International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Michael Meyer


AprèsSQI: Extra Fast Verification for SQIsign Using Extension-Field Signing
We optimise the verification of the SQIsign signature scheme. By using field extensions in the signing procedure, we are able to significantly increase the amount of available rational 2-power torsion in verification, which achieves a significant speed-up. This, moreover, allows several other speed-ups on the level of curve arithmetic. We show that the synergy between these high-level and low-level improvements gives significant improvements, making verification 2.07 times faster, or up to 3.41 times when using size-speed trade-offs, compared to the state of the art, without majorly degrading the performance of signing.
Optimizations and Practicality of High-Security CSIDH
<p> In this work, we assess the real-world practicality of CSIDH, an isogeny-based non-interactive key exchange. We provide the first thorough assessment of the practicality of CSIDH in higher parameter sizes for conservative estimates of quantum security, and with protection against physical attacks.</p><p> This requires a three-fold analysis of CSIDH. First, we describe two approaches to efficient high-security CSIDH implementations, based on SQALE and CTIDH. Second, we optimize such high-security implementations, on a high level by improving several subroutines, and on a low level by improving the finite field arithmetic. Third, we benchmark the performance of high-security CSIDH. As a stand-alone primitive, our implementations outperform previous results by a factor up to 2.53×.</p><p> As a real-world use case considering network protocols, we use CSIDH in TLS variants that allow early authentication through a NIKE. Although our instantiations of CSIDH have smaller communication requirements than post-quantum KEM and signature schemes, even our highly-optimized implementations result in too-large handshake latency (tens of seconds), showing that CSIDH is only practical in niche cases. </p>
Disorientation faults in CSIDH
We investigate a new class of fault-injection attacks against the CSIDH family of cryptographic group actions. Our disorientation attacks effectively flip the direction of some isogeny steps. We achieve this by faulting a specific subroutine, connected to the Legendre symbol or Elligator computations performed during the evaluation of the group action. These subroutines are present in almost all known CSIDH implementations. Post-processing a set of faulty samples allows us to infer constraints on the secret key. The details are implementation specific, but we show that in many cases, it is possible to recover the full secret key with only a modest number of successful fault injections and modest computational resources. We provide full details for attacking the original CSIDH proof-of-concept software as well as the CTIDH constant-time implementation. Finally, we present a set of lightweight countermeasures against the attack and discuss their security.
Cryptographic Smooth Neighbors
We revisit the problem of finding two consecutive $B$-smooth integers by giving an optimised implementation of the Conrey-Holm\-strom-McLaughlin ``smooth neighbors'' algorithm. While this algorithm is not guaranteed to return the complete set of $B$-smooth neighbors, in practice it returns a very close approximation to the complete set but does so in a tiny fraction of the time of its exhaustive counterparts. We exploit this algorithm to find record-sized solutions to the pure twin smooth problem, and subsequently to produce instances of cryptographic parameters whose corresponding isogeny degrees are significantly smoother than prior works. Our methods seem well-suited to finding parameters for the SQISign signature scheme, especially for instantiations looking to minimize the cost of signature generation. We give a number of examples, among which are the first parameter sets geared towards efficient SQISign instantiations at NIST's security levels III and V.
Sieving for twin smooth integers with solutions to the Prouhet-Tarry-Escott problem 📺
We give a sieving algorithm for finding pairs of consecutive smooth numbers that utilizes solutions to the Prouhet-Tarry-Escott (PTE) problem. Any such solution induces two degree-n polynomials, a(x) and b(x), that differ by a constant integer C and completely split into linear factors in Z[x]. It follows that for any l in Z such that a(l) = b(l) = 0 mod C , the two integers a(l)/C and b(l)/C differ by 1 and necessarily contain n factors of roughly the same size. For a fixed smoothness bound B, restricting the search to pairs of integers that are parameterized in this way increases the probability that they are B-smooth. Our algorithm combines a simple sieve with parametrizations given by a collection of solutions to the PTE problem. The motivation for finding large twin smooth integers lies in their application to compact isogeny-based post-quantum protocols. The recent key exchange scheme B-SIDH and the recent digital signature scheme SQISign both require large primes that lie between two smooth integers; finding such a prime can be seen as a special case of finding twin smooth integers under the additional stipulation that their sum is a prime p. When searching for cryptographic parameters with 2^240 <= p < 2^256, an implementation of our sieve found primes p where p+1 and p-1 are 2^15-smooth; the smoothest prior parameters had a similar sized prime for which p-1 and p+1 were 2^19-smooth. In targeting higher security levels, our sieve found a 376-bit prime lying between two 2^21-smooth integers, a 384-bit prime lying between two 2^22-smooth integers, and a 512-bit prime lying between two 2^29-smooth integers. Our analysis shows that using previously known methods to find high-security instances subject to these smoothness bounds is computationally infeasible.
CTIDH: faster constant-time CSIDH 📺
This paper introduces a new key space for CSIDH and a new algorithm for constant-time evaluation of the CSIDH group action. The key space is not useful with previous algorithms, and the algorithm is not useful with previous key spaces, but combining the new key space with the new algorithm produces speed records for constant-time CSIDH. For example, for CSIDH-512 with a 256-bit key space, the best previous constant-time results used 789000 multiplications and more than 200 million Skylake cycles; this paper uses 438006 multiplications and 125.53 million cycles.
Threshold Schemes from Isogeny Assumptions 📺
Luca De Feo Michael Meyer
We initiate the study of threshold schemes based on the Hard Homogeneous Spaces (HHS) framework of Couveignes. Quantum-resistant HHS based on supersingular isogeny graphs have recently become usable thanks to the record class group precomputation performed for the signature scheme CSI-FiSh. Using the HHS equivalent of the technique of Shamir’s secret sharing in the exponents , we adapt isogeny based schemes to the threshold setting. In particular we present threshold versions of the CSIDH public key encryption, and the CSI-FiSh signature schemes. The main highlight is a threshold version of CSI-FiSh which runs almost as fast as the original scheme, for message sizes as low as 1880 B, public key sizes as low as 128 B, and thresholds up to 56; other speed-size-threshold compromises are possible.