International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Bertram Poettering

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2020
TOSC
Combiners for AEAD 📺
Bertram Poettering Paul Rösler
The Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data (AEAD) primitive, which integrates confidentiality and integrity services under a single roof, found wide-spread adoption in industry and became indispensable in practical protocol design. Recognizing this, academic research put forward a large number of candidate constructions, many of which come with provable security guarantees. Nevertheless, the recent past has shaken up with the discovery of vulnerabilities, some of them fatal, in well-regarded schemes, stemming from weak underlying primitives, flawed security arguments, implementation-level vulnerabilities, and so on. Simply reacting to such findings by replacing broken candidates by better(?) ones is in many cases unduly, costly, and sometimes just impossible. On the other hand, as attack techniques and opportunities change over time, it seems venturous to propose any specific scheme if the intended lifetime of its application is, say, twenty years.In this work we study a workable approach towards increasing the resilience against unforeseen breaks of AEAD primitives. Precisely, we consider the ability to combine two AEAD schemes into one such that the resulting AEAD scheme is secure as long as at least one of its components is (or: as long as at most one component is broken). We propose a series of such combiners, some of which work with fully generic AEAD components while others assume specific internal structures of the latter (like an encrypt-then-MAC design). We complement our results by proving the optimality of our constructions by showing the impossibility of combiners that get along with less invocations of the component algorithms.
2020
TOSC
Key Assignment Schemes with Authenticated Encryption, revisited 📺
Jeroen Pijnenburg Bertram Poettering
A popular cryptographic option to implement Hierarchical Access Control in organizations is to combine a key assignment scheme with a symmetric encryption scheme. In brief, key assignment associates with each object in the hierarchy a unique symmetric key, and provides all higher-ranked “authorized” subjects with a method to recover it. This setup allows for encrypting the payloads associated with the objects so that they can be accessed by the authorized and remain inaccessible for the unauthorized. Both key assignment and symmetric encryption have been researched for roughly four decades now, and a plethora of efficient constructions have been the result. Surprisingly, a treatment of the joint primitive (key assignment combined with encryption, as used in practice) in the framework of provable security was conducted only very recently, leading to a publication in ToSC 2018(4). We first carefully revisit this publication. We then argue that there are actually two standard use cases for the combined primitive, which also require individual treatment. We correspondingly propose a fresh set of security models and provably secure constructions for each of them. Perhaps surprisingly, the two constructions call for different symmetric encryption primitives: While standard AEAD is the right tool for the one, we identify a less common tool called Encryptment as best fitting the other.
2020
JOFC
Cryptanalysis of OCB2: Attacks on Authenticity and Confidentiality
We present practical attacks on OCB2. This mode of operation of a blockcipher was designed with the aim to provide particularly efficient and provably secure authenticated encryption services, and since its proposal about 15 years ago it belongs to the top performers in this realm. OCB2 was included in an ISO standard in 2009. An internal building block of OCB2 is the tweakable blockcipher obtained by operating a regular blockcipher in $${\text {XEX}}^*$$ XEX ∗  mode. The latter provides security only when evaluated in accordance with certain technical restrictions that, as we note, are not always respected by OCB2. This leads to devastating attacks against OCB2’s security promises: We develop a range of very practical attacks that, amongst others, demonstrate universal forgeries and full plaintext recovery. We complete our report with proposals for (provably) repairing OCB2. As a direct consequence of our findings, OCB2 is currently in a process of removal from ISO standards. Our attacks do not apply to OCB1 and OCB3, and our privacy attacks on OCB2 require an active adversary.
2019
CRYPTO
Cryptanalysis of OCB2: Attacks on Authenticity and Confidentiality 📺
We present practical attacks on OCB2. This mode of operation of a blockcipher was designed with the aim to provide particularly efficient and provably-secure authenticated encryption services, and since its proposal about 15 years ago it belongs to the top performers in this realm. OCB2 was included in an ISO standard in 2009.An internal building block of OCB2 is the tweakable blockcipher obtained by operating a regular blockcipher in $$ \text {XEX} ^*$$ mode. The latter provides security only when evaluated in accordance with certain technical restrictions that, as we note, are not always respected by OCB2. This leads to devastating attacks against OCB2’s security promises: We develop a range of very practical attacks that, amongst others, demonstrate universal forgeries and full plaintext recovery. We complete our report with proposals for (provably) repairing OCB2. To our understanding, as a direct consequence of our findings, OCB2 is currently in a process of removal from ISO standards. Our attacks do not apply to OCB1 and OCB3, and our privacy attacks on OCB2 require an active adversary.
2019
TOSC
Substitution Attacks against Message Authentication 📺
Marcel Armour Bertram Poettering
This work introduces Algorithm Substitution Attacks (ASAs) on message authentication schemes. In light of revelations concerning mass surveillance, ASAs were initially introduced by Bellare, Paterson and Rogaway as a novel attack class against the confidentiality of encryption schemes. Such an attack replaces one or more of the regular scheme algorithms with a subverted version that aims to reveal information to an adversary (engaged in mass surveillance), while remaining undetected by users. While most prior work focused on subverting encryption systems, we study options to subvert symmetric message authentication protocols. In particular we provide powerful generic attacks that apply e.g. to HMAC or Carter–Wegman based schemes, inducing only a negligible implementation overhead. As subverted authentication can act as an enabler for subverted encryption (software updates can be manipulated to include replacements of encryption routines), we consider attacks of the new class highly impactful and dangerous.
2018
CRYPTO
Towards Bidirectional Ratcheted Key Exchange 📺
Bertram Poettering Paul Rösler
Ratcheted key exchange (RKE) is a cryptographic technique used in instant messaging systems like Signal and the WhatsApp messenger for attaining strong security in the face of state exposure attacks. RKE received academic attention in the recent works of Cohn-Gordon et al. (EuroS&P 2017) and Bellare et al. (CRYPTO 2017). While the former is analytical in the sense that it aims primarily at assessing the security that one particular protocol does achieve (which might be weaker than the notion that it should achieve), the authors of the latter develop and instantiate a notion of security from scratch, independently of existing implementations. Unfortunately, however, their model is quite restricted, e.g. for considering only unidirectional communication and the exposure of only one of the two parties.In this article we resolve the limitations of prior work by developing alternative security definitions, for unidirectional RKE as well as for RKE where both parties contribute. We follow a purist approach, aiming at finding strong yet convincing notions that cover a realistic communication model with fully concurrent operation of both participants. We further propose secure instantiations (as the protocols analyzed or proposed by Cohn-Gordon et al. and Bellare et al. turn out to be weak in our models). While our scheme for the unidirectional case builds on a generic KEM as the main building block (differently to prior work that requires explicitly Diffie–Hellman), our schemes for bidirectional RKE require a stronger, HIBE-like component.
2018
PKC
Hybrid Encryption in a Multi-user Setting, Revisited
Federico Giacon Eike Kiltz Bertram Poettering
This paper contributes to understanding the interplay of security notions for PKE, KEMs, and DEMs, in settings with multiple users, challenges, and instances. We start analytically by first studying (a) the tightness aspects of the standard hybrid KEM+DEM encryption paradigm, (b) the inherent weak security properties of all deterministic DEMs due to generic key-collision attacks in the multi-instance setting, and (c) the negative effect of deterministic DEMs on the security of hybrid encryption.We then switch to the constructive side by (d) introducing the concept of an augmented data encapsulation mechanism (ADEM) that promises robustness against multi-instance attacks, (e) proposing a variant of hybrid encryption that uses an ADEM instead of a DEM to alleviate the problems of the standard KEM+DEM composition, and (f) constructing practical ADEMs that are secure in the multi-instance setting.
2018
PKC
KEM Combiners
Federico Giacon Felix Heuer Bertram Poettering
Key-encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) are a common stepping stone for constructing public-key encryption. Secure KEMs can be built from diverse assumptions, including ones related to integer factorization, discrete logarithms, error correcting codes, or lattices. In light of the recent NIST call for post-quantum secure PKE, the zoo of KEMs that are believed to be secure continues to grow. Yet, on the question of which is the most secure KEM opinions are divided. While using the best candidate might actually not seem necessary to survive everyday life situations, placing a wrong bet can actually be devastating, should the employed KEM eventually turn out to be vulnerable.We introduce KEM combiners as a way to garner trust from different KEM constructions, rather than relying on a single one: We present efficient black-box constructions that, given any set of ‘ingredient’ KEMs, yield a new KEM that is (CCA) secure as long as at least one of the ingredient KEMs is.As building blocks our constructions use cryptographic hash functions and blockciphers. Some corresponding security proofs require idealized models for these primitives, others get along on standard assumptions.
2018
PKC
Hashing Solutions Instead of Generating Problems: On the Interactive Certification of RSA Moduli
Benedikt Auerbach Bertram Poettering
Certain RSA-based protocols, for instance in the domain of group signatures, require a prover to convince a verifier that a set of RSA parameters is well-structured (e.g., that the modulus is the product of two distinct primes and that the exponent is co-prime to the group order). Various corresponding proof systems have been proposed in the past, with different levels of generality, efficiency, and interactivity.This paper proposes two new proof systems for a wide set of properties that RSA and related moduli might have. The protocols are particularly efficient: The necessary computations are simple, the communication is restricted to only one round, and the exchanged messages are short. While the first protocol is based on prior work (improving on it by reducing the number of message passes from four to two), the second protocol is novel. Both protocols require a random oracle.
2017
TOSC
Security Notions for Bidirectional Channels
Giorgia Azzurra Marson Bertram Poettering
This paper closes a definitional gap in the context of modeling cryptographic two-party channels. We note that, while most security models for channels consider exclusively unidirectional communication, real-world protocols like TLS and SSH are rather used for bidirectional interaction. The motivational question behind this paper is: Can analyses conducted with the unidirectional setting in mind—including the current ones for TLS and SSH—also vouch for security in the case of bidirectional channel usage? And, in the first place, what does security in the bidirectional setting actually mean? After developing confidentiality and integrity notions for bidirectional channels, we analyze a standard way of combining two unidirectional channels to realize one bidirectional channel. Although it turns out that this construction is, in general, not as secure as commonly believed, we confirm that for many practical schemes security is provided also in the bidirectional sense.
2017
PKC
2017
TCC
2016
ASIACRYPT
2016
ASIACRYPT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
FSE
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2014
ASIACRYPT
2014
FSE

Program Committees

Crypto 2020
Crypto 2019
PKC 2019