## CryptoDB

### Yupeng Zhang

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

CRYPTO

Field-Agnostic SNARKs from Expand-Accumulate Codes
Abstract

Efficient realizations of succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge (SNARK) have gained popularity due to their practical applications in various domains. Among existing schemes, those based on error-correcting codes are of particular interest because of their good concrete efficiency, transparent setup, and plausible post-quantum security. However, many existing code-based SNARKs suffer from the disadvantage that they only work over specific finite fields.
In this work, we construct a code-based SNARK that does not rely on any specific underlying field; i.e., it is \emph{field-agnostic}. Our construction follows the framework of Brakedown and builds a polynomial commitment scheme (and hence a SNARK) based on recently introduced \emph{expand-accumulate codes}. Our work generalizes these codes to arbitrary finite fields; our main technical contribution is showing that, with high probability, these codes have constant rate and constant relative distance (crucial properties for building efficient SNARKs), solving an open problem from prior work.
As a result of our work we obtain a SNARK where,
for a statement of size $M$, the prover time is $O(M\log M)$ and the proof size is $O(\sqrt{M})$. We demonstrate the concrete efficiency of our scheme empirically via experiments. Proving ECDSA verification on the secp256k1 curve requires only 0.23s for proof generation, 2~orders of magnitude faster than SNARKs that are not field-agnostic. Compared to the original Brakedown result (which is also field-agnostic), we obtain proofs that are 1.9--2.8$\times$ smaller due to the good concrete distance of our underlying error-correcting code, while introducing only a small overhead of 1.2$\times$ in the prover time.

2023

PKC

Private Polynomial Commitments and Applications to MPC
Abstract

Polynomial commitment schemes allow a prover to commit to a polynomial and later reveal the evaluation of the polynomial on an arbitrary point along with proof of validity. This object is central in the design of many cryptographic schemes such as zero-knowledge proofs and verifiable secret sharing. In the standard definition, the polynomial is known to the prover whereas the evaluation points are not private. In this paper, we put forward the notion of \emph{private polynomial commitments} that capture additional privacy guarantees, where the evaluation points are hidden from the verifier while the polynomial is hidden from both.
We provide concretely efficient constructions that allow simultaneously batch the verification of many evaluations with a small additive overhead. As an application, we design a new concretely efficient multi-party private set-intersection with malicious security and improved asymptotic communication and space complexities.
We demonstrate the concrete efficiency of our construction via an implementation. Our scheme can prove $2^{10}$ evaluations of a private polynomial of degree $2^{10}$ in 157s. The proof size is only 169KB and the verification time is 11.8s. Moreover, we also implemented the multi-party private set intersection protocol and scale it to 1000 parties (which has not been shown before). The total running time for $2^{14}$ elements per party is 2,410 seconds. While existing protocols offer better computational complexity, our scheme offers significantly smaller communication and better scalability (in the number of parties) owing to better memory usage.

2022

CRYPTO

Orion: Zero Knowledge Proof with Linear Prover Time
📺
Abstract

Zero-knowledge proof is a powerful cryptographic primitive that has found various applications in the real world. However, existing schemes suffer from a high overhead on the proof generation time that is super-linear in the size of the statement represented as an arithmetic circuit, limiting their efficiency and scalability in practice. In this paper, we present Orion, a new zero-knowledge argument system that achieves $O(N)$ prover time of field operations and hash functions and $O(\log^2 N)$ proof size. Orion is concretely efficient and our implementation shows that the prover time is 3.09s and the proof size is 1.5MB for a circuit with $2^{20}$ multiplication gates. The prover time is the fastest among all existing systems, and the proof size is an order of magnitude smaller than a recent scheme in Golovnev et al. 2021.
In particular, our scheme proposes two new techniques leading to the efficiency improvement. (1) We propose a new algorithm to test whether a random bipartite graph is a lossless expander graph or not based on the densest subgraph algorithm. It allows us to sample lossless expanders with an overwhelming probability. The technique improves the efficiency and/or security of all existing zero-knowledge argument schemes with a linear prover time. The testing algorithm based on densest subgraph may be of independent interest for other applications of expander graphs. (2) We develop an efficient proof composition scheme, code switching, to reduce the proof size from square root to polylogarithmic. The scheme is built on the encoding circuit of a linear code and shows that the witness of a second zero-knowledge argument is the same as the message in the linear code. The proof composition only introduces a small overhead on the prover time.

2019

CRYPTO

Libra: Succinct Zero-Knowledge Proofs with Optimal Prover Computation
📺
Abstract

We present Libra, the first zero-knowledge proof system that has both optimal prover time and succinct proof size/verification time. In particular, if C is the size of the circuit being proved (i) the prover time is O(C) irrespective of the circuit type; (ii) the proof size and verification time are both $$O(d\log C)$$ for d-depth log-space uniform circuits (such as RAM programs). In addition Libra features an one-time trusted setup that depends only on the size of the input to the circuit and not on the circuit logic. Underlying Libra is a new linear-time algorithm for the prover of the interactive proof protocol by Goldwasser, Kalai and Rothblum (also known as GKR protocol), as well as an efficient approach to turn the GKR protocol to zero-knowledge using small masking polynomials. Not only does Libra have excellent asymptotics, but it is also efficient in practice. For example, our implementation shows that it takes 200 s to generate a proof for constructing a SHA2-based Merkle tree root on 256 leaves, outperforming all existing zero-knowledge proof systems. Proof size and verification time of Libra are also competitive.

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2024
- Asiacrypt 2023

#### Coauthors

- Rishabh Bhadauria (1)
- Alexander R. Block (1)
- Zhiyong Fang (1)
- Carmit Hazay (1)
- Jonathan Katz (1)
- Charalampos Papamanthou (1)
- Dawn Song (2)
- Justin Thaler (1)
- Muthuramakrishnan Venkitasubramaniam (1)
- Hendrik Waldner (1)
- Wenxuan Wu (1)
- Tiacheng Xie (1)
- Tiancheng Xie (1)
- Jiaheng Zhang (1)
- Yupeng Zhang (4)