canetti–Krawczyk model, and the IND-CPA security of the related public-key encryption scheme, under reasonable assumptions on the hardness of computing isogeny walks. Our systems admit efficient key-validation techniques that yield CCA-secure encryption, thus providing an important step towards efficient post-quantum non-interactive key exchange (NIKE).

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2024
- Crypto 2023
- Eurocrypt 2021
- Eurocrypt 2020

#### Coauthors

- Navid Alamati (1)
- Andrea Basso (1)
- Jeffrey Burdges (1)
- Giulio Codogni (1)
- Deirdre Connolly (1)
- Pierrick Dartois (1)
- Natacha Linard de Guertechin (1)
- Samuel Dobson (1)
- Tako Boris Fouotsa (4)
- Steven D. Galbraith (2)
- Aymeric Genêt (1)
- Cyprien Delpech de Saint Guilhem (1)
- Novak Kaluđerovi´c (1)
- Jean Kieffer (1)
- David Kohel (1)
- Péter Kutas (2)
- Antonin Leroux (4)
- Guido Maria Lido (1)
- Patrick Longa (1)
- Simon Masson (1)
- Simon-Philipp Merz (1)
- Michael Meyer (1)
- Hart Montgomery (1)
- Travis Morrison (1)
- Nadia El Mrabet (1)
- Lorenz Panny (3)
- Sikhar Patranabis (2)
- Christophe Petit (3)
- Simon Pontié (1)
- Antonio Sanso (1)
- Javier Silva (1)
- Benjamin Smith (1)
- Élise Tasso (1)
- Benjamin Wesolowski (5)
- Lukas Zobernig (1)