International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Rishabh Bhadauria


Private Polynomial Commitments and Applications to MPC
Polynomial commitment schemes allow a prover to commit to a polynomial and later reveal the evaluation of the polynomial on an arbitrary point along with proof of validity. This object is central in the design of many cryptographic schemes such as zero-knowledge proofs and verifiable secret sharing. In the standard definition, the polynomial is known to the prover whereas the evaluation points are not private. In this paper, we put forward the notion of \emph{private polynomial commitments} that capture additional privacy guarantees, where the evaluation points are hidden from the verifier while the polynomial is hidden from both. We provide concretely efficient constructions that allow simultaneously batch the verification of many evaluations with a small additive overhead. As an application, we design a new concretely efficient multi-party private set-intersection with malicious security and improved asymptotic communication and space complexities. We demonstrate the concrete efficiency of our construction via an implementation. Our scheme can prove $2^{10}$ evaluations of a private polynomial of degree $2^{10}$ in 157s. The proof size is only 169KB and the verification time is 11.8s. Moreover, we also implemented the multi-party private set intersection protocol and scale it to 1000 parties (which has not been shown before). The total running time for $2^{14}$ elements per party is 2,410 seconds. While existing protocols offer better computational complexity, our scheme offers significantly smaller communication and better scalability (in the number of parties) owing to better memory usage.
On Black-Box Constructions of Time and Space Efficient Sublinear Arguments from Symmetric-Key Primitives
Zero-knowledge proofs allow a prover to convince a verifier of a statement without revealing anything besides its validity. A major bottleneck in scaling sub-linear zero-knowledge proofs is the high space requirement of the prover, even for NP relations that can be verified in a small space. In this work, we ask whether there exist complexity-preserving (i.e. overhead w.r.t time and space are minimal) succinct zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge with minimal assumptions while making only black-box access to the underlying primitives. We essentially resolve this question up to polylogarithmic factors. Namely, for every NP relation that can be verified in time T and space S, we construct a public-coin zero-knowledge argument system that is black-box based on collision-resistant hash-functions (CRH) where the prover runs in time $\O(T)$ and space $\O(S)$, the verifier runs in time $\O(T/S+S)$ and space $\O(\kappa)$ and the communication is $\O(T/S)$, where $\kappa$ is the statistical security parameter. Using the Fiat-Shamir heuristic, our construction yields the first complexity-preserving ZK-SNARK based on CRH (via a black-box construction). Furthermore, we give evidence that reducing the proof length below $\O(T/S)$ will be hard using existing techniques by arguing the space-complexity of constant-distance error correcting codes.