International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Roderick Bloem


Quantile: Quantifying Information Leakage
The masking countermeasure is very effective against side-channel attacks such as differential power analysis. However, the design of masked circuits is a challenging problem since one has to ensure security while minimizing performance overheads. The security of masking is often studied in the t-probing model, and multiple formal verification tools can verify this notion. However, these tools generally cannot verify large masked computations due to computational complexity.We introduce a new verification tool named Quantile, which performs randomized simulations of the masked circuit in order to bound the mutual information between the leakage and the secret variables. Our approach ensures good scalability with the circuit size and results in proven statistical security bounds. Further, our bounds are quantitative and, therefore, more nuanced than t-probing security claims: by bounding the amount of information contained in the lower-order leakage, Quantile can evaluate the security provided by masking even when they are not 1-probing secure, i.e., when they are classically considered as insecure. As an example, we apply Quantile to masked circuits of Prince and AES, where randomness is aggressively reused.
Generic Low-Latency Masking in Hardware 📺
Hannes Groß Rinat Iusupov Roderick Bloem
In this work, we introduce a generalized concept for low-latency masking that is applicable to any implementation and protection order, and (in its most extreme form) does not require on-the-fly randomness. The main idea of our approach is to avoid collisions of shared variables in nonlinear circuit parts and to skip the share compression. We show the feasibility of our approach on a full implementation of a one-round unrolled Ascon variant and on an AES S-box case study. Additionally, we discuss possible trade-offs to make our approach interesting for practical implementations. As a result, we obtain a first-order masked AES S-box that is calculated in a single clock cycle with rather high implementation costs (60.7 kGE), and a two-cycle variant with much less implementation costs (6.7 kGE). The side-channel resistance of our Ascon S-box designs up to order three are then verified using the formal analysis tool of [BGI+18]. Furthermore, we introduce a taint checking based verification approach that works specifically for our low-latency approach and allows us to verify large circuits like our low-latency AES S-box design in reasonable time.